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Missouri University of Science and Technology

Mechanical Engineering

2007

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Articles 1 - 30 of 37

Full-Text Articles in Engineering

Optimal Control Of Class Of Non-Linear Plants Using Artificial Immune Systems: Application Of The Clonal Selection Algorithm, S. A. Panimadai Ramaswamy, Ganesh K. Venayagamoorthy, S. N. Balakrishnan Oct 2007

Optimal Control Of Class Of Non-Linear Plants Using Artificial Immune Systems: Application Of The Clonal Selection Algorithm, S. A. Panimadai Ramaswamy, Ganesh K. Venayagamoorthy, S. N. Balakrishnan

Electrical and Computer Engineering Faculty Research & Creative Works

The function of natural immune system is to protect the living organisms against invaders/pathogens. Artificial Immune System (AIS) is a computational intelligence paradigm inspired by the natural immune system. Diverse engineering problems have been solved in the recent past using AIS. Clonal selection is one of the few algorithms that belong to the family of AIS techniques. Clonal selection algorithm is the computational implementation of the clonal selection principle. The process of affinity maturation of the immune system is explicitly incorporated in this algorithm. This paper presents the application of AIS for the optimal control of a class of ...


Reinforcement Learning Based Output-Feedback Control Of Nonlinear Nonstrict Feedback Discrete-Time Systems With Application To Engines, Peter Shih, Jonathan B. Vance, Brian C. Kaul, Jagannathan Sarangapani, J. A. Drallmeier Jul 2007

Reinforcement Learning Based Output-Feedback Control Of Nonlinear Nonstrict Feedback Discrete-Time Systems With Application To Engines, Peter Shih, Jonathan B. Vance, Brian C. Kaul, Jagannathan Sarangapani, J. A. Drallmeier

Electrical and Computer Engineering Faculty Research & Creative Works

A novel reinforcement-learning based output-adaptive neural network (NN) controller, also referred as the adaptive-critic NN controller, is developed to track a desired trajectory for a class of complex nonlinear discrete-time systems in the presence of bounded and unknown disturbances. The controller includes an observer for estimating states and the outputs, critic, and two action NNs for generating virtual, and actual control inputs. The critic approximates certain strategic utility function and the action NNs are used to minimize both the strategic utility function and their outputs. All NN weights adapt online towards minimization of a performance index, utilizing gradient-descent based rule ...


Cooperative Uav Formation Flying With Obstacle/Collision Avoidance, Xiaohua Wang, Vivek Yadav, S. N. Balakrishnan Jul 2007

Cooperative Uav Formation Flying With Obstacle/Collision Avoidance, Xiaohua Wang, Vivek Yadav, S. N. Balakrishnan

Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Faculty Research & Creative Works

Navigation problems of unmanned air vehicles (UAVs) flying in a formation in a free and an obstacle-laden environment are investigated in this brief. when static obstacles popup during the flight, the UAVs are required to steer around them and also avoid collisions between each other. In order to achieve these goals, a new dual-mode control strategy is proposed: a “safe mode” is defined as an operation in an obstacle-free environment and a “danger mode” is activated when there is a chance of collision or when there are obstacles in the path. Safe mode achieves global optimization because the dynamics of ...


Management Of An Intelligent Argumentation Network For A Web-Based Collaborative Engineering Design Environment, Xiaoqing Frank Liu, Man Zheng, Ganesh K. Venayagamoorthy, Ming-Chuan Leu May 2007

Management Of An Intelligent Argumentation Network For A Web-Based Collaborative Engineering Design Environment, Xiaoqing Frank Liu, Man Zheng, Ganesh K. Venayagamoorthy, Ming-Chuan Leu

Computer Science Faculty Research & Creative Works

Conflict resolution is one of the most challenging tasks in collaborative engineering design. In our previous research, a web-based intelligent collaborative system was developed to address this challenge based on intelligent computational argumentation. However, two important issues were not resolved in that system: priority of participants and self-conflicting arguments. In this paper, we develop two methods for incorporating priorities of participants into the computational argumentation network: 1) weighted summation and 2) re-assessment of strengths of arguments based on priority of owners of the argument using fuzzy logic inference. In addition, we develop a method for detection of self-conflicting arguments. Incorporation ...


Coupled-Mode Theory For Stimulated Raman Scattering In High-Q/Vm Silicon Photonic Band Gap Defect Cavity Lasers, Xiaodong Yang, C. W. Wong Apr 2007

Coupled-Mode Theory For Stimulated Raman Scattering In High-Q/Vm Silicon Photonic Band Gap Defect Cavity Lasers, Xiaodong Yang, C. W. Wong

Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Faculty Research & Creative Works

We examine the dynamics of stimulated Raman scattering in designed high-Q/Vm silicon photonic band gap nanocavities through the coupled-mode theory framework towards optically-pumped silicon lasing. The interplay of other X(3) effects such as two-photon absorption and optical Kerr, related free-carrier dynamics, thermal effects, as well as linear losses such as cavity radiation and linear material absorption are included and investigated numerically. Our results clarify the relative contributions and evolution of the mechanisms, and demonstrate the lasing and shutdown thresholds. Our studies illustrate the conditions for continuous-wave and pulsed highly-efficient Raman frequency conversion for practical realization in monolithic ...


Efficient Sampling For Non-Intrusive Polynomial Chaos Applications With Multiple Uncertain Input Variables, Serhat Hosder, Robert W. Walters, Michael Balch Apr 2007

Efficient Sampling For Non-Intrusive Polynomial Chaos Applications With Multiple Uncertain Input Variables, Serhat Hosder, Robert W. Walters, Michael Balch

Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Faculty Research & Creative Works

The accuracy and the computational efficiency of a Point-Collocation Non-Intrusive Polynomial Chaos (NIPC) method applied to stochastic problems with multiple uncertain input variables has been investigated. Two stochastic model problems with multiple uniform random variables were studied to determine the effect of different sampling methods (Random, Latin Hypercube, and Hammersley) for the selection of the collocation points. The effect of the number of collocation points on the accuracy of polynomial chaos expansions were also investigated. The results of the stochastic model problems show that all three sampling methods exhibit a similar performance in terms of the the accuracy and the ...


Multifrequency Eddy Current Inspection Of Corrosion In Clad Aluminum Riveted Lap Joints And Its Effect On Fatigue Life, Shridhar Natarajan, Anthony Chukwujekwu Okafor Mar 2007

Multifrequency Eddy Current Inspection Of Corrosion In Clad Aluminum Riveted Lap Joints And Its Effect On Fatigue Life, Shridhar Natarajan, Anthony Chukwujekwu Okafor

Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Faculty Research & Creative Works

Aging aircraft are prone to corrosion damage and fatigue cracks in riveted lap joints of fuselage skin panels. This can cause catastrophic failure if not detected and repaired. Hence detection of corrosion damage and monitoring its effect on structural integrity are essential. This paper presents multifrequency eddy current (EC) inspection of corrosion damage and machined material loss defect in clad A1 2024-T3 riveted lap joints and its effect on fatigue life. Results of eddy current inspection, corrosion product removal and fatigue testing are presented.


Adhesion-Delamination Mechanics Of Linear And Axisymmetric Film At Film-Substrate Interface, Ming-Fung Wong Jan 2007

Adhesion-Delamination Mechanics Of Linear And Axisymmetric Film At Film-Substrate Interface, Ming-Fung Wong

Masters Theses

"This thesis is to characterize the thin membrane adhesion-delamination phenomena which occur in biological cells and micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) operation. The delamination of a thin film adhered to a rigid substrate is subjected to the coupling effects of tensile residual stress and interfacial adhesion energy. The adhesion-delamination mechanics is derived using the classical linear elasticity and thermodynamics energy balance. The membrane deformation is here dominated by a mixed plate-bending and membrane-stretching, while the concomitant stress is neglected. An 1-dimensional model is first investigated where a pre-stressed rectangular film clamped at both ends delaminates from a rigid punch of the same ...


Selective Laser Sintering Of Stearic Acid-Coated Alumina Ceramic, Jason J. Nolte Jan 2007

Selective Laser Sintering Of Stearic Acid-Coated Alumina Ceramic, Jason J. Nolte

Masters Theses

"The purpose of this research is to develop a process that will enable a Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) machine to create geometrically complex green parts of various sizes that become strong, dense ceramic parts after sintering. This will be applicable to SLS systems already operational in industry, and may offer a more cost-effective, more time-efficient method for producing high-temperature ceramic rapid prototype parts. Alumina was the chosen ceramic for the developmental stage of this research. Fine alumina powder (average particle size of 0.4 µm) was coated with stearic acid, which served as a binder. Green parts were made from ...


Towards A Methodology For Integrated Freeform Manufacturing Systems Development With A Control Systems Emphasis, Jacquelyn K. Stroble Jan 2007

Towards A Methodology For Integrated Freeform Manufacturing Systems Development With A Control Systems Emphasis, Jacquelyn K. Stroble

Masters Theses

"A variety of fully integrated Freeform Fabrication (FFF) systems have been developed, a selected group for research and several for commercialization. The design methodology behind most of them is not documented, standardized, or rational. It is important to understand that the final product from any integrated system is affected not only by the unit manufacturing processes themselves, but also by the extent the individual units are assimilated into an integrated process. Thus, a scheme consisting of eight steps and the salient five elements necessary to create or retrofit an existing system to achieve an Integrated Freeform Manufacturing System (FFMS) is ...


Development Of A Liquid Injection Propane System For Spark-Ignited Engines Via Fuel Temperature Control, Brian Charles Applegate Jan 2007

Development Of A Liquid Injection Propane System For Spark-Ignited Engines Via Fuel Temperature Control, Brian Charles Applegate

Masters Theses

"This work describes the development of a thermally controlled liquid propane injection system...A liquid fuel system, as described in this work, offers power gains over vaporized fuel introduction due to the ability to use the heat of vaporization from the vaporizing fuel to cool the intake charge and improve the volumetric efficiency of the engine. This system uses temperature to control the state of the fuel in the fuel system"--Introduction, page 1.


Mechanical Properties And Microstructure Study For Direct Metal Deposition Of Titanium Alloy And Tool Steel, Yaxin Bao Jan 2007

Mechanical Properties And Microstructure Study For Direct Metal Deposition Of Titanium Alloy And Tool Steel, Yaxin Bao

Masters Theses

"This thesis is focused on the research about DMD (Direct Metal Deposition) which is an additive manufacturing process and used in various engineering applications such as producing fully dense and net shape productions in difficult-to-machine materials. In this study, the microstructure was analyzed through optical microscopy and some mechanical properties were tested with different equipments such as SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy) and micro-hardness tester...In summary, this thesis validated that DMD process can be improved through surface treatments and is capable of repairing molds for die casting industry"--Introduction, page 1.


Transient Performance Of Closed Loop Thermosyphons Incorporating Thermal Storage, Kyle S. Benne Jan 2007

Transient Performance Of Closed Loop Thermosyphons Incorporating Thermal Storage, Kyle S. Benne

Masters Theses

This thesis considers a unique application of a thermosyphon to a conventional thermal storage deice. In such an application, the dynamics of the thermosyphon are coupled with the condition of the storage volume. This thesis specifically focuses on the transient energy addition or charge process, where heat accumulated within the storage volume continuously decreases the driving buoyant force and volumetric flow rate"--Abstract, page iv.


Optimal Formation Of Supplier Networks For Product Design And Production Phases To Realize An Evolving Product Family, Padmavathi K. Pakala Jan 2007

Optimal Formation Of Supplier Networks For Product Design And Production Phases To Realize An Evolving Product Family, Padmavathi K. Pakala

Masters Theses

"Due to rapid changes in customer requirements and vast improvements in technology, many product development companies have identified strategies like time-to-market (TTM) compression and product family development as critical for attaining success in today's hyper-competitive markets. Compressing the TTM, to a large extent, is dependent on the suppliers and the project execution skills of the integrator companies. This study presents a methodology for selecting suppliers for two significant phases of the product realization process, namely, product design and production. The proposed methodology uses a two-stage approach for supplier selection where suppliers for product design are selected in the first ...


Empirical Investigation Of Enhanced Air Fins, Stephen John Dale Rucker Jan 2007

Empirical Investigation Of Enhanced Air Fins, Stephen John Dale Rucker

Masters Theses

"Enhanced convective heat transfer surfaces have been a subject of interest for quite some time. Many different methods have been used to increase the amount of heat transfered from a surface. However, nearly all surface enhancement methods come with a price, frictional losses. This thesis studies the use of enhanced convective heat transfer surfaces on air fins in the laminar, transitional, and turbulent flow regimes with emphasis on the transitional regime. A major goal of this thesis is to further the understanding of the influence of an enhanced wall geometry on the transition from laminar to turbulent flow. Causing the ...


On-Line Inspection And Thermal Properties Comparison For Laser Deposition Process, Yu Yang Jan 2007

On-Line Inspection And Thermal Properties Comparison For Laser Deposition Process, Yu Yang

Masters Theses

"This thesis is focused on comparing the laser deposition cladding with intended design model and comparing the effect of laser deposition process on thermal properties with traditional welding process. It is research on two aspects of laser deposition cladding. The first part of the thesis is aimed at solving the geometric inspection of laser deposition cladding, and the second part is for comparing the thermal properties of laser deposition cladding to samples of conventional welding process"--Introduction, page 1.


Development, Modeling, And Simulation Of A Nano Aerial Vehicle Using Empirical Data, Wyatt Emery Davenport Jan 2007

Development, Modeling, And Simulation Of A Nano Aerial Vehicle Using Empirical Data, Wyatt Emery Davenport

Masters Theses

"The ultimate goals of this study were to use experimental data to estimate the flight capabilities of a flapping wing nano aerial vehicle (NAV), estimate the power required to provide such flight, and develop a controller approach for future use in the design of this aircraft. The experimental data is a collection of measurements of the normal force on a flapping wing taken in stationary water, and was used to develop empirical coefficient derivatives for use in the dynamic modeling of the NAV"--Abstract, page iii.


E-Design Tools For Friction Stir Welding: Cost Estimation Tool, Pradeep Kumar Tipaji Jan 2007

E-Design Tools For Friction Stir Welding: Cost Estimation Tool, Pradeep Kumar Tipaji

Masters Theses

"A cost model is an important tool for product design and material selection. An efficient and effective cost estimation tool is necessary for early design evaluation. In this paper, cost estimation models that estimate the production cost for Metal Inert Gas (MIG), Friction Stir (FS), and Friction Stir Spot (FSS) welded joints are presented. These models determine the cost incurred to fabricate each joint along with a detailed explanation of each cost component. Each cost component has been closely analyzed and major cost components have been included in the cost model"--Abstract, page iv.


Compressor Valve Failure Detection And Prognostics, Raghuram Puthali Ramesh Jan 2007

Compressor Valve Failure Detection And Prognostics, Raghuram Puthali Ramesh

Masters Theses

"Reciprocating compressors are commonly used machinery for industrial applications. Unscheduled downtime and maintenance activity on the compressors causes considerable loss in throughput and efficiency of a plant. Of all the failures that cause unscheduled downtime in reciprocating compressors, valve related causes are predominant. Most of the failures associated with the valves are tracked to the failure of moving elements within the valve. Achieving higher reliability of critical reciprocating systems requires continuously monitoring the system and performing dynamic analysis of the sensory data for valve fault diagnosis. Continuous monitoring will improve the time and cost to repair through keeping a constant ...


Robust Mechanism Synthesis With Random And Interval Variables, Pavan Kumar Venigella Jan 2007

Robust Mechanism Synthesis With Random And Interval Variables, Pavan Kumar Venigella

Masters Theses

"Robust mechanism synthesis ensures that the performance of a mechanism is not sensitive to uncertainties in the mechanism and its environment. The uncertainties include the dimension variations, installation errors, random input motion, and various external forces. Robust mechanism synthesis is used to minimize the impact of these uncertainties on the mechanism performance. Robust mechanism synthesis has been performed by either a probabilistic approach or a worst case approach. The former approach describes uncertain parameters as random variables while the latter approach treats uncertain parameters as interval variables. In this work, methods are developed for robustness assessment and robust mechanism synthesis ...


Empirical Dynamic Modeling And Nonlinear Force Control Of Friction Stir Welding, Xin Zhao Jan 2007

Empirical Dynamic Modeling And Nonlinear Force Control Of Friction Stir Welding, Xin Zhao

Masters Theses

"Current Friction Stir Welding (FSW) process models are mainly concerned with the detailed analysis of material flow, heat generation, etc. and therefore, are computationally intensive. Dynamic models describing the total forces acting on the tool throughout the entire welding process are required for the design of feedback control strategies and improved process planning and analysis. In this thesis, empirical models relating the process parameters (i.e., plunge depth, travel speed, and rotation speed) to the process variables (i.e., axial, path, and normal forces) are developed to describe their dynamic relationships"--Abstract, page iv.


Modeling And Control Of Freeze-Form Extrusion Fabrication, Xiyue Zhao Jan 2007

Modeling And Control Of Freeze-Form Extrusion Fabrication, Xiyue Zhao

Masters Theses

"Freeze-form Extrusion Fabrication (FEF) is an additive manufacturing technique that extrudes ceramic loaded aqueous pastes layer by layer below the paste freezing temperature for component fabrication. As the FEF is aimed at being conducted at low environmental temperatures, down to -20°C, it is necessary to investigate the effect of environmental temperature on the process. The advantages of fabrication at low temperature have been proved by experiments. Comparisons in terms of operation parameters, self-sustaining ability, and system dynamic response were performed at different environmental temperatures ranging from 20°C to -20°C.

It is commonly known in paste extrusion processes ...


A Computational Theory For The Generation Of Solutions During Early Conceptual Design, Cari R. Bryant Jan 2007

A Computational Theory For The Generation Of Solutions During Early Conceptual Design, Cari R. Bryant

Doctoral Dissertations

"Advancement in technology is usually made by building on previous experiences and learning from past successes and failures. However, knowledge transfer in the broad field of product design is often difficult to accomplish. Research has shown that successful component configurations, observed from existing products, can be dissected and stored for reuse; but few computational tools exist to assist designers during the conceptual phase of design. Many well-known manual methods (e.g. brainstorming, intrinsic and extrinsic searches, and morphological analysis) rely heavily on individual bias and experience and are often time intensive, laborious tasks that may not catch solutions that are ...


Mechanical Integrity And Behavior Of Thin Films And Their Applications In Mems, Gang Duan Jan 2007

Mechanical Integrity And Behavior Of Thin Films And Their Applications In Mems, Gang Duan

Doctoral Dissertations

"Electric actuated thin films are widely used in micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) such as radio frequency switches (RF-switches), micro-pumps and valves, and electrostatic actuators. This dissertation will focus on the operation of a MEMS-RF-switch. In a typical MEMS-RF-switch, a mechanically suspended 1-D rectangular or 2-D axisymmetric thin film is pulled by an electrostatic voltage (V₀) applied to an electrode-pad directly underneath. When V₀ exceeds a certain "pull-in" threshold, V₀*, the thin film makes direct contact with the pad so that either an "on" or "off" signal is induced, and when the voltage is removed, the thin film resumes its original undeformed ...


Robust/Optimal Temperature Profile Control Of A High-Speed Aerospace Vehicle Using Neural Networks, Vivek Yadav, Radhakant Padhi, S. N. Balakrishnan Jan 2007

Robust/Optimal Temperature Profile Control Of A High-Speed Aerospace Vehicle Using Neural Networks, Vivek Yadav, Radhakant Padhi, S. N. Balakrishnan

Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Faculty Research & Creative Works

An approximate dynamic programming (ADP)-based suboptimal neurocontroller to obtain desired temperature for a high-speed aerospace vehicle is synthesized in this paper. a 1-D distributed parameter model of a fin is developed from basic thermal physics principles. ldquoSnapshotrdquo solutions of the dynamics are generated with a simple dynamic inversion-based feedback controller. Empirical basis functions are designed using the ldquoproper orthogonal decompositionrdquo (POD) technique and the snapshot solutions. a low-order nonlinear lumped parameter system to characterize the infinite dimensional system is obtained by carrying out a Galerkin projection. an ADP-based neurocontroller with a dual heuristic programming (DHP) formulation is obtained with ...


Acoustic Emission Detection And Prediction Of Fatigue Crack Propagation In Composite Patch Repairs Using Neural Networks, Navdeep Singh, Navrag Singh, Anthony Chukwujekwu Okafor Jan 2007

Acoustic Emission Detection And Prediction Of Fatigue Crack Propagation In Composite Patch Repairs Using Neural Networks, Navdeep Singh, Navrag Singh, Anthony Chukwujekwu Okafor

Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Faculty Research & Creative Works

An aircraft is subjected to severe structural and aerodynamic loads during its service life. These loads can cause damage or weakening of the structure especially for aging military and civilian aircraft, thereby affecting its load carrying capabilities. Hence composite patch repairs are increasingly used to repair damaged aircraft metallic structures to restore its structural efficiency. This paper presents the results of Acoustic Emission (AE) monitoring of crack propagation in 2024-T3 Clad aluminum panels repaired with adhesively bonded octagonal, single sided boron/epoxy composite patch under tension-tension fatigue loading. Crack propagation gages were used to monitor crack initiation. The identified AE ...


Simple Penning Ion Source For Laboratory Research And Development Applications, Joshua L. Rovey, Brandon P. Ruzic, Thomas J. Houlahan Jan 2007

Simple Penning Ion Source For Laboratory Research And Development Applications, Joshua L. Rovey, Brandon P. Ruzic, Thomas J. Houlahan

Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Faculty Research & Creative Works

A simple Penning ion generator (PIG) that can be easily fabricated with simple machining skills and standard laboratory accessories is described. The PIG source uses an iron cathode body, samarium cobalt permanent magnet, stainless steel anode, and iron cathode faceplate to generate a plasma discharge that yields a continuous 1 mA beam of positively charged hydrogen ions at 1 mTorr of pressure. This operating condition requires 5.4 kV and 32.4 W of power. Operation with helium is similar to hydrogen. The ion source is being designed and investigated for use in a sealed-tube neutron generator; however, this ion ...


Fracture Toughness Of Ceramic Moulds For Investment Casting With Ice Patterns, Qingbin Liu, Ming-Chuan Leu, Von Richards Jan 2007

Fracture Toughness Of Ceramic Moulds For Investment Casting With Ice Patterns, Qingbin Liu, Ming-Chuan Leu, Von Richards

Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Faculty Research & Creative Works

Ice patterns can be used to make ceramic investment moulds for metal castings. Owing to the characteristics of ice, the ceramic mould must be made at subzero temperatures and consequently, requires a different formulation than shells built at room temperature. Success of this process depends greatly on the fracture toughness of mould materials. The present paper describes the experimental results of fracture toughness of mould materials processed from different compositions. The Taguchi method was used to reduce the trial runs. The parameters considered included the ratio of fibre containing fused silica and aluminosilicate powders, the volume of binder and the ...


Product Family Design Knowledge Representation, Aggregation, Reuse, And Analysis, Jyotirmaya Nanda, Henri Thevenot, Timothy W. Simpson, Robert B. Stone, Matt R. Bohm, Steven B. Shooter Jan 2007

Product Family Design Knowledge Representation, Aggregation, Reuse, And Analysis, Jyotirmaya Nanda, Henri Thevenot, Timothy W. Simpson, Robert B. Stone, Matt R. Bohm, Steven B. Shooter

Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Faculty Research & Creative Works

A flexible information model for systematic development and deployment of product families during all phases of the product realization process is crucial for product-oriented organizations. In current practice, information captured while designing products in a family is often incomplete, unstructured, and is mostly proprietary in nature, making it difficult to index, search, refine, reuse, distribute, browse, aggregate, and analyze knowledge across heterogeneous organizational information systems. To this end, we propose a flexible knowledge management framework to capture, reorganize, and convert both linguistic and parametric product family design information into a unified network, which is called a networked bill of material ...


Optimal Neuro-Controller Synthesis For Impulse-Driven System, Xiaohua Wang, S. N. Balakrishnan Jan 2007

Optimal Neuro-Controller Synthesis For Impulse-Driven System, Xiaohua Wang, S. N. Balakrishnan

Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Faculty Research & Creative Works

This paper presents a new controller design technique for systems driven with impulse inputs. Necessary conditions for optimal impulse control are derived. A neural network structure to solve the resulting equations is presented. The solution concepts are illustrated with a few example problems that exhibit increasing levels of difficulty. Two linear problems-one scalar and one vector-and a benchmark nonlinear problem-Van Der Pol oscillator-are used as case studies. Numerical results show the efficacy of the new solution process for impulse driven systems. Since the theoretical development and the design technique are free from restrictive assumptions, this technique is applicable to many ...