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Missouri University of Science and Technology

Nuclear Engineering

Doctoral Dissertations

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Full-Text Articles in Engineering

Characterization Of Neutron Irradiated Accident Tolerant Nuclear Fuel Cladding Silicon Carbide & Radiation Detector Deadtime, Bader Almutairi Jan 2020

Characterization Of Neutron Irradiated Accident Tolerant Nuclear Fuel Cladding Silicon Carbide & Radiation Detector Deadtime, Bader Almutairi

Doctoral Dissertations

“In part I, the pulse shape characteristics generated by a Geiger Muller (GM) detector and recorded by an oscilloscope manually, were investigated. The objective of part I was (1) to find a correlation between pulse shape and the operating voltage; and (2) to assess if pulse shape properties followed distinct patterns comparable to detector deadtime findings reported by a previous study. It was observed that (1) there is a strong correlation between pulse shape and operating voltage, and (2) pulse shape falls in three distinct regions similar to detector deadtime. Furthermore, parts II and III are companions and share the ...


Modeling A Nuclear Research Reactor And Radiation Dose Estimation In An Accident Scenario, Abdulaleem Abdulmajeed Bugis Jan 2020

Modeling A Nuclear Research Reactor And Radiation Dose Estimation In An Accident Scenario, Abdulaleem Abdulmajeed Bugis

Doctoral Dissertations

“A detailed, flexible three-dimensional (3D) model of the Missouri S&T Reactor (MSTR) with a heterogeneous core geometry was developed using the Standardized Computer Analyses for Licensing Evaluation (SCALE). A Graphical User Interface (GUI) was developed for SCALE, which allows the user to generate an input file automatically. The SCALE model was validated with a Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport (MCNP) model of the MSTR. The validation process was based on the criticality calculations using the Criticality Safety Analysis Sequence (CSAS6). Three geometrical models were examined. The SCALE model that has the full detailed geometry showed a good agreement with the ...


Design Of X-Ray Source For Real-Time Computed Tomography, Wesley William Tucker Jan 2020

Design Of X-Ray Source For Real-Time Computed Tomography, Wesley William Tucker

Doctoral Dissertations

"The reduction of motion blur in computed tomography (CT) drives the current research for multisource CT. Due to their compact nature, the current multisource systems utilize stationary angled anodes. Unfortunately, these configurations neither simplify the imaging geometry, nor satisfy the need for managing the high thermal loads demanded by real-time CT (30 acquisition frames per second). To add to the current field of knowledge, two x-ray tube concepts are presented in this dissertation. First, a simulation of transient thermal analysis was performed on a compact transmission-type x-ray tube anode operating in pulse-mode. A correlation was found between deposited beam power ...


Development And Characterization Of Nanostructured Steels And High Entropy Alloys For Nuclear Applications, Andrew Kalevi Hoffman Jan 2019

Development And Characterization Of Nanostructured Steels And High Entropy Alloys For Nuclear Applications, Andrew Kalevi Hoffman

Doctoral Dissertations

"Nuclear reactor materials are subjected to a harsh environment including high temperatures and radiation fluences. In order to extend the lifetime of current light water reactors (LWRs) and realize the development of advanced Gen IV nuclear reactors new materials must be developed which can withstand such an environment. This thesis involves two approaches to solving this materials problem: advanced manufacturing of current commercial alloys using severe plastic deformation (SPD) and the development of new advanced high entropy alloys (HEAs).

Because SPD is effective at achieving grain refinement, this technique was used to obtain material having a high volume fraction of ...


Experimental Investigation Of Liquid Contact In The Developing Post-Dryout Chf Flow Boiling Regime Using Surface Mounted Thermistors, Hiralkumar Harshadbhai Patel Jan 2019

Experimental Investigation Of Liquid Contact In The Developing Post-Dryout Chf Flow Boiling Regime Using Surface Mounted Thermistors, Hiralkumar Harshadbhai Patel

Doctoral Dissertations

"Understanding heat transfer in the post-critical heat flux (CHF) flow boiling regime is important for determining the performance of the heat transfer equipment for various industrial applications requiring high heat transfer rates, e.g., heat exchangers, boilers, chemical and nuclear reactors. Liquid can be present in the core of the flow channel in the form of entrained liquid droplets, especially immediately downstream of film dryout. These droplets are suspected to provide an important heat transfer mechanism as they impinge on the heated wall. The objective of the current study is to investigate liquid contact with the heated wall in this ...


Microstructural Evolution Of Zirconium Carbide (Zrcₓ) Ceramics Under Irradiation Conditions, Raul Florez Jan 2019

Microstructural Evolution Of Zirconium Carbide (Zrcₓ) Ceramics Under Irradiation Conditions, Raul Florez

Doctoral Dissertations

A comprehensive understanding of the microstructural evolution of Zirconium Carbide (ZrC2) ceramics under irradiation conditions is required for their successful implementation in advanced Gen-IV gas-cooled nuclear reactors. The research presented in this dissertation focusses on elucidating the ion and electron irradiation response of ZrC2 ceramics. In the first part of the research, the microstructural evolution was characterized for ZrC2 ceramics irradiated with 10 MeV Au3+ ions up to doses of 30 displacement per atom (dpa) at 800 ºC. Coarsening of the defective microstructure, as a function of dose, was revealed by transmission electron microscopy analysis. The ...


Reactor Configurations To Support Advanced Material Research, Thaqal Mazyad Alhuzaymi Jan 2019

Reactor Configurations To Support Advanced Material Research, Thaqal Mazyad Alhuzaymi

Doctoral Dissertations

"The research goal is to configure a research reactor with multi-spectral capability for advance material research. This required the consideration of high and low-power levels alongside advanced fuel with high physical density and low enriched 235U. Selected fuel was U-10Mo with 19.75% 235U enrichment. The fuel and control rods system geometries were adopted from Missouri S&T Reactor (MSTR).

A high-power configuration (HPC) at 2 megawatts and low-power configuration (LPC) at 200 kilowatts were considered. Neutronic performances of the configurations were modeled using Monte Carlo N-particle (MCNP) transport code, version 6. Thermal-hydraulic analysis was performed with ANSYS ...


Computational Design And Numerical Analyses Of Thermal-Hydraulics In A Pwr-Type Small Modular Nuclear Reactor, Vivek Murlidhar Rao Jan 2018

Computational Design And Numerical Analyses Of Thermal-Hydraulics In A Pwr-Type Small Modular Nuclear Reactor, Vivek Murlidhar Rao

Doctoral Dissertations

"This dissertation focuses on computational design of a PWR-type small modular nuclear reactor (SMR), and analysis of coolant thermal-hydraulics during steady-state operation. Physical design of the SMR is based on the existing AP-1000 and Small Modular Reactor designs by Westinghouse Nuclear.

The first paper discusses a two-stage simulation of turbulent flow in the lower plenum of the RPV. In the first stage, four time-dependent Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) based turbulence models were used to simulate turbulent flow, compare predictions and identify an appropriate turbulence model. In the second stage, the selected turbulence model was once again used to simulate flow on ...


Correlation Between Delay Time And Measured Concentration And Concentration Uncertainty By Neutron Activation Analysis, James Thomas Seman Jan 2018

Correlation Between Delay Time And Measured Concentration And Concentration Uncertainty By Neutron Activation Analysis, James Thomas Seman

Doctoral Dissertations

"For the last several decades, it has been apparent that new methods of identifying explosives can help investigators trace their origins. One way to identify an explosive is through the use of taggants: materials added to a product that encodes information about the product such as when it was manufactured.

This research investigates the survivability of a new identification taggant called the Nuclear Barcode that overcomes some of the downfalls that have been identified in prior taggants. The Nuclear Barcode encodes information as a unique combination of concentrations of rare earths (Ho, Eu, Sm, Lu, and Dy) and precious metals ...


Design And Development Of A Compact X-Ray Tube For Stationary Ct Architecture, Ashish Vighnahar Avachat Jan 2018

Design And Development Of A Compact X-Ray Tube For Stationary Ct Architecture, Ashish Vighnahar Avachat

Doctoral Dissertations

"Multisource architectures enable sweeping one or more x-ray beams across the imaging field-of-view faster than physically moving a single x-ray source and/or a detector. Hence, these architectures are attractive for the applications in which temporal resolution plays an important role, for example, cardiac computed tomography (CT) or real-time CT. One of the recent developments in multisource architectures for CT imaging is stationary CT architecture, whereby two separate stationary arrays -- one for x-ray sources and one for detectors -- are utilized to sweep one or more x-ray beams along the gantry and acquire 360 degree projections. To have a stationary CT ...


Investigation Of The Hydrodynamics And Scale-Up Of Advanced Triso Nuclear Fuel Manufacturing Using Sophisticated Measurement Techniques, Thaar M. Aljuwaya Jan 2018

Investigation Of The Hydrodynamics And Scale-Up Of Advanced Triso Nuclear Fuel Manufacturing Using Sophisticated Measurement Techniques, Thaar M. Aljuwaya

Doctoral Dissertations

"The successful performance and safety of the Very-High-Temperature Nuclear Reactors (VHTR) extremely depend on the quality of the TRISO nuclear fuel coated particles. However, the coating of the TRISO particles is delicate process and impacted by the hydrodynamics of spouted beds. Therefore, in this work, we applied advanced non-invasive measurement techniques which are gamma-ray computed tomography (CT) and radioactive particle tracking (RPT), to investigate foremost the local parameters to advance the fundamental understanding of the hydrodynamics and scale-up of gas-solid spouted beds. The CT technique has been applied to study the effects of particle density, particle size, bed size, and ...


Advancement In Thermal Energy Storage Using Phase Change Materials, Rami Mohammad Reda Saeed Jan 2018

Advancement In Thermal Energy Storage Using Phase Change Materials, Rami Mohammad Reda Saeed

Doctoral Dissertations

"The dissertation is intended to study the fundamental physical behavior of phase change materials (PCMs) and provide a comprehensive overview of the state of the art in their design and applications for thermal energy storage. Standard, predictive and thermodynamic models were presented to develop new PCM eutectic mixtures in a more scientific design approach. As new eutectic PCMs were developed, further research efforts were initiated to develop functionalized PCMs with enhanced thermal and physical properties to create the next generation of PCMs. Further efforts have been expanded to review several high-temperature PCM candidates with phase transition temperatures in the range ...


The Significance Of Grouping And Missed Bubbles On Interfacial Area Concentration And Void Fraction, Chandller Stephen-Leslie Mills Jan 2018

The Significance Of Grouping And Missed Bubbles On Interfacial Area Concentration And Void Fraction, Chandller Stephen-Leslie Mills

Doctoral Dissertations

"The two-fluid model is used in nuclear reactor safety codes. Two of the important constitutive relations will be discussed in this study, the interfacial area concentration and void fraction. The Interfacial area concentration is directly affected by the number of bubbles and how these bubbles are categorized into groups. In this study, a new algorithm was implemented to account for trailing bubbles, bubbles with short response times, and the categorization of bubbles based upon diameter for all group 1 bubbles. The optical and conductivity probes were used to determine the void fraction and interfacial area concentration in a bubble column ...


Discrete Ordinates Ct Organ Dose Simulator (Doctors), Edward T. Norris Jan 2017

Discrete Ordinates Ct Organ Dose Simulator (Doctors), Edward T. Norris

Doctoral Dissertations

"Computed tomography (CT) has become pervasive in medical diagnostics as improved imaging techniques and processing algorithms provide higher quality information to doctors. However, the exponentially increasing usage of CT has raised concerns regarding long term low-dose radiological risks.

Currently, the dose to patients is computed using Monte Carlo methods and experimental tests. In other areas of radiation transport, deterministic codes have been shown to be much faster than Monte Carlo codes.

Currently, no deterministic methodology exists to automatically generate a spatially distributed dose profile from a CT voxel phantom. This work proposes a new code, Discrete Ordinate CT Organ Dose ...


Studies On Neutron Diffraction And X-Ray Radiography For Material Inspection, Fahima Fahmida Islam Jan 2017

Studies On Neutron Diffraction And X-Ray Radiography For Material Inspection, Fahima Fahmida Islam

Doctoral Dissertations

"Among the different probes to study the structures of the bio and structural materials, X-ray and neutron are widely used because of their distinctive usefulness in investigating different structures. X-ray radiography and neutron diffraction are two widely known non-destructive techniques for material inspection. Here we demonstrate the design of neutron diffractometer with low power source and analyze the digital image produced by the X-ray radiography instead of neutron diffraction because of the availability of the data. Neutron diffraction is a powerful tool for understanding the behavior of crystal structures and phase behaviors of materials. While neutron diffraction capabilities continue to ...


Gamma Spectroscopy By Artificial Neural Network Coupled With Mcnp, Huseyin Sahiner Jan 2017

Gamma Spectroscopy By Artificial Neural Network Coupled With Mcnp, Huseyin Sahiner

Doctoral Dissertations

"While neutron activation analysis is widely used in many areas, sensitivity of the analysis depends on how the analysis is conducted. Even though the sensitivity of the techniques carries error, compared to chemical analysis, its range is in parts per million or sometimes billion. Due to this sensitivity, the use of neutron activation analysis becomes important when analyzing bio-samples. Artificial neural network is an attractive technique for complex systems. Although there are neural network applications on spectral analysis, training by simulated data to analyze experimental data has not been made. This study offers an improvement on spectral analysis and optimization ...


Proactive Strategies In Personal Dose Monitoring, Prevention And Mitigation, Manish Kumar Sharma Jan 2016

Proactive Strategies In Personal Dose Monitoring, Prevention And Mitigation, Manish Kumar Sharma

Doctoral Dissertations

"At certain threshold, nuclear radiation (like x-rays and gamma-rays) may adversely impact the health of living tissues. The exposure to these radiations in nuclear facilities is measured by devices called dosimeters. The devices are generally worn on the torso and are monitored by health physics division to report the radiation dose received by the personnel. However, this approach is not proactive--since the dosimeters reflect the dose that has already been absorbed in the body of the wearer.

This work presents a scheme to proactively avoid large dose acquisition at radiation-prone facilities. The work was divided into three major segments: (i ...


Thorium-Based Mixed Oxide Fuel In A Pressurized Water Reactor: A Feasibility Analysis With Mcnp, Lucas Powelson Tucker Jan 2016

Thorium-Based Mixed Oxide Fuel In A Pressurized Water Reactor: A Feasibility Analysis With Mcnp, Lucas Powelson Tucker

Doctoral Dissertations

"This dissertation investigates techniques for spent fuel monitoring, and assesses the feasibility of using a thorium-based mixed oxide fuel in a conventional pressurized water reactor for plutonium disposition. Both non-paralyzing and paralyzing dead-time calculations were performed for the Portable Spectroscopic Fast Neutron Probe (N-Probe), which can be used for spent fuel interrogation. Also, a Canberra 3He neutron detector's dead-time was estimated using a combination of subcritical assembly measurements and MCNP simulations. Next, a multitude of fission products were identified as candidates for burnup and spent fuel analysis of irradiated mixed oxide fuel. The best isotopes for these applications ...


Evaluating Of Scale-Up Methodologies Of Gas-Solid Spouted Beds For Coating Triso Nuclear Fuel Particles Using Advanced Measurement Techniques, Neven Y. Ali Jan 2016

Evaluating Of Scale-Up Methodologies Of Gas-Solid Spouted Beds For Coating Triso Nuclear Fuel Particles Using Advanced Measurement Techniques, Neven Y. Ali

Doctoral Dissertations

"The work focuses on implementing for the first time advanced non-invasive measurement techniques to evaluate the scale-up methodology of gas-solid spouted beds for hydrodynamics similarity that has been reported in the literature based on matching dimensionless groups and the new mechanistic scale up methodology that has been developed in our laboratory based on matching the radial profile of gas holdup since the gas dynamics dictate the hydrodynamics of the gas-solid spouted beds. These techniques are gamma-ray computed tomography (CT) to measure the cross-sectional distribution of the phases' holdups and their radial profiles along the bed height and radioactive particle tracking ...


Study Of Heat Transfer Phenomenon During Natural Convection, Muhammad Yousaf Jan 2016

Study Of Heat Transfer Phenomenon During Natural Convection, Muhammad Yousaf

Doctoral Dissertations

"The purpose of the present study was to numerically investigate the effects of the roughness elements on the heat transfer during natural convection. A computational algorithm was developed based on the Lattice Boltzmann method to conduct numerical study in two-dimensional rectangular cavities and Rayleigh-Bénard cell. A single relaxation time Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook model of Lattice Boltzmann method was used to solve the coupled momentum and energy equations in two-dimensional lattices. Computational model was validated against previous benchmark solutions, and a good agreement was found to exist. A Newtonian fluid of Prandtl (Pr) number 1.0 was considered for this numerical study. The ...


Characterization Of Bending Fatigue Mini-Specimens For Nuclear Materials, Ahmed Suliman R. Haidyrah Jan 2015

Characterization Of Bending Fatigue Mini-Specimens For Nuclear Materials, Ahmed Suliman R. Haidyrah

Doctoral Dissertations

"New materials with superior radiation and corrosion resistance are needed to improve the economy and performance of current nuclear reactors as well as future nuclear reactors. Measurement of mechanical properties of the material of equipment is required to estimate its safe operating life. Studying fatigue of irradiated specimens is challenging due to space limitation in research reactors (e.g. ATR). The mini-specimen bending fatigue (Krouse-type) of nuclear materials was used to study fatigue properties and compare the obtained results with that of reference data of full size specimen. These Krouse-type were made of austenitic SS304, SS316, HT9 ferritic martensitic steel ...


Iterative Ct Reconstruction From Few Projections For The Nondestructive Post Irradiation Examination Of Nuclear Fuel Assemblies, Muhammad Imran Khan Abir Jan 2015

Iterative Ct Reconstruction From Few Projections For The Nondestructive Post Irradiation Examination Of Nuclear Fuel Assemblies, Muhammad Imran Khan Abir

Doctoral Dissertations

The core components (e.g. fuel assemblies, spacer grids, control rods) of the nuclear reactors encounter harsh environment due to high temperature, physical stress, and a tremendous level of radiation. The integrity of these elements is crucial for safe operation of the nuclear power plants. The Post Irradiation Examination (PIE) can reveal information about the integrity of the elements during normal operations and off‐normal events. Computed tomography (CT) is a tool for evaluating the structural integrity of elements non-destructively. CT requires many projections to be acquired from different view angles after which a mathematical algorithm is adopted for reconstruction ...


Impact Of Thorium Based Molten Salt Reactor On The Closure Of The Nuclear Fuel Cycle, Safwan Qasim Mohammad Jaradat Jan 2015

Impact Of Thorium Based Molten Salt Reactor On The Closure Of The Nuclear Fuel Cycle, Safwan Qasim Mohammad Jaradat

Doctoral Dissertations

"Molten salt reactor (MSR) is one of six reactors selected by the Generation IV International Forum (GIF). The liquid fluoride thorium reactor (LFTR) is a MSR concept based on thorium fuel cycle. LFTR uses liquid fluoride salts as a nuclear fuel. It uses 232Th and 233U as the fertile and fissile materials, respectively. Fluoride salt of these nuclides is dissolved in a mixed carrier salt of lithium and beryllium (FLiBe). The objective of this research was to complete feasibility studies of a small commercial thermal LFTR. The focus was on neutronic calculations in order to prescribe core design ...


Thermal-Fluid Modeling Of The Missouri S&T Reactor, Susan Maria Sipaun Jan 2014

Thermal-Fluid Modeling Of The Missouri S&T Reactor, Susan Maria Sipaun

Doctoral Dissertations

"Thermal-fluid modeling of the Missouri University of Science and Technology Reactor (MSTR) was carried out using a computational fluid dynamics code (CFD), STAR-CCM+. First, a three-dimensional parallel-plate model was developed, and the cosine-shaped heat flux was applied to the MSTR core. Simulation results for fluid flow under natural convection condition show coolant temperature and velocity as a function of core power. A characteristic equation for the parallel-plate model was obtained based on Forchheimer's flow equation. The inertial resistance tensor and viscous resistance tensor were found to be 281005 kg/m^4 and 7121.6 kg/m^3 respectively. The ...


Development Of A Flat-Panel X-Ray Source, Edwin Joseph Grant Jan 2014

Development Of A Flat-Panel X-Ray Source, Edwin Joseph Grant

Doctoral Dissertations

"A novel flat-panel transmission type X-ray source was developed for both medical and industrial use. Depending on the geometry of the given situation, the flat-panel X-ray source could be used in tomography, radiography or tomosynthesis. Furthermore, the unit could be used as a portable X-ray scanner or an integral part of an existing detection system. The design incorporates a field emission cathode made of ultra-nanocrystalline diamonds (UNCD) doped with nitrogen. These field emitters show good electron output at low power and can be deposited over large areas as is the case with carbon nanotube "forest" (CNT) cathodes. This work presents ...


Synthesis Of Radioactive And Nonradioactive Nanostructures Through Radiolytic And Wet Chemistry, Jessika Viviana Rojas Marin Jan 2014

Synthesis Of Radioactive And Nonradioactive Nanostructures Through Radiolytic And Wet Chemistry, Jessika Viviana Rojas Marin

Doctoral Dissertations

"In this work the synthesis of non radioactive and radioactive nanoparticles (NPs) through radiolytic and wet chemistry was studied. Non radioactive NPs of rhenium, iridium, and rhodium were synthesized from aqueous solutions containing the metal salt precursors by gamma irradiation. The solutions were irradiated to generate reducing species that led to the nucleation and growth of the nanoparticles. Amorphous rhenium oxide nanoparticles with average sizes ranging from 10 nm to 55 nm were obtained. Metallic iridium and rhodium nanoparticles were produced in polyvinyl-pyrrolidone (PVP) having narrow particle size distributions and average particle sizes from 2 nm to 6 nm. The ...


Development Of A Nitrogen Incorporated Ultrananocrystalline Diamond Film Based Field Emitter Array For A Flat Panel X-Ray Source, Chrystian Mauricio Posada Jan 2014

Development Of A Nitrogen Incorporated Ultrananocrystalline Diamond Film Based Field Emitter Array For A Flat Panel X-Ray Source, Chrystian Mauricio Posada

Doctoral Dissertations

"As an alternative to conventional X-ray sources, a flat panel transmission X-ray source is being developed. A field emitter array (FEA) prototype to be incorporated as cold cathode in this flat panel X-ray source was fabricated for this work. Using the Particle-in-Cell code OOPIC Pro, an initial FEA was designed through simulations. Based on the simulation results, a FEA prototype was fabricated using conventional microfabrication techniques. Planar nitrogen-incorporated ultrananocrystalline diamond (N-UNCD) films were used as field emitters. This N-UNCD based FEA prototype was composed of 9 pixels distributed in a 3x3 array, with a pixel size of 225x225 µm, and ...


Local Liquid Velocity Measurement Of Trickle Bed Reactor Using Digitial Industrial X-Ray Radiography, Khairul Anuar Mohd Salleh Jan 2014

Local Liquid Velocity Measurement Of Trickle Bed Reactor Using Digitial Industrial X-Ray Radiography, Khairul Anuar Mohd Salleh

Doctoral Dissertations

"Trickle Bed Reactors (TBRs) are fixed beds of particles in which both liquid and gas flow concurrently downward. They are widely used to produce not only fuels but also lubrication products. The measurement and the knowledge of local liquid velocities (VLL) in TBRs is less which is essential for advancing the understanding of its hydrodynamics and for validation computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Therefore, this work focused on developing a new, non-invasive, statistically reliable technique that can be used to measure local liquid velocity (VLL) in two-dimensions (2-D). This is performed by combining Digital Industrial X-ray Radiography (DIR) and Particle ...


Design, Development And Characterization Of A Novel Neutron And X-Ray Combined Computed Tomography System, Vaibhav Sinha Jan 2013

Design, Development And Characterization Of A Novel Neutron And X-Ray Combined Computed Tomography System, Vaibhav Sinha

Doctoral Dissertations

"Visualizing the three dimensional structure of objects (e.g. nuclear fuel, nuclear materials, explosives and bio materials) and phenomena (e.g. particle tracking) can be very important in nondestructive testing applications. Computed tomography systems are indispensable tools for these types of applications because they provide a versatile non-destructive technique for analysis. A novel neutron and X-ray combined computed tomography (NXCT) system has been designed and developed at the Missouri University of Science & Technology. The neutron and X-ray combined computed tomography system holds much promise for non-destructive material detection and analysis where multiple materials having similar atomic number and differing thermal ...


Dead Time And Count Loss Determination For Radiation Detection Systems In High Count Rate Applications, Amol Patil Jan 2010

Dead Time And Count Loss Determination For Radiation Detection Systems In High Count Rate Applications, Amol Patil

Doctoral Dissertations

"This research is focused on dead time and the subsequent count loss estimation in radiation detection systems. The dead time is the minimum amount of time required between two events to permit detection of those events individually by a radiation detection system. If events occur during the system dead time, they are lost. Such lost information can be important in many applications including high-precision spectroscopy, positron emission tomography (PET), and the scanning of spent nuclear fuel. Understanding of the behavior of radiation detection systems is important; thus this work included a comprehensive review of dead time and pulse pile-up models ...