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Full-Text Articles in Engineering

Synthesis And Applications Of Ceramic (Silicon Carbide And Silicon Nitride), Metallic (Cobalt(0)) And Polymeric (Polyurethane) Aerogels, Parwani M. Rewatkar Jan 2019

Synthesis And Applications Of Ceramic (Silicon Carbide And Silicon Nitride), Metallic (Cobalt(0)) And Polymeric (Polyurethane) Aerogels, Parwani M. Rewatkar

Doctoral Dissertations

"A new method has been demonstrated for the synthesis of monolithic ceramic and purely metallic aerogels from xerogel powder compacts, and the use of polyurethane aerogels based on cyclodextrins as efficient desiccants.

I. Highly porous ( > 80%) monolithic SiC and Si3N4, aerogels were prepared from compressed compacts of polyurea-crosslinked silica xerogel powders. The process is time efficient as solvent-exchange through powders is fast, and energy efficient as it bypasses drying with supercritical fluids. The final ceramic objects were chemically pure, sturdy, with compressive moduli at 37 ±7 MPa and 59 ± 7 MPa, and thermal conductivities at 0.16 ...


Polyurea Aerogels: From Nanoscopic To Macroscopic Properties, Tahereh Taghvaee Jan 2019

Polyurea Aerogels: From Nanoscopic To Macroscopic Properties, Tahereh Taghvaee

Doctoral Dissertations

"The morphology of a material is intrinsically a qualitative property and in order to relate nanomorphology to synthetic conditions, it is necessary to express nano/micro-structure quantitatively. In this context, polyurea aerogels were chosen as a model system with demonstrated potential for rich nanomorphology and being guided by a statistical Design-of-Experiments model, a large array of materials (208) with identical chemical composition, but quite different nanostructures were prepared. By reflecting upon the SEM images, it was realized that our first pre-verbal impression about a nanostructure is related to its openness and texture; the former is quantified by porosity (Π), and ...


Electrodeposition Of Epitaxial Metal Thin Films On Silicon For Energy Conversion And Flexible Electronics, Qingzhi Chen Jan 2019

Electrodeposition Of Epitaxial Metal Thin Films On Silicon For Energy Conversion And Flexible Electronics, Qingzhi Chen

Doctoral Dissertations

"This research focuses on epitaxial electrodeposition of two coinage metals: Au and Ag thin films on the silicon surface and their applications in flexible electronics and energy conversion and storage. The first paper: Photoelectrochemistry of ultrathin, semi-transparent, and catalytic gold films electrodeposited epitaxially onto n-silicon (111) describes the epitaxial electrodeposition of Au thin films on n-type Si using a simple HAuCl4 bath and the photoelectrochemical properties of the Au-Si junction barrier. The effect of the Au layer on the interfacial energetics as well as the stability of the photoelectrode as a function of the Au coverage/thickness is determined in ...


Nanomorphology Dependent Optical And Mechanical Properties Of Aerogels, Chandana Mandal Jan 2019

Nanomorphology Dependent Optical And Mechanical Properties Of Aerogels, Chandana Mandal

Doctoral Dissertations

"Aerogels are very low density, light weight open pore materials. A hypothesis that is under intense current investigation by the scientific community states that the mechanical properties of nanostructured polymers depend on their nanomorphology. Aerogels are nanostructured ultra-lightweight nanoporous materials with skeletal frameworks that can display a wide range of nanomorphologies. Thereby aerogels comprise a suitable platform for testing not only that hypothesis but also a wide range of other properties such as light scattering for applications, for example, in thermally insulating windows.

To study the mechanical properties of nanostructured matter as a function of nanomorphology, various shape-memory polyurethane aerogels ...


Electrodeposited Semiconductor Nanostructures & Epitaxial Thin Films For Flexible Electronics, Naveen Kumar Mahenderkar Jan 2018

Electrodeposited Semiconductor Nanostructures & Epitaxial Thin Films For Flexible Electronics, Naveen Kumar Mahenderkar

Doctoral Dissertations

"Single-crystal Si is the bedrock of semiconductor devices due to the high crystalline perfection which minimizes electron-hole recombination, and the dense native silicon oxide which minimizes surface states. To expand the palette of electronic materials beyond planar Si, an inexpensive source of highly ordered material is needed that can serve as an inert substrate for the epitaxial growth of grain boundary-free semiconductors, photonic materials, and superconductors. There is also a need for a simple, inexpensive, and scalable fabrication technique for the growth of semiconductor nanostructures and thin films. This dissertation focuses on the fabrication of semiconducting nanowires (polycrystalline Ge & epitaxial ...


Electrodeposited Epitaxial Cobalt Oxides And Copper Metal, Caleb M. Hull Jan 2018

Electrodeposited Epitaxial Cobalt Oxides And Copper Metal, Caleb M. Hull

Doctoral Dissertations

"Electrochemical deposition methods are presented for the deposition of Co(OH)2 and Cu metal. Paper I shows the deposition of β-Co(OH)2 on Ti through electrochemical reduction of [Co(en)3]3+ to [Co(en)3]2+ in 2M NaOH. The catalytic properties of the deposited Co(OH)2 towards water oxidation is found comparable to Co3O4, with the surface of the Co(OH)2 converting to CoOOH during the reaction. Paper II gives the conditions suitable for epitaxial growth of Co(OH)2 on Au(100), Au(110), and Au(111) following the same ...


Single Particle-Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry Technology Development For Metallic Nanoparticle Characterization In Complex Matrices, Yongbo Dan Jan 2016

Single Particle-Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry Technology Development For Metallic Nanoparticle Characterization In Complex Matrices, Yongbo Dan

Doctoral Dissertations

"As the rapid growing of nanotechnology, the release of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) into the environment is inevitable. After entering the real environment, ENPs tend to react with different components of the ecosystem (e.g. water, soil, air, plants) and make their characterization difficult. Analyzing ENPs in these complex matrices still remains as a grand challenge. ENPs characterization is normally the first step of risk assessment. Current analytical techniques have shown some limitations in revealing the unique characteristics of ENPs in complex matrices and reliable analytical techniques are in urgent need. Single particle inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (SP-ICP-MS) is an ...


Bioactivity/Cytotoxicity Of Micro-/Nano-Materials And Novel Development Of Fiber-Optic Probes For Single Cell Monitoring, Qingbo Yang Jan 2016

Bioactivity/Cytotoxicity Of Micro-/Nano-Materials And Novel Development Of Fiber-Optic Probes For Single Cell Monitoring, Qingbo Yang

Doctoral Dissertations

"Manufactured nano-/micro-materials (MNMs) have been widely used and their interactions with niche biological environment are highly concerned for both of their biohazardous and bioactive effects, whereas no available comprehensive evaluations or regulations have been provided yet. This dissertation thus focuses on three major aspects: 1) fundamental toxicity understandings of a typical MNMs (zinc oxide nanoparticles), 2) bioactivity evaluations of representative bioactive MNMs, and 3) development of novel micro-probes for high spatial resolution monitoring. Firstly, the NP's concentration, irradiation, hydrodynamic size, and the localized pH, ionic strength, NP zeta-potential as well as dissolved oxygen levels were found correlated with ...


Synthesis And Functionalization Of A Triaryldiamine-Base Photoconductive/Photorefractive Composite, And Its Application To Aberrated Image Restoration, Yichen Liang Jan 2016

Synthesis And Functionalization Of A Triaryldiamine-Base Photoconductive/Photorefractive Composite, And Its Application To Aberrated Image Restoration, Yichen Liang

Doctoral Dissertations

"Organic photorefractive (PR) composites have recently emerged as an important class of materials for applications including high-density data storage, optical communication, and biomedical imaging. In an effort to further improve their performance, this study focused on the utilization of functionalized semiconductor nanocrystals to photosensitize triaryamine (TPD)-based PR composites, as well as the application of TPD-based PR composites in the restoration of aberrated optical information. A novel approach to functionalize CdSe quantum dot (QCdSe) was firstly introduced where the sulfonated triarydiamine (STPD) was used as charge-transporting ligand to passivate QCdSe. TPD-based photoconductive and PR composites were photosensitized with the STPD-passivated ...


Mechanical Characteristics Of Organically Modified Fly Ash-Kaolinite Mixtures, Xin Kang Jan 2015

Mechanical Characteristics Of Organically Modified Fly Ash-Kaolinite Mixtures, Xin Kang

Doctoral Dissertations

"Fly ash is a hazardous waste material to the environment. Beneficial reuse of fly ash, however, brings economic and environmental benefits, i.e., decreases the cost of disposal, reduces greenhouse gas emission, and improves mechanical properties of construction materials. Due to the lack of pozzolanic properties, the reuse rate of Class F fly ash in geotechnical engineering is relatively low (ACAA 2013). In order to promote the effectiveness and sustainability of high volume reuse of class F fly ash in geotechnical engineering, biopolymers (Chitosan, and Xanthan gum) and synthetic polymers (Polyethylene Oxide, PEO) were used instead of the traditional stabilizers ...


The Synthesis And Characterization Of Water-Reducible Nanoscale Colloidal Unimolecular Polymer (Cup) Particles, Cynthia J. Riddles Jan 2015

The Synthesis And Characterization Of Water-Reducible Nanoscale Colloidal Unimolecular Polymer (Cup) Particles, Cynthia J. Riddles

Doctoral Dissertations

"The coatings industry has adapted to more stringent guidelines in paint formulations. Current VOC (volatile organic compound) limits placed by the federal government have pushed the industry toward the development of paint formulations which have very little to no VOC's. The development of Colloidal Unimolecular Polymer (CUP) particles is a step in the direction of providing a resin system which exists in zero VOC aqueous dispersion.

The CUP particles are a part of the polymer field of Single Chain Nano Particles (SCNP) and ranged in diameters of 3-9 nm. The research presented in this dissertation describes the synthesis and ...


Pyrochemical Changes In Missouri Halloysite, Frank Joseph Zvanut Jan 1937

Pyrochemical Changes In Missouri Halloysite, Frank Joseph Zvanut

Doctoral Dissertations

"For centuries it has been known that the application of heat to a clay or a clay body produces changes that make it an entirely different substance from the original raw clay. Ever since the earliest civilizations produced crude building brick by baking formed clay bodies in the sun's rays, mankind has been speculating on the nature of the changes that convert soft, friable, plastic clays into hard, strong, non-plastic, rock-like masses. It has been only within the last two decades, however, that progress has been made in the solution of problems dealing with the resultant products in fired ...