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Portland State University

Environmental Engineering

2013

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Articles 1 - 15 of 15

Full-Text Articles in Engineering

Research Project Work Plan For Impact Of Cascadia Subduction Zone Earthquake On The Seismic Evaluation Criteria Of Bridges, Peter Dusicka Dec 2013

Research Project Work Plan For Impact Of Cascadia Subduction Zone Earthquake On The Seismic Evaluation Criteria Of Bridges, Peter Dusicka

Civil and Environmental Engineering Faculty Publications and Presentations

The goal of this project is to provide ODOT with the best rational estimate of ground acceleration values for designing new and retrofitting existing bridges. The objectives are to:

  • evaluate the hazard by contrasting the acceleration values from individual CSZ events to PSHA values
  • provide experimental evidence of damage difference under longer duration shaking expected from CSZ event


Turbulent Kinetic Energy And Coherent Structures In A Tidal River, Stefan A. Talke, Alexander R. Horner-Devine, C. Chris Chickadel, Andrew T. Jessup Dec 2013

Turbulent Kinetic Energy And Coherent Structures In A Tidal River, Stefan A. Talke, Alexander R. Horner-Devine, C. Chris Chickadel, Andrew T. Jessup

Civil and Environmental Engineering Faculty Publications and Presentations

We investigate the relationship between turbulence statistics and coherent structures (CS) in an unstratified reach of the Snohomish River estuary using in situ velocity measurements and surface infrared (IR) imaging. Sequential IR images are used to estimate surface flow characteristics via a particle-image-velocimetry (PIV) technique, and are conditionally sampled to delineate the surface statistics of bottom-generated CS, or boils. In the water column, we find that turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) production exceeds dissipation near the bed but is less than dissipation in the midwater column and that TKE flux divergence closes a significant portion of the measured imbalance. The surface ...


Evidence Supporting Treatment Practice Based Delineation Of Stormwater Runoff Zones, Jacob J. Gorski Oct 2013

Evidence Supporting Treatment Practice Based Delineation Of Stormwater Runoff Zones, Jacob J. Gorski

Dissertations and Theses

Particles mobilized by stormwater negatively affect receiving surface waters. Stormwater best management practices (BMPs) can reduce solids along with associated pollutants in runoff but engineers and environmental managers have been long vexed by the problem of choosing the optimal BMP for a given situation. A common BMP process for solids removal is sedimentation. This thesis addresses the question of whether the effectiveness (and thus choice) of a sedimentation device can be estimated (and thus optimized) from the particle size properties of runoff, which, in turn, could be associated with specific runoff zones or land uses. Presented here is a series ...


Characterization Of Secondary Organic Aerosol Precursors Using Two-Dimensional Gas Chromatography With Time Of Flight Mass Spectrometry (Gc×Gc/Tofms), Melissa Jordan Roskamp Sep 2013

Characterization Of Secondary Organic Aerosol Precursors Using Two-Dimensional Gas Chromatography With Time Of Flight Mass Spectrometry (Gc×Gc/Tofms), Melissa Jordan Roskamp

Dissertations and Theses

The oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) plays a role in both regional and global air quality through the formation of secondary organic aerosols (SOA). More than 1000TgC/yr of non-methane VOCs are emitted from biogenic sources (significantly greater than from anthropogenic sources). Despite this magnitude and potential importance for air quality, the body of knowledge around the identities, quantities and oxidation processes of these compounds is still incomplete (e.g., Goldstein & Galbally, 2007; Robinson et al., 2009). Two-dimensional gas chromatography paired with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC/TOFMS) is a powerful analytical technique which is explored here for its role in ...


Rooftop Pv Impacts On Fossil Fuel Electricity Generation And Co2 Emissions In The Pacific Northwest, Daniel Albert Weiland Aug 2013

Rooftop Pv Impacts On Fossil Fuel Electricity Generation And Co2 Emissions In The Pacific Northwest, Daniel Albert Weiland

Dissertations and Theses

This thesis estimates the impacts of rooftop photovoltaic (PV) capacity on electricity generation and CO2 emissions in America's Pacific Northwest. The region's demand for electricity is increasing at the same time that it is attempting to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions. The electricity generated by rooftop PV capacity is expected to displace electricity from fossil fueled electricity generators and reduce CO2 emissions, but when and how much? And how can this region maximize and focus the impacts of additional rooftop PV capacity on CO2 emissions? To answer these questions, an hourly urban rooftop PV generation profile for 2009 ...


A Novel Approach To Flow Estimation In Tidal Rivers, Hamed Moftakhari Rostamkhani, David A. Jay, Stefan A. Talke, Tobias Kukulka, Peter D. Bromirski Aug 2013

A Novel Approach To Flow Estimation In Tidal Rivers, Hamed Moftakhari Rostamkhani, David A. Jay, Stefan A. Talke, Tobias Kukulka, Peter D. Bromirski

Civil and Environmental Engineering Faculty Publications and Presentations

Reliable estimation of river discharge to the ocean from large tidal rivers is vital for water resources management and climate analyses. Due to the difficulties inherent in measuring tidal-river discharge, flow records are often limited in length and/or quality and tidal records often predate discharge records. Tidal theory indicates that tides and river discharge interact through quadratic bed friction, which diminishes and distorts the tidal wave as discharge increases. We use this phenomenon to develop a method of estimating river discharge for time periods with tidal data but no flow record. Employing sequential 32 day harmonic analyses of tidal ...


Assessment Of Solar Photovoltaic Technologies Using Multiple Perspectives And Hierarchical Decision Modeling, Nasir Jamil Sheikh Apr 2013

Assessment Of Solar Photovoltaic Technologies Using Multiple Perspectives And Hierarchical Decision Modeling, Nasir Jamil Sheikh

Dissertations and Theses

The objective of this research is to build a decision model for a comprehensive assessment of solar photovoltaic technologies using multiple perspectives. These perspectives include: social, technological, economic, environmental, and political (STEEP) with each perspective consisting of multiple criteria. Hierarchical decision modeling and expert judgment quantification are used to provide the relative ranking of the perspectives and criteria. Such modeling is effective in addressing technology evaluations with competing and contrasting perspectives and criteria where both quantitative and qualitative measurements are represented. The model is then operationalized by constructing desirability functions for each criterion. The combined results provide an overall numerical ...


Predicting Landslides In Real Time, Michael J. Olsen Mar 2013

Predicting Landslides In Real Time, Michael J. Olsen

TREC Project Briefs

The Oregon Department of Transportation, or ODOT, has an ongoing struggle to maintain public highways against earth movements such as erosion, earthquakes and landslides. An earthquake or landslide can close down a road for days, while highway workers fight to keep supply lines open and repair the damage. Particularly along Oregon’s coastal roads with high sea cliffs, these natural processes are a constant threat to transportation infrastructure. The damage caused by gradual erosion is typically not detectable until there is a landslide or other disaster, costing the state considerable time and money to repair. New technology has the potential ...


Adaptation Of Classical Tidal Harmonic Analysis To Nonstationary Tides, With Application To River Tides, Pascal Matte, David A. Jay, Edward D. Zaron Mar 2013

Adaptation Of Classical Tidal Harmonic Analysis To Nonstationary Tides, With Application To River Tides, Pascal Matte, David A. Jay, Edward D. Zaron

Civil and Environmental Engineering Faculty Publications and Presentations

One of the most challenging areas in tidal analysis is the study of nonstationary signals with a tidal component, as they confront both current analysis methods and dynamical understanding. A new analysis tool has been developed, NS_TIDE, adapted to the study of nonstationary signals, in this case, river tides. It builds the nonstationary forcing directly into the tidal basis functions. It is implemented by modification of T_TIDE; however, certain concepts, particularly the meaning of a constituent and the Rayleigh criterion, are redefined to account for the smearing effects on the tidal spectral lines by nontidal energy. An error estimation procedure ...


Examining Consumer Behavior And Travel Choices, Kelly J. Clifton, Christopher Devlin Muhs, Sara Morrissey, Tomás Morrissey, Kristina Marie Currans, Chloe Ritter Feb 2013

Examining Consumer Behavior And Travel Choices, Kelly J. Clifton, Christopher Devlin Muhs, Sara Morrissey, Tomás Morrissey, Kristina Marie Currans, Chloe Ritter

Civil and Environmental Engineering Faculty Publications and Presentations

This study represents a first attempt to answer a few of the questions that have arisen concerning multimodal transportation investments and the impacts of mode shifts on the business community. This research aims to merge the long history of scholarly work that examines the impacts of the built environment on non-work travel with the relatively new interest in consumer spending by mode of travel. This empirical study of travel choices and consumer spending across 89 businesses in the Portland metropolitan area shows there are important differences between the amounts customers spend on average at various businesses by their mode of ...


Effects Of Molecular Structure Of The Oxidation Products Of Reactive Atmospheric Hydrocarbons On The Formation Of Secondary Organic Particulate Matter, Including The Effects Of Water, Negar Niakan Jan 2013

Effects Of Molecular Structure Of The Oxidation Products Of Reactive Atmospheric Hydrocarbons On The Formation Of Secondary Organic Particulate Matter, Including The Effects Of Water, Negar Niakan

Dissertations and Theses

Organic aerosols have significant effects on human health, air quality and climate. Secondary organic aerosols (SOA) are produced by the oxidation of primary-volatile organic compounds (VOC). For example, α-pinene reacts with oxidants such as hydroxyl radical (OH), ozone (O3), and nitrate radical (NO3), accounting for a significant portion of total organic aerosol in the atmosphere. Experimental studies have shown that the oxidation process between α-pinene and ozone has the most significant impact in the formation of SOA (Hoffmann et al., 1997). Most of the models used to predict SOA formation, however, are limited in that they neglect the ...


Positive Matrix Factorization Of Pm2.5 - Eliminating The Effects Of Gas/Particle Partitioning Of Semivolatile Organic Compounds, Mingjie Xie, Kelley Barsanti, Michael P. Hannigan, Steven J. Dutton, Sverre Vedal Jan 2013

Positive Matrix Factorization Of Pm2.5 - Eliminating The Effects Of Gas/Particle Partitioning Of Semivolatile Organic Compounds, Mingjie Xie, Kelley Barsanti, Michael P. Hannigan, Steven J. Dutton, Sverre Vedal

Civil and Environmental Engineering Faculty Publications and Presentations

Gas-phase concentrations of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) were calculated from gas/particle (G/P) partitioning theory using their measured particle-phase concentrations. The particle-phase data were obtained from an existing filter measurement campaign (27 January 2003-2 October 2005) as a part of the Denver Aerosol Sources and Health (DASH) study, including 970 observations of 71 SVOCs (Xie et al., 2013). In each compound class of SVOCs, the lighter species (e.g. docosane in n-alkanes, fluoranthene in PAHs) had higher total concentrations (gas + particle phase) and lower particle-phase fractions. The total SVOC concentrations were analyzed using positive matrix factorization (PMF). Then the ...


Analyzing Experimental Data And Model Parameters: Implications For Predictions Of Soa Using Chemical Transport Models, Kelley Barsanti, Annmarie G. Carlton, Serena H. Chung Jan 2013

Analyzing Experimental Data And Model Parameters: Implications For Predictions Of Soa Using Chemical Transport Models, Kelley Barsanti, Annmarie G. Carlton, Serena H. Chung

Civil and Environmental Engineering Faculty Publications and Presentations

Despite critical importance for air quality and climate predictions, accurate representation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation remains elusive. An essential addition to the ongoing discussion of improving model predictions is an acknowledgement of the linkages between experimental conditions, parameter optimization and model output, as well as the linkage between empirically-derived partitioning parameters and the physicochemical properties of SOA they represent in models. In this work, a "best available" set of SOA modeling parameters is selected by comparing predicted SOA yields and mass concentrations with observed yields and mass concentrations from a comprehensive list of published smog chamber studies. Evaluated ...


Characterization Of Nano-Scale Aluminum Oxide Transport Through Porous Media, Sasha Norien Norwood Jan 2013

Characterization Of Nano-Scale Aluminum Oxide Transport Through Porous Media, Sasha Norien Norwood

Dissertations and Theses

Land application of biosolids has become common practice in the United States as an alternative to industrial fertilizers. Although nutrient rich, biosolids have been found to contain high concentrations of emerging contaminants (e.g. pharmaceuticals, personal care products) while containing a significant fraction of inorganic nano-scale colloidal materials such as oxides of iron, titanium, and aluminum.

Given their reactivity and small size, there are many questions concerning the potential migration of these nano-sized colloidal materials through the soil column and into our surface and groundwater bodies. Transport of emerging pollutants of concern through the soil column, at minimum, is impacted ...


Model For Acid-Base Chemistry In Nanoparticle Growth (Mabnag), Taina Yli-Juuti, Kelley Barsanti, L. Hildebrandt Ruiz, Antti-Jussi Kieloaho, U. Makkonen, Tuukka Petäjä, Taina Ruuskanen, Markku Kulmala, Ilona Riipinen Jan 2013

Model For Acid-Base Chemistry In Nanoparticle Growth (Mabnag), Taina Yli-Juuti, Kelley Barsanti, L. Hildebrandt Ruiz, Antti-Jussi Kieloaho, U. Makkonen, Tuukka Petäjä, Taina Ruuskanen, Markku Kulmala, Ilona Riipinen

Civil and Environmental Engineering Faculty Publications and Presentations

Climatic effects of newly-formed atmospheric secondary aerosol particles are to a large extent determined by their condensational growth rates. However, all the vapours condensing on atmospheric nanoparticles and growing them to climatically relevant sizes are not identified yet and the effects of particle phase processes on particle growth rates are poorly known. Besides sulfuric acid, organic compounds are known to contribute significantly to atmospheric nanoparticle growth. In this study a particle growth model MABNAG (Model for Acid-Base chemistry in NAnoparticle Growth) was developed to study the effect of salt formation on nanoparticle growth, which has been proposed as a potential ...