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Full-Text Articles in Engineering

Modulation Of Biological Responses To 2 Ns Electrical Stimuli By Field Reversal, Esin B. Sözer, P. Thomas Vernier Jun 2019

Modulation Of Biological Responses To 2 Ns Electrical Stimuli By Field Reversal, Esin B. Sözer, P. Thomas Vernier

Bioelectrics Publications

Nanosecond bipolar pulse cancellation, a recently discovered Phenomenon, is modulation of the effects of a unipolar electric pulse exposure by a second pulse of opposite polarity. This attenuation of biological response by reversal of the electric field direction has been reported with pulse durations from 60 ns to 900 ns for a wide range of endpoints, and it is not observed with conventional electroporation pulses of much longer duration (> 100 mu s) where pulses are additive regardless of polarity. The most plausible proposed mechanisms involve the field-driven migration of ions to and from the membrane interface (accelerated membrane discharge). Here ...


Effects Of Pulse Width On He Plasma Jets In Contact With Water Evaluated By Oh(A-X) Emission And Ohaq Production, Shutong Song, Esin B. Sözer, Chunqi Jiang Jun 2019

Effects Of Pulse Width On He Plasma Jets In Contact With Water Evaluated By Oh(A-X) Emission And Ohaq Production, Shutong Song, Esin B. Sözer, Chunqi Jiang

Bioelectrics Publications

Nanosecond pulsed helium plasma jets impinging on water produce hydroxyl radicals both in gas- and liquid-phase. In this study, the effects of pulse width on a repetitively pulsed plasma jet in contact with water are evaluated via OH(A-X) emission and OHaq production in water for various pulse widths ranging from 200 to 5000 ns. The maximal energy efficiency of OH(A-X) emission is obtained for pulse widths of 600-800 ns whereas the maximal efficiency of OHaq production is at 200 ns. Temporally-resolved emission spectroscopy shows that more than 40% of OH(A-X) emission is produced during the ...


Responding To Some Challenges Posed By The Re-Identification Of Anonymized Personal Data, Herman T. Tavani, Frances S. Grodzinsky May 2019

Responding To Some Challenges Posed By The Re-Identification Of Anonymized Personal Data, Herman T. Tavani, Frances S. Grodzinsky

Computer Ethics - Philosophical Enquiry (CEPE) Proceedings

In this paper, we examine a cluster of ethical controversies generated by the re-identification of anonymized personal data in the context of big data analytics, with particular attention to the implications for personal privacy. Our paper is organized into two main parts. Part One examines some ethical problems involving re-identification of personally identifiable information (PII) in large data sets. Part Two begins with a brief description of Moor and Weckert’s Dynamic Ethics (DE) and Nissenbaum’s Contextual Integrity (CI) Frameworks. We then investigate whether these frameworks, used together, can provide us with a more robust scheme for analyzing privacy ...


On The Responsibility For Uses Of Downstream Software, Marty J. Wolf, Keith W. Miller, Frances S. Grodzinsky May 2019

On The Responsibility For Uses Of Downstream Software, Marty J. Wolf, Keith W. Miller, Frances S. Grodzinsky

Computer Ethics - Philosophical Enquiry (CEPE) Proceedings

In this paper we explore an issue that is different from whether developers are responsible for the direct impact of the software they write. We examine, instead, in what ways, and to what degree, developers are responsible for the way their software is used “downstream.” We review some key scholarship analyzing responsibility in computing ethics, including some recent work by Floridi. We use an adaptation of a mechanism developed by Floridi to argue that there are features of software that can be used as guides to better distinguish situations where a software developer might share in responsibility for the software ...


Keeping Anonymity At The Consumer Behavior On The Internet: Proof Of Sacrifice, Sachio Horie May 2019

Keeping Anonymity At The Consumer Behavior On The Internet: Proof Of Sacrifice, Sachio Horie

Computer Ethics - Philosophical Enquiry (CEPE) Proceedings

The evolution of the Internet and AI technology has made it possible for the government and the businesses to keep track of their personal lives. GAFA continues to collect information unintended by the individuals. It is a threat that our privacy is violated in this way. In order to solute such problems, it is important to consider a mechanism that enables us to be peaceful lives while protecting privacy in the Internet society.

This paper focuses on the consumption behavior on the Internet and addresses anonymity. We consider some network protocols that enable sustainable consensus by combining anonymity methods such ...


A Hierarchical Core Reference Ontology For New Technology Insertion Design In Long Life Cycle, Complex Mission Critical Systems, Kevin J. Michael Apr 2019

A Hierarchical Core Reference Ontology For New Technology Insertion Design In Long Life Cycle, Complex Mission Critical Systems, Kevin J. Michael

Engineering Management & Systems Engineering Projects for D. Eng. Degree

Organizations, including government, commercial and others, face numerous challenges in maintaining and upgrading long life-cycle, complex, mission critical systems. Maintaining and upgrading these systems requires the insertion and integration of new technology to avoid obsolescence of hardware software, and human skills, to improve performance, to maintain and improve security, and to extend useful life. This is particularly true of information technology (IT) intensive systems. The lack of a coherent body of knowledge to organize new technology insertion theory and practice is a significant contributor to this difficulty. This research organized the existing design, technology road mapping, obsolescence, and sustainability literature ...


Estimating Cognitive Workload In An Interactive Virtual Reality Environment Using Electrophysiological And Kinematic Activity, Christoph Tremmel Apr 2019

Estimating Cognitive Workload In An Interactive Virtual Reality Environment Using Electrophysiological And Kinematic Activity, Christoph Tremmel

Biomedical Engineering Theses & Dissertations

As virtual reality (VR) technology continues to gain prominence in commercial, educational, recreational and research applications, there is increasing interest in incorporating physiological sensors in VR devices for passive user-state monitoring to eventually increase the sense of immersion. By recording physiological signals such as the electroencephalogram (EEG), electromyography (EMG) or kinematic parameters during the use of a VR device, the user’s interactions in the virtual environment could be adapted in real time based on the user’s cognitive state. This dissertation evaluates the feasibility of passively monitoring cognitive workload via electrophysiological and kinematic activity while performing a classical n-back ...


Illuminator, Volume 2, Issue 8, Batten College Of Engineering & Technology, Old Dominion University Apr 2019

Illuminator, Volume 2, Issue 8, Batten College Of Engineering & Technology, Old Dominion University

College of Engineering & Technology Newsletter

April 2019 issue of Illuminator, a monthly publication of ODU's Batten College of Engineering and Technology.


Solid State Polyaniline Supercapacitors Based On Electrodes Fabricated With Electropolymerization, Jonathan R. Blincoe Apr 2019

Solid State Polyaniline Supercapacitors Based On Electrodes Fabricated With Electropolymerization, Jonathan R. Blincoe

Electrical & Computer Engineering Theses & Disssertations

Supercapacitors are energy storage devices with the potential to overshadow lithium-ion batteries in the energy storage sector. Generally supercapacitors store less energy than a lithium-ion battery, but make up for it with much higher power densities that allow supercapacitors to charge and discharge quickly. This can be through the formation of an electric double layer or faradaic phenomenon between the electrode and electrolyte. The energy storage mechanism relies heavily on the electrode material and the ions contained within the electrolyte. In this research, polyaniline was used as an active material to prepare supercapacitors. Polyaniline is a conductive polymer that is ...


Effects Of Control Device And Task Complexity On Performance And Task Shedding During A Robotic Arm Task, Shelby K. Long Apr 2019

Effects Of Control Device And Task Complexity On Performance And Task Shedding During A Robotic Arm Task, Shelby K. Long

Psychology Theses & Dissertations

The use of robotic arms across domains is increasing, but the relationship between control features and performance is not fully understood. The goal of this research was to investigate the difference in task performance when using two different control devices at high and low task complexities when participants can shed tasks to automation. In this experiment, 40 undergraduates (24 females) used two control devices, a Leap Motion controller and an Xbox controller, to teleoperate a robotic arm in a high or low complexity peg placement task. Simultaneously, participants were tasked with scanning images for tanks. During the experiment, participants had ...


Measuring And Modeling Bare Desert Wind Erosion From Steppe Grassland Of Northern China As Affected By Soil Moisture And Climate, Nicholas Morgan Potter Apr 2019

Measuring And Modeling Bare Desert Wind Erosion From Steppe Grassland Of Northern China As Affected By Soil Moisture And Climate, Nicholas Morgan Potter

Civil & Environmental Engineering Theses & Dissertations

Soil erosion by wind has been found to be negatively related to soil water content, as evidenced by that for a given area, such a soil erosion can be much less in a wet than a dry year. However, few studies have examined the functional relationship between wind erosion and soil moisture, primarily due to lack of field measured data. The objectives of this study were to: 1) measure wind erosion in field using a portable wind tunnel devised and made by the author; 2) use the measured data to calibrate/validate a wind erosion model previously developed by the ...


Mimo Radar Waveform Design And Sparse Reconstruction For Extended Target Detection In Clutter, Christopher Alan Rogers Apr 2019

Mimo Radar Waveform Design And Sparse Reconstruction For Extended Target Detection In Clutter, Christopher Alan Rogers

Electrical & Computer Engineering Theses & Disssertations

This dissertation explores the detection and false alarm rate performance of a novel transmit-waveform and receiver filter design algorithm as part of a larger Compressed Sensing (CS) based Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) bistatic radar system amidst clutter. Transmit-waveforms and receiver filters were jointly designed using an algorithm that minimizes the mutual coherence of the combined transmit-waveform, target frequency response, and receiver filter matrix product as a design criterion. This work considered the Probability of Detection (P D) and Probability of False Alarm (P FA) curves relative to a detection threshold, τ th, Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC), reconstruction error and ...


Characterization And Optimization Of A Propeller Test Stand, Colin Bruce Leighton Benjamin Apr 2019

Characterization And Optimization Of A Propeller Test Stand, Colin Bruce Leighton Benjamin

Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering Theses & Dissertations

In recent history, there has been a rapid rise in the use of drones, and they are expanding in popularity each year. The widespread use and future capabilities of these unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) will call for increased study and classification of propellers to maximize their performance. As a result, it is necessary to have continuity in the development, maximization, and optimization of propeller test stand’s capability to collect accurate and precise measurements. It is of significant advantage to have the capability of accurately characterizing a propeller based on its thrust and torque. In this study, a propeller test ...


Sidestream Ras Fermentation For Stable Bio-P Combined With Short Cut Nitrogen Removal In An A/B Process, Lindsey Elise Ferguson Apr 2019

Sidestream Ras Fermentation For Stable Bio-P Combined With Short Cut Nitrogen Removal In An A/B Process, Lindsey Elise Ferguson

Civil & Environmental Engineering Theses & Dissertations

It is well known that soluble organic carbon (sCOD), especially in the form of volatile fatty acids (VFA), is critical to achieving reliable enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) in biological nutrient removal (BNR) processes. Consistent and reliable EBPR in systems treating wastewaters deficient in sCOD may be accomplished by the addition of VFA and sCOD – rich fermentate produced by the fermentation of primary sludge, return / waste activated sludge (RAS / WAS), or other suitable carbon sources. The solids retention time (SRT) of fermenters being used to supplement carbon in sidestream EBPR processes must be controlled such that complex organics are hydrolyzed ...


Latent Choice Models To Account For Misclassification Errors In Discrete Transportation Data, Lacramioara Elena Balan Apr 2019

Latent Choice Models To Account For Misclassification Errors In Discrete Transportation Data, Lacramioara Elena Balan

Civil & Environmental Engineering Theses & Dissertations

One of the most fundamental tasks when it comes to analyzing data using statistical methods is to understand the relationship between the explanatory variables and the outcome. Misclassification of explanatory variables is a common risk when using statistical modeling techniques. In this dissertation, we define ‘misclassification,’ as a response that is reported or recorded in the wrong category; for example, a variable is registered as a one when it should have the value zero. Misclassification can easily happen in any data; for example, in an interview setting where the respondent misunderstands the question or the interviewer checks the wrong box ...


Design And Manufacture Of An Inertial Cascade Impactor For Industrial Hygiene Purposes, Hector Joel Gortaire Apr 2019

Design And Manufacture Of An Inertial Cascade Impactor For Industrial Hygiene Purposes, Hector Joel Gortaire

Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering Theses & Dissertations

Inertial cascade impactors are devices commonly used for industrial hygiene and pharmaceutical studies. Their main purpose is to separate particulate matter suspended in aerosols according to their sizes, which can vary from over 10 µm to 0.5 µm. Their versatility and ease of operation make them suitable for on-site sampling; however, designing them requires a careful consideration of the different geometric parameters that characterize them.

In this thesis, a 5-stage inertial cascade impactor was designed, modelled, constructed, and tested. The main design parameter was the volumetric flow rate, 40 l/min, which was provided by a vacuum pump. By ...


Radio Frequency Toolbox For Drone Detection And Classification, Abdulkabir Bello Apr 2019

Radio Frequency Toolbox For Drone Detection And Classification, Abdulkabir Bello

Electrical & Computer Engineering Theses & Disssertations

The continuous development of inexpensive embedded sensors has led to the rapid proliferation of new civilian use of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAVs) or drones. It is now easier for civilians to own drones as the cost falls. As we all know drones have a variety of important applications and can also be used for negative effects too. These drones can pose a threat to the security of the population either civilian, organization or industry. There is a need for Radio Frequency Signal Classification (RF-Class) toolbox which can monitor, detect, and classify RF signals from drone communication system. The ability to ...


Effect Of Alkali On The Efficiency And Reliability Of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 Solar Cells, Shankar Karki Apr 2019

Effect Of Alkali On The Efficiency And Reliability Of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 Solar Cells, Shankar Karki

Physics Theses & Dissertations

The incorporation of alkali metal has contributed tremendously in a bid to realize greater than 20% efficient Cu(In,Ga)Se2(CIGS) solar cells. Achieving high efficiency is one key parameter for the success of a photovoltaic technology but so is its long-term stability. In this thesis, the relationship between the performance of alkali treated Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells and their physicochemical, electronic and structural properties are explored through a comparative study between standard devices and alkali (K, Rb) treated devices. The alkali treated devices tend to have a lower concentration of Ev+0.98 ...


A Dual Nanostructured Approach To Sers Amenable To Large-Scale Production, Kory Brian Castro Apr 2019

A Dual Nanostructured Approach To Sers Amenable To Large-Scale Production, Kory Brian Castro

Chemistry & Biochemistry Theses & Dissertations

A SERS device was made using a dual-nanostructured surface comprised of silver nanoparticle and silver nanowires. The ability of each nanostructure to produce a uniform surface was characterized and the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) response of the resulting surfaces were examined using the reporter molecule 4-aminothiolphenol (ATP) and a 638 nm excitation laser.

A synthetic method was developed to produce silver nanowires with lengths of ~20 μm and diameters of ~100 nm with a narrow size distribution. The method utilized a simple, one-pot synthesis that is amenable to large-scale production. A selective precipitation method was used to the isolate the ...


Cyber Security- A New Secured Password Generation Algorithm With Graphical Authentication And Alphanumeric Passwords Along With Encryption, Akash Rao Apr 2019

Cyber Security- A New Secured Password Generation Algorithm With Graphical Authentication And Alphanumeric Passwords Along With Encryption, Akash Rao

Electrical & Computer Engineering Theses & Disssertations

Graphical passwords are always considered as an alternative of alphanumeric passwords for their better memorability and usability [1]. Alphanumeric passwords provide an adequate amount of satisfaction, but they do not offer better memorability compared to graphical passwords [1].

On the other hand, graphical passwords are considered less secured and provide better memorability [1]. Therefore many researchers have researched on graphical passwords to overcome the vulnerability. One of the most significant weaknesses of the graphical passwords is "Shoulder Surfing Attack," which means, sneaking into a victim's computer to learn the whole password or part of password or some confidential information ...


An Investigation Of General Criteria For Assessing Space Flight Systems Of Diverse Mission Concept Designs, Cindy L. Daniels Apr 2019

An Investigation Of General Criteria For Assessing Space Flight Systems Of Diverse Mission Concept Designs, Cindy L. Daniels

Engineering Management & Systems Engineering Theses & Dissertations

The purpose of this research is to investigate the general criteria for assessing the technical implementation risk factors of proposed space science missions at the mission concept stage. According to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Space Flight Program and Project Management Handbook (NASA, 2012), the mission concept review objectives are “To evaluate the feasibility of the proposed mission concept(s) and its fulfillment of the program's needs and objectives. To determine whether the maturity of the concept and associated planning are sufficient to begin Phase A” (p.33). Experts previously defined two technical risk factors, to assess ...


Design, Implementation, And Analysis Of Electrical System Architecture For Cubesat To Ground Communications, Anthony G. Cappiello Apr 2019

Design, Implementation, And Analysis Of Electrical System Architecture For Cubesat To Ground Communications, Anthony G. Cappiello

Electrical & Computer Engineering Theses & Disssertations

CubeSats facilitate a low barrier to entry in University and Industrial space research. With the rapid, low-cost development of CubeSats, the need for a reliable and ro- bust communications subsystem becomes evident to ensure mission accomplishment. With the advent of Software Defined Radio, Old Dominion University is compelled to upgrade the rigid Legacy Hardware systems in place with inexpensive and flexible Software Defined Radio Solutions. Currently, Old Dominion University is on the cusp of conducting its first space science mission as a member organization of the Virginia Space Grant Consortium Cubesat Constellation and is manifest for launch on April 17 ...


Effect Of Grain Size And Interface Engineering On The Photovoltaic Performance And Stability Of Perovskite Solar Cells, Abdullah Al Mamun Apr 2019

Effect Of Grain Size And Interface Engineering On The Photovoltaic Performance And Stability Of Perovskite Solar Cells, Abdullah Al Mamun

Electrical & Computer Engineering Theses & Disssertations

Organic-inorganic halide perovskite solar cells (PSCs) have grown rapidly in recent years due to their outstanding optoelectronic properties, high efficiency, and low-cost. However, this emerging solar cell technology is experiencing some challenges such as defects, hysteresis, and long-term stability, which need to be addressed in order to make it commercially available. This dissertation aims to assist in overcoming some of the barriers and is therefore important to the field of perovskite solar cells.

Initially, this dissertation focuses on investigating the role of grain interiors (GIs) and grain boundaries (GBs) of perovskite film using chemically, spatially, and temporally resolved measurements at ...


Comparison Of Support Methods For Static Aerodynamic Testing And Validation Of A Magnetic Suspension And Balance System, Cameron K. Neill Apr 2019

Comparison Of Support Methods For Static Aerodynamic Testing And Validation Of A Magnetic Suspension And Balance System, Cameron K. Neill

Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering Theses & Dissertations

Magnetic suspension wind tunnels offer an alternative to traditional physical support methods. They allow for the collection of support interference free data and broader dynamic test capabilities than existing methods. Determination of dynamic aerodynamic characteristics is a crucial portion of the design of new re-entry capsules. A NASA initiative restored the 6-inch Magnetic Suspension and Balance System to support the design of a new MSBS for a supersonic wind tunnel. Before a new MSBS can be constructed, the characteristics of the current MSBS must be examined.

This thesis discusses the calibration and validation of the 6-inch MSBS. After calibration, three ...


A Framework For Test & Evaluation Of Autonomous Systems Along The Virtuality-Reality Spectrum, Nathan D. Gonda Apr 2019

A Framework For Test & Evaluation Of Autonomous Systems Along The Virtuality-Reality Spectrum, Nathan D. Gonda

Computational Modeling and Simulation Engineering Theses & Dissertations

Test & Evaluation of autonomous vehicles presents a challenge as the vehicles may have emergent behavior and it is frequently difficult to ascertain the reason for software decisions. Current Test & Evaluation approaches for autonomous systems place the vehicles in various operating scenarios to observe their behavior. However, this introduces dependencies between design and development lifecycle of the autonomous software and physical vehicle hardware. Simulation-based testing can alleviate the necessity to have physical hardware; however, it can be costly when transitioning the autonomous software to and from a simulation testing environment. The objective of this thesis is to develop a reusable framework for testing autonomous software such that testing can be conducted at various levels of mixed reality provided the framework components are sufficient to support data required by the autonomous software. The paper describes the design of the software framework and explores its application through use cases.


Development And Initial Evaluation Of A Reinforced Cue Detection Model To Assess Situation Awareness In Commercial Aircraft Cockpits, Aysen K. Taylor Apr 2019

Development And Initial Evaluation Of A Reinforced Cue Detection Model To Assess Situation Awareness In Commercial Aircraft Cockpits, Aysen K. Taylor

Engineering Management & Systems Engineering Theses & Dissertations

Commercial transport aircraft of today vary greatly from early aircraft with regards to how the aircraft are controlled and the feedback provided from the machine to the human operator. Over time, as avionics systems became more automated, pilots had less direct control over their aircraft. Much research exists in the literature about automation issues, and several major accidents over the last twenty years spurred interest about how to maintain the benefits of automation while improving the overall human-machine interaction as the pilot is considered the last line of defense.

An important reason for maintaining or even improving overall pilot situation ...


Off Axis Compressive Response Of Ice-Templated Ceramics, Rahul Kumar Jujjavarapu Apr 2019

Off Axis Compressive Response Of Ice-Templated Ceramics, Rahul Kumar Jujjavarapu

Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering Theses & Dissertations

The off-axis compressive behavior of ice-templated ceramic was analyzed using experimental results and micro-mechanical model simulation. Ice-templated ceramics is a versatile processing technique used to manufacture anisotropic ceramic foam by exploiting the anisotropic growth characteristics and lamellar morphology. The ice-templating process results in processing-structure-property relationships determined by the microstructure. The processed alumina samples which were later manufactured by water jet machine from the freeze casting were tested under quasi-static off-axis loading conditions and were used to determine the mechanical properties of the material. Digital image correlation (DIC) was used to measure the strain response of ice-templated ceramic under off-axis loading ...


Variable Speed Limit Control At Sag Curves Through Connected Vehicles: Implications Of Alternative Communications And Sensing Technologies, Reza Vatani Nezafat Apr 2019

Variable Speed Limit Control At Sag Curves Through Connected Vehicles: Implications Of Alternative Communications And Sensing Technologies, Reza Vatani Nezafat

Civil & Environmental Engineering Theses & Dissertations

Connected vehicles (CVs) will enable new applications to improve traffic flow. This study’s focus is to investigate how potential implementation of variable speed limit (VSL) through different types of communication and sensing technologies on CVs may improve traffic flow at a sag curve. At sag curves, the gradient changes from negative to positive values which causes a reduction in the roadway capacity and congestion. A VSL algorithm is developed and implemented in a simulation environment for controlling the inflow of vehicles to a sag curve on a freeway to minimize delays and increase throughput. Both vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) and infrastructure-to-vehicle ...


On Analytic Nonlinear Input-Output Systems: Expanded Global Convergence And System Interconnections, Irina M. Winter Arboleda Apr 2019

On Analytic Nonlinear Input-Output Systems: Expanded Global Convergence And System Interconnections, Irina M. Winter Arboleda

Electrical & Computer Engineering Theses & Disssertations

Functional series representations of nonlinear systems first appeared in engineering in the early 1950’s. One common representation of a nonlinear input-output system are Chen-Fliess series or Fliess operators. Such operators are described by functional series indexed by words over a noncommutative alphabet. They can be viewed as a noncommutative generalization of a Taylor series. A Fliess operator is said to be globally convergent when its radius of convergence is infinite, in other words, when there is no a priori upper bound on both the L1-norm of an admissible input and the length of time over which the corresponding output ...


Illuminator, Volume 2, Issue 7, Batten College Of Engineering & Technology, Old Dominion University Mar 2019

Illuminator, Volume 2, Issue 7, Batten College Of Engineering & Technology, Old Dominion University

College of Engineering & Technology Newsletter

March 2019 issue of Illuminator, a monthly publication of ODU's Batten College of Engineering and Technology.