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## Full-Text Articles in Engineering

Issues On Stability Of Adp Feedback Controllers For Dynamical Systems, S. N. Balakrishnan, Jie Ding, F. L. Lewis

#### Issues On Stability Of Adp Feedback Controllers For Dynamical Systems, S. N. Balakrishnan, Jie Ding, F. L. Lewis

*Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Faculty Research & Creative Works*

This paper traces the development of neural-network (NN)-based feedback controllers that are derived from the principle of adaptive/approximate dynamic programming (ADP) and discusses their closed-loop stability. Different versions of NN structures in the literature, which embed mathematical mappings related to solutions of the ADP-formulated problems called “adaptive critics” or “action-critic” networks, are discussed. Distinction between the two classes of ADP applications is pointed out. Furthermore, papers in “model-free” development and model-based neurocontrollers are reviewed in terms of their contributions to stability issues. Recent literature suggests that work in ADP-based feedback controllers with assured stability is growing in diverse ...

Output Feedback Controller For Operation Of Spark Ignition Engines At Lean Conditions Using Neural Networks, Jonathan B. Vance, Brian C. Kaul, Jagannathan Sarangapani, J. A. Drallmeier

#### Output Feedback Controller For Operation Of Spark Ignition Engines At Lean Conditions Using Neural Networks, Jonathan B. Vance, Brian C. Kaul, Jagannathan Sarangapani, J. A. Drallmeier

*Electrical and Computer Engineering Faculty Research & Creative Works*

Spark ignition (SI) engines operating at very lean conditions demonstrate significant nonlinear behavior by exhibiting cycle-to-cycle bifurcation of heat release. Past literature suggests that operating an engine under such lean conditions can significantly reduce NO emissions by as much as 30% and improve fuel efficiency by as much as 5%-10%. At lean conditions, the heat release per engine cycle is not close to constant, as it is when these engines operate under stoichiometric conditions where the equivalence ratio is 1.0. A neural network controller employing output feedback has shown ability in simulation to reduce the nonlinear cyclic dispersion ...

Robust/Optimal Temperature Profile Control Of A High-Speed Aerospace Vehicle Using Neural Networks, Vivek Yadav, Radhakant Padhi, S. N. Balakrishnan

#### Robust/Optimal Temperature Profile Control Of A High-Speed Aerospace Vehicle Using Neural Networks, Vivek Yadav, Radhakant Padhi, S. N. Balakrishnan

*Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Faculty Research & Creative Works*

An approximate dynamic programming (ADP)-based suboptimal neurocontroller to obtain desired temperature for a high-speed aerospace vehicle is synthesized in this paper. a 1-D distributed parameter model of a fin is developed from basic thermal physics principles. ldquoSnapshotrdquo solutions of the dynamics are generated with a simple dynamic inversion-based feedback controller. Empirical basis functions are designed using the ldquoproper orthogonal decompositionrdquo (POD) technique and the snapshot solutions. a low-order nonlinear lumped parameter system to characterize the infinite dimensional system is obtained by carrying out a Galerkin projection. an ADP-based neurocontroller with a dual heuristic programming (DHP) formulation is obtained with ...

Neural Network-Based Output Feedback Controller For Lean Operation Of Spark Ignition Engines, Brian C. Kaul, Jagannathan Sarangapani, J. A. Drallmeier, Jonathan B. Vance, Pingan He

#### Neural Network-Based Output Feedback Controller For Lean Operation Of Spark Ignition Engines, Brian C. Kaul, Jagannathan Sarangapani, J. A. Drallmeier, Jonathan B. Vance, Pingan He

*Electrical and Computer Engineering Faculty Research & Creative Works*

Spark ignition (SI) engines running at very lean conditions demonstrate significant nonlinear behavior by exhibiting cycle-to-cycle dispersion of heat release even though such operation can significantly reduce NOx emissions and improve fuel efficiency by as much as 5-10%. A suite of neural network (NN) controller without and with reinforcement learning employing output feedback has shown ability to reduce the nonlinear cyclic dispersion observed under lean operating conditions. The neural network controllers consists of three NN: a) A NN observer to estimate the states of the engine such as total fuel and air; b) a second NN for generating virtual input ...

Stationkeeping Of An L₂ Libration Point Satellite With Θ-D Technique, Ming Xin, S. N. Balakrishnan, Henry J. Pernicka, Michael W. Dancer

#### Stationkeeping Of An L₂ Libration Point Satellite With Θ-D Technique, Ming Xin, S. N. Balakrishnan, Henry J. Pernicka, Michael W. Dancer

*Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Faculty Research & Creative Works*

A new method for L_{2} libration-point orbit stationkeeping is proposed in this paper using continuous thrust. The circular restricted three-body problem with Sun and Earth as the two primaries is considered. The unstable orbit about the L_{2} libration-point requires stationkeeping maneuvers to maintain the nominal path. In this study, an approach, called the "θ-D technique," based on optimal control theory gives a closed-form suboptimal feedback solution to solve this nonlinear control problem. In this approach the Hamiltonian-Jacobi-Bellman (HJB) equation is solved approximately by adding some perturbations to the cost function. The controller is designed such that the actual ...

Utilization Of A Piezoelectric Polymer To Sense Harmonics Of Electromagnetic Torque, Jason Neely, Steven Pekarek, Daniel S. Stutts, Philip Beccue

#### Utilization Of A Piezoelectric Polymer To Sense Harmonics Of Electromagnetic Torque, Jason Neely, Steven Pekarek, Daniel S. Stutts, Philip Beccue

*Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Faculty Research & Creative Works*

In this paper, the use of a piezoelectric polymer material to measure the harmonics of electromagnetic torque produced by a permanent magnet synchronous machine is described. The advantages of the polymer include low cost, durability, and flexibility. In addition, wide-bandwidth sensors are relatively easy to design and couple to drive system hardware for harmonic evaluation or to use in feedback-based control. To illustrate the use of the polymer, the electrical and mechanical properties of three sensors are described. The results of time-domain simulation and hardware experiments are used to validate that the voltage obtained from the sensors is linearly related ...

Output Feedback Force Control For A Parallel Turning Operation, Raghusimha Sudhakara, Robert G. Landers

#### Output Feedback Force Control For A Parallel Turning Operation, Raghusimha Sudhakara, Robert G. Landers

*Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Faculty Research & Creative Works*

Parallel machine tools (i.e., machine tools capable of cutting a part with multiple tools simultaneously but independently) are being utilized more and more to increase operation productivity, decrease setups, and reduce floor space. Process control is the utilization of real-time process sensor information to automatically adjust process parameters (e.g., feed, spindle speed) to increase operation productivity and quality. To date, however, these two technologies have not been combined. This paper describes the design of an output feedback controller for a parallel turning operation that accounts for the inherent nonlinearities in the force process. An analysis of the process ...

Proper Orthogonal Decomposition Based Modeling And Experimental Implementation Of A Neurocontroller For A Heat Diffusion System, Prashant Prabhat, S. N. Balakrishnan, Dwight C. Look, Radhakant Padhi

#### Proper Orthogonal Decomposition Based Modeling And Experimental Implementation Of A Neurocontroller For A Heat Diffusion System, Prashant Prabhat, S. N. Balakrishnan, Dwight C. Look, Radhakant Padhi

*Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Faculty Research & Creative Works*

Experimental implementation of a dual neural network based optimal controller for a heat diffusion system is presented. Using the technique of proper orthogonal decomposition (POD), a set of problem-oriented basis functions are designed taking the experimental data as snap shot solutions. Using these basis functions in Galerkin projection, a reduced-order analogous lumped parameter model of the distributed parameter system is developed. This model is then used in an analogous lumped parameter problem. A dual neural network structure called adaptive critics is used to obtain optimal neurocontrollers for this system. In this structure, one set of neural networks captures the relationship ...

An Optimal Control Based Treatment Strategy For Parturient Paresis Using Neural Networks, Radhakant Padhi, S. N. Balakrishnan

#### An Optimal Control Based Treatment Strategy For Parturient Paresis Using Neural Networks, Radhakant Padhi, S. N. Balakrishnan

*Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Faculty Research & Creative Works*

An optimal online feedback treatment strategy is developed for the parturient paresis of cows, based on nonlinear optimal control theory. A limitation in the development of an existing mathematical model for calcium homeostasis is addressed and the model is extended to incorporate control inputs. An optimal feedback controller is synthesized for the nonlinear system using neural networks. Though the main aim of this paper is to solve the biomedical control problem, the methodology presented in this paper is a general computational tool, which can be applied to solve a fairly general class nonlinear optimal control problems.

Adaptive Critic Based Neural Networks For Control-Constrained Agile Missile Control, Dongchen Han, S. N. Balakrishnan

#### Adaptive Critic Based Neural Networks For Control-Constrained Agile Missile Control, Dongchen Han, S. N. Balakrishnan

*Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Faculty Research & Creative Works*

We investigate the use of an `adaptive critic' based controller to steer an agile missile with a constraint on the angle of attack from various initial Mach numbers to a given final Mach number in minimum time while completely reversing its flightpath angle. We use neural networks with a two-network structure called `adaptive critic' to carry out the optimization process. This structure obtains an optimal controller through solving Hamiltonian equations. This approach needs no external training; each network along with the optimality equations generates the output for the other network. When the outputs are mutually consistent, the controller output is ...

A Dual Neural Network Architecture For Linear And Nonlinear Control Of Inverted Pendulum On A Cart, S. N. Balakrishnan, Victor Biega

#### A Dual Neural Network Architecture For Linear And Nonlinear Control Of Inverted Pendulum On A Cart, S. N. Balakrishnan, Victor Biega

*Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Faculty Research & Creative Works*

The use of a self-contained dual neural network architecture for the solution of nonlinear optimal control problems is investigated in this study. The network structure solves the dynamic programming equations in stages and at the convergence, one network provides the optimal control and the second network provides a fault tolerance to the control system. We detail the steps in design and solve a linearized and a nonlinear, unstable, four-dimensional inverted pendulum on a cart problem. Numerical results are presented and compared with linearized optimal control. Unlike the previously published neural network solutions, this methodology does not need any external training ...

A New Neural Architecture For Homing Missile Guidance, S. N. Balakrishnan, Victor Biega

#### A New Neural Architecture For Homing Missile Guidance, S. N. Balakrishnan, Victor Biega

*Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Faculty Research & Creative Works*

We present a new neural architecture which imbeds dynamic programming solutions to solve optimal target-intercept problems. They provide feedback guidance solutions, which are optimal with any initial conditions and time-to-go, for a 2D scenario. The method discussed in this study determines an optimal control law for a system by successively adapting two networks - an action and a critic network. This method determines the control law for an entire range of initial conditions; it simultaneously determines and adapts the neural networks to the optimal control policy for both linear and nonlinear systems. In addition, it is important to know that the ...

Analytical Guidance Laws And Integrated Guidance/Autopilot For Homing Missiles, S. N. Balakrishnan, Donald T. Stansbery, J. H. Evers, J. R. Cloutier

#### Analytical Guidance Laws And Integrated Guidance/Autopilot For Homing Missiles, S. N. Balakrishnan, Donald T. Stansbery, J. H. Evers, J. R. Cloutier

*Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Faculty Research & Creative Works*

An approach to integrated guidance/autopilot design is considered in this study. It consists of two parts: 1) recognizing the importance of polar coordinates to describe the end game in terms of problem description and measurement acquisition, the terminal guidance problem is formulated in terms of polar coordinates; 2a) through the use of the state transition matrix of the intercept dynamics, a closed form solution for the transverse command acceleration is obtained; and 2b) through a commonly used approximation on time-to-go and a coordinate transformation, a family of proportional navigation optimal guidance laws is obtained in a closed form. A ...