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Missouri University of Science and Technology

Mechanical Engineering

Theses/Dissertations

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Full-Text Articles in Engineering

In-Situ X-Ray Imaging Of The Selective Laser Melting Process, Meelap M. Coday Jan 2020

In-Situ X-Ray Imaging Of The Selective Laser Melting Process, Meelap M. Coday

Masters Theses

"Fusion-based metal additive manufacturing (AM) has garnered much interest in recent decades. Despite the popularity of fusion-based AM technologies such as selective laser melting (SLM), there are still fundamental questions and uncertainties that need to be addressed. In this work, we focus on the understanding of the undercooling in the SLM process and the uncertainties induced by the laser beam size, power, and scan speed. First, we report the estimation of undercooling in the SLM process from the solidification rate measured by in-situ high-speed synchrotron x-ray imaging, based on the dendrite growth velocity model. The undercooling changes as a function ...


Observer-Based Event-Triggered And Set-Theoretic Neuro-Adaptive Controls For Constrained Uncertain Systems, Abdul Ghafoor Jan 2020

Observer-Based Event-Triggered And Set-Theoretic Neuro-Adaptive Controls For Constrained Uncertain Systems, Abdul Ghafoor

Doctoral Dissertations

"In this study, several new observer-based event-triggered and set-theoretic control schemes are presented to advance the state of the art in neuro-adaptive controls. In the first part, six new event-triggered neuro-adaptive control (ETNAC) schemes are presented for uncertain linear systems. These comprehensive designs offer flexibility to choose a design depending upon system performance requirements. Stability proofs for each scheme are presented and their performance is analyzed using benchmark examples. In the second part, the scope of the ETNAC is extended to uncertain nonlinear systems. It is applied to a case of precision formation flight of the microsatellites at the Sun-Earth ...


Characterization And Recyclability Of 304l Stainless Steel Powder For Use In The Selective Laser Melting Process, Austin Taylor Sutton Jan 2020

Characterization And Recyclability Of 304l Stainless Steel Powder For Use In The Selective Laser Melting Process, Austin Taylor Sutton

Doctoral Dissertations

"Powder-bed fusion refers to a subset of additive manufacturing (AM) methods which successively melts and solidifies selected regions within a powder bed on a layer-by-layer basis to construct components directly from computer-aided design files. Laser Powder-Bed Fusion (L-PBF) is a process among the powder-bed fusion techniques that utilizes a laser to consolidate particles into a material with little porosity. During the L-PBF process, the large energy input from the laser causes the production of ejecta in the form of laser spatter and condensate, both of which have the potential to settle in the surrounding powder bed compromising its reusability. In ...


Influence Of Input Energy On Mechanical Properties Of Laser Powder Bed Fused Aisi 304l Stainless Steel, Tan Pan Jan 2020

Influence Of Input Energy On Mechanical Properties Of Laser Powder Bed Fused Aisi 304l Stainless Steel, Tan Pan

Masters Theses

“Powder Bed Fusion process with selective laser melting technique is popularly adopted in additive manufacturing area on account of its layer by layer manufacturing fashion capable of fabricating components with complex internal and external geometries and structures. However, the process-property map is unique and vital for different materials and AM configurations used for fabrication. The process parameter is identified as a significant factor that heavily influences the properties and performances of the printed materials.

Current work aimed to extend the existing knowledge on Laser Powder Bed Fusion fabricated AISI 304L by accessing the influence of varying energy input on the ...


Magnetic Control Of Transport Of Particles And Droplets In Low Reynolds Number Shear Flows, Jie Zhang Jan 2020

Magnetic Control Of Transport Of Particles And Droplets In Low Reynolds Number Shear Flows, Jie Zhang

Doctoral Dissertations

“Magnetic particles and droplets have been used in a wide range applications including biomedicine, biological analysis and chemical reaction. The manipulation of magnetic microparticles or microdroplets in microscale fluid environments is one of the most critical processes in the systems and platforms based on microfluidic technology. The conventional methods are based on magnetic forces to manipulate magnetic particles or droplets in a viscous fluid.

In contrast to conventional magnetic separation method, several recent experimental and theoretical studies have demonstrated a different way to manipulate magnetic non-spherical particles by using a uniform magnetic field in the microchannel. However, the fundamental mechanism ...


Trajectory Control Of A Wheeled Robot Using Interaction Forces For Intuitive Overground Human-Robot Interaction, George Leno Holmes Jr. Jan 2020

Trajectory Control Of A Wheeled Robot Using Interaction Forces For Intuitive Overground Human-Robot Interaction, George Leno Holmes Jr.

Doctoral Dissertations

"Effective and intuitive physical human robot interaction (pHRI) requires an understanding of how humans communicate movement intentions with one another. It has been suggested that humans can guide another human by hand through complex tasks using force information only. However, no clear and applicable paradigm has been set forth to understand these relationships. While the human partner can readily understand and adhere to this expectation, it would be difficult for anyone to explain their intuitive motions with strict rules, algorithms, or steps. Uncovering such a procedural framework for the control of robotic systems to execute expected performance simply from force ...


Combustion And Emission Characteristics Of Ic Engines Fueled By Hydrogen And Hydrogen/Diesel Mixtures And Multi-Objective Optimization Of Operating Parameters, Abdulhakim Issa Jabbr Jan 2020

Combustion And Emission Characteristics Of Ic Engines Fueled By Hydrogen And Hydrogen/Diesel Mixtures And Multi-Objective Optimization Of Operating Parameters, Abdulhakim Issa Jabbr

Doctoral Dissertations

“The present study considers combustion of hydrogen in IC engines. In general, the work focuses on simulating the engine performance and emissions at different operation parameters, and using optimization techniques. Task I work deals with the engine performance and emissions of a single cylinder spark-ignition (SI) engine fueled by hydrogen. The engine was simulated at different equivalence ratios, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and ignition timing. The results indicate that NOx emissions, engine power, and efficiency are reduced by increasing EGR level, and increased with increasing equivalence ratio and advanced ignition timing. The best operating conditions for hydrogen engines were obtained ...


A Framework For A Successful Additive Repair System, Todd E. Sparks Jan 2020

A Framework For A Successful Additive Repair System, Todd E. Sparks

Doctoral Dissertations

“The goal of this research is to generate a revolutionary improvement to the usability and usefulness of additive repair technology by integrating a set of tools into a seamless work flow. Insufficient automation in the current repair process is a huge hurdle in achieving cost-effective, reliable repairs. Many opportunities have been missed due to inconsistency, quality issues and lack of robustness and flexibility. The present work addresses deficiencies in preparatory steps such as 2D and 3D geometry processing, parameter estimation, and path planning as well as on-machine execution of the path plan. The bulk of the effort is focused on ...


Human Behavior Understanding For Worker-Centered Intelligent Manufacturing, Wenjin Tao Jan 2020

Human Behavior Understanding For Worker-Centered Intelligent Manufacturing, Wenjin Tao

Doctoral Dissertations

“In a worker-centered intelligent manufacturing system, sensing and understanding of the worker’s behavior are the primary tasks, which are essential for automatic performance evaluation & optimization, intelligent training & assistance, and human-robot collaboration. In this study, a worker-centered training & assistant system is proposed for intelligent manufacturing, which is featured with self-awareness and active-guidance. To understand the hand behavior, a method is proposed for complex hand gesture recognition using Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) with multiview augmentation and inference fusion, from depth images captured by Microsoft Kinect. To sense and understand the worker in a more comprehensive way, a multi-modal approach is proposed ...


Multiphysics Prediction Model Of Microwave Curing For Thick Polymer Composites, Siva Dasari Jan 2019

Multiphysics Prediction Model Of Microwave Curing For Thick Polymer Composites, Siva Dasari

Masters Theses

"Microwave curing technologies have many advantages over the traditional thermal curing methods for the manufacturing of fiber reinforced polymers, especially the processing speed and energy efficiency. Energy can be instantaneously transferred through applied electromagnetic fields and heat is generated based on dipolar rotational interactions. Microwave curing processes have been used for glass fiber composites but there are significant challenges associated with microwave curing of carbon fiber composites. Efficient heating may be difficult due to high dielectric loss associated with carbon fibers. Laminate quality will be highly dependent on the uniformity of the electromagnetic field in the material. In this work ...


Light Touch Based Virtual Cane For Balance Assistance During Standing, Sindhu Reddy Alluri Jan 2019

Light Touch Based Virtual Cane For Balance Assistance During Standing, Sindhu Reddy Alluri

Masters Theses

"Can additional information about one's body kinematics provided through hands improve human balance? Light-Touch (LT) through hands helps improve balance in a wide range of populations, both healthy and impaired. The force is too small to provide any meaningful mechanical assistance -- rather, it is suggested that the additional sensory information through hands helps the body improve balance.

To investigate the potential for improving human balance through biofeedback through hands, we developed a Virtual Cane (VC) for balance assistance during standing. The VC mimics the physical cane's function of providing information about one's body in space. Balance experiments ...


Performance Evaluation Of Bmi Resin System For Thin-Ply Composites, Manoj Kumar Reddy Rangapuram Jan 2019

Performance Evaluation Of Bmi Resin System For Thin-Ply Composites, Manoj Kumar Reddy Rangapuram

Masters Theses

"Composites materials are increasingly being used in aerospace applications over the past few years. The unique properties like high strength to weight ratio, thermal stability, fatigue and corrosion resistance set them apart from the conventional materials. Composite materials are well suited for the applications where weight is the primary concern in the design. Composites structures are vulnerable to mechanical as well as thermal loadings. Transverse micro-cracking and delamination are the most common type of failures in composite materials. The thickness of the ply being used play a key role dictating the properties of the resultant composite structure. As the ply ...


Time-Dependent Reliability Methodologies With Saddlepoint Approximation, Zhangli Hu Jan 2019

Time-Dependent Reliability Methodologies With Saddlepoint Approximation, Zhangli Hu

Doctoral Dissertations

"Engineers always encounter time-dependent uncertainties that ubiquitously exist, such as the random deterioration of material properties and time-variant loads. Therefore the reliability of engineering systems becomes time-dependent. It is crucial to predict the time-dependent reliability in the design stage, given possible catastrophic consequences of a failure. Although extensive research has been conducted on reliability analysis, estimating the reliability accurately and efficiently is still challenging. The objective of this work is to develop accurate and efficient reliability methodologies for engineering design. The basic idea is the integration of traditional reliability methods with saddlepoint approximation (SPA), which can accurately approximate the tail ...


Reliability Analysis For Systems With Outsourced Components, Zhengwei Hu Jan 2019

Reliability Analysis For Systems With Outsourced Components, Zhengwei Hu

Doctoral Dissertations

"The current business model for many industrial firms is to function as system integrators, depending on numerous outsourced components from outside component suppliers. This practice has resulted in tremendous cost savings; it makes system reliability analysis, however, more challenging due to the limited component information available to system designers. The component information is often proprietary to component suppliers. Motivated by the need of system reliability prediction with outsourced components, this work aims to explore feasible ways to accurately predict the system reliability during the system design stage. Four methods are proposed. The first method reconstructs component reliability functions using limited ...


Solvent-Free Additive Manufacturing Of Electrodes For Li-Ion Batteries, Brandon Joshua Ludwig Jan 2019

Solvent-Free Additive Manufacturing Of Electrodes For Li-Ion Batteries, Brandon Joshua Ludwig

Doctoral Dissertations

"A new Li-ion battery electrode manufacturing process using a solvent free additive manufacturing method has been developed. Li-ion battery electrodes consist of active material particles, a binder additive, and a conductive additive. Traditionally, Li-ion battery electrodes are manufacturing using the "slurry casting" technique. In this method, the electrode materials are mixed with a solvent to create a slurry. Electrodes fabricated in this method are readily implemented for small platforms, such as portable electronics. However, this method isn't as economically viable in large platforms due to high material and manufacturing costs. High material and manufacturing costs are mostly attributed to ...


Deep Understanding Of Degradation In Lithium Ion Batteries Through Experimental And First-Principles Study, Yufang He Jan 2019

Deep Understanding Of Degradation In Lithium Ion Batteries Through Experimental And First-Principles Study, Yufang He

Doctoral Dissertations

"The growing interests in Lithium-ion Batteries (LIBs) have significantly accelerated the development of active materials. However, the key challenge is that electrode materials suffer from degradation, which include transition metal dissolution, solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer formation, and mechanical fracture. To address these issues, applying an ultrathin coating onto active materials via Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) is an efficient way. Although numerious works have been done for active material performance improvement via ALD technology, the fundamental enhancement mechanisms of ALD coating on battery performance improvement are not yet known. Therefore, this dissertation consists of four papers, which focused on the ...


Characterization Of The Surface Condition In Aa6061 Resulting From Deep Rolling As A Function Of Common Industrial Parameters, Andrew Kenneth Layer Jan 2019

Characterization Of The Surface Condition In Aa6061 Resulting From Deep Rolling As A Function Of Common Industrial Parameters, Andrew Kenneth Layer

Masters Theses

"Roller burnishing is widely used in industry to improve the surface finish and fatigue life of components. As weight reduction continues to grow in the automotive and transportation industries, deep rolling can help maintain product performance by mitigating the increase in component stresses resulting from lower weight systems. Deep rolling parameters such as tool, applied angle, feed rate, spindle speeds, and relative tool direction all affect cycle time, product performance, and appearance. The effects of common industrial parameters on the resultant surface roughness and residual stress profiles were studied in this investigation. The samples were manufactured on a CNC lathe ...


The Effect Of Cell Size And Surface Roughness On The Compressive Properties Of Abs Lattice Structures Fabricated By Fused Deposition Modeling, Leah Hope Mason Jan 2019

The Effect Of Cell Size And Surface Roughness On The Compressive Properties Of Abs Lattice Structures Fabricated By Fused Deposition Modeling, Leah Hope Mason

Masters Theses

"Postprocessing is an important step in many manufacturing methods, but it is especially important for additive manufacturing. Researchers looking to improve the surface roughness of acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) parts fabricated by fused deposition modeling (FDM) have determined that acetone smoothing not only achieves improved surface roughness but increases compressive strength as well. This could be very beneficial to lattice structures, which are known for already having an excellent strength to weight ratio. If the compressive strength of ABS lattice structures could be improved even further using acetone smoothing, it could expand the applications for plastic lattice structures and improve ...


Remanufacturing Of Precision Metal Components Using Additive Manufacturing Technology, Xinchang Zhang Jan 2019

Remanufacturing Of Precision Metal Components Using Additive Manufacturing Technology, Xinchang Zhang

Doctoral Dissertations

"Critical metallic components such as jet engine turbine blades and casting die/mold may be damaged after servicing for a period at harsh working environments such as elevated temperature and pressure, impact with foreign objects, wear, corrosion, and fatigue. Additive manufacturing has a promising application for the refurbishment of such high-costly parts by depositing materials at the damaged zone to restore the nominal geometry. However, several issues such as pre-processing of worn parts to assure the repairability, reconstructing the repair volume to generate a repair tool path for material deposition, and inspection of repaired parts are challenging. The current research ...


Improvements In Digital Image Correlation And Application In Material Mechanical Test, Yunlu Zhang Jan 2019

Improvements In Digital Image Correlation And Application In Material Mechanical Test, Yunlu Zhang

Doctoral Dissertations

"Digital image correlation (DIC) is a non-contact full-field optical measurement method. With the advantages of high accuracy, low cost, and simple implementation, it has been widely applied in the area of experimental mechanics. In this study, DIC algorithm has been improved in the aspects of the pixel-level searching method and reference frame update strategy. The feature matching based method is proposed to provide an initial guess for all points of interest with semi-subpixel level accuracy in cases with small or large translation, deformation, or rotation. The bisection searching strategy is presented to automatically adjust the frame step for varying practical ...


Freeform Extrusion Fabrication Of Advanced Ceramics And Ceramic-Based Composites, Wenbin Li Jan 2019

Freeform Extrusion Fabrication Of Advanced Ceramics And Ceramic-Based Composites, Wenbin Li

Doctoral Dissertations

"Ceramic On-Demand Extrusion (CODE) is a recently developed freeform extrusion fabrication process for producing dense ceramic components from single and multiple constituents. In this process, aqueous paste of ceramic particles with a very low binder content ( < 1 vol%) is extruded through a moving nozzle to print each layer sequentially. Once one layer is printed, it is surrounded by oil to prevent undesirable water evaporation from the perimeters of the part. The oil level is regulated just below the topmost layer of the part being fabricated. Infrared radiation is then applied to uniformly and partially dry the top layer so that the yield stress of the paste increases to avoid part deformation. By repeating the above steps, the part is printed in a layer-wise fashion, followed by post-processing. Paste extrusion precision of different extrusion mechanisms was compared and analyzed, with an auger extruder determined to be the most suitable paste extruder for the CODE system. A novel fabrication system was developed based on a motion gantry, auger extruders, and peripheral devices. Sample specimens were then produced from 3 mol% yttria stabilized zirconia using this fabrication system, and their properties, including density, flexural strength, Young's modulus, Weibull modulus, fracture toughness, and hardness were measured. The results indicated that superior mechanical properties were achieved by the CODE process among all the additive manufacturing processes. Further development was made on the CODE process to fabricate ceramic components that have external/internal features such as overhangs by using fugitive support material. Finally, ceramic composites with functionally graded materials (FGMs) were fabricated by the CODE process using a dynamic mixing device"--Abstract, page iv.


Laser Welding Of Metallic Glass To Crystalline Metal In Laser-Foil-Printing Additive Manufacturing, Yingqi Li Jan 2019

Laser Welding Of Metallic Glass To Crystalline Metal In Laser-Foil-Printing Additive Manufacturing, Yingqi Li

Doctoral Dissertations

"The application of metallic glasses has been traditionally limited to parts with small dimensions and simple geometries, due to the requirement of fast cooling during the conventional process of casting. In addition, joining metallic glass to crystalline metal is of interest for many applications that require locally tailored functions and properties, but it is challenging. This research describes a promising additive manufacturing technology, i.e., laser-foil-printing, to make high-quality metallic glass parts with large dimensions and complex geometries and to fabricate multi-material components from metallic glass and crystalline metal. In this research, Zr52.5Ti5Al10Ni ...


Numerical Modeling Of Capillary-Driven Flow In Open Microchannels: An Implication Of Optimized Wicking Fabric Design, Mehrad Gholizadeh Ansari Jan 2018

Numerical Modeling Of Capillary-Driven Flow In Open Microchannels: An Implication Of Optimized Wicking Fabric Design, Mehrad Gholizadeh Ansari

Masters Theses

"The use of microfluidics to transfer fluids without applying any exterior energy source is a promising technology in different fields of science and engineering due to their compactness, simplicity and cost-effective design. In geotechnical engineering, to increase the soil's strength, hydrophilic wicking fibers as type of microfluidics have been employed to transport and drain water out of soil spontaneously by taking advantage of natural capillary force without using any pumps or other auxiliary devices. The objective of this study is to understand the scientific mechanisms of the capability for wicking fiber to drain both gravity and capillary water out ...


Controlling Phase Fractions Of 304l-Ss In Selective Laser Melting Using Cooling Rate, Eberechukwu Anthony Okoro Jan 2018

Controlling Phase Fractions Of 304l-Ss In Selective Laser Melting Using Cooling Rate, Eberechukwu Anthony Okoro

Masters Theses

"This study examines the thermal profile and the ferrite-austenite phase fractions upon heating and cooling of 304- stainless steel powder via Selective Laser Melting (SLM). Experiments were performed to validate the ABAQUS finite element model, while the phase transformation simulation was performed using MatCalc and ThermoCalc. A correlation between the thermo-mechanical changes in ABAQUS and the microstructural changes from MatCalc was obtained by matching their cooling rates. The result indicates that cooling rate has a significant effect on the phase fractions of FCC and BCC formed in 304L stainless steel via the SLM process. The results also indicate that for ...


Computational Investigation Of Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell With Nature-Inspired Fibonacci Spiral Flow Field, Suleyman Kose Jan 2018

Computational Investigation Of Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell With Nature-Inspired Fibonacci Spiral Flow Field, Suleyman Kose

Masters Theses

"Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) are promising clean energy devices. The flow field design has crucial role in PEMFC performance for effective distribution of reactants and removal of products. Several nature-inspired flow field designs have recently been proposed in the literature. Common characteristics of these designs were sudden changes in the flow direction through sharp bends and flow field geometries restrained to areas having corners. In this thesis, Fibonacci spiral configuration, which is found in the nature from hurricanes to seashells, was considered for flow field pattern of a PEMFC. Contrary to the bio-inspired designs proposed in previous studies ...


Designed Extrudate For Ceramic Additive Manufacturing, Devin Mcmillen Jan 2018

Designed Extrudate For Ceramic Additive Manufacturing, Devin Mcmillen

Masters Theses

"The objective of this thesis work was to design ceramic paste systems that assist in achieving a high theoretical density ( > 95%) after deposition by a novel additive manufacturing process, i.e. Ceramic On-Demand Extrusion (CODE). The work is encompassed in five main sections: Sections 1 and 2 provide an introduction and literature review of relevant topics for the following sections of experimentation. Section 3 provides an analysis of a reaction chemistry to identify three discrete materials that could be combined via CODE and result in zirconium diboride (ZrB2) post-sintering. Section 4 describes the development of a high solids loading ...


Advanced Process To Embed Optical Fiber Sensors Into Casting Mold For Smart Manufacturing, Raghavender Reddy Jakka Jan 2018

Advanced Process To Embed Optical Fiber Sensors Into Casting Mold For Smart Manufacturing, Raghavender Reddy Jakka

Masters Theses

"Optical fiber sensors embedded in metals with distributed sensing can sense temperature at multiple points with single fiber. This is useful for smart manufacturing like structural health monitoring in aerospace industry and smart molds in manufacturing plants. There is a huge difference in thermal coefficient of expansion for fiber and metal. This is the reason for the increase in sensitivity for embedded fiber sensors. However, at high temperatures, the stress on the fiber increases, eventually damaging the sensor. The fiber-metal interface determines the sensor performance. A tight interface results in high sensitivity and a gap in the interface enhances sensing ...


Smart Augmented Reality Instructional System For Mechanical Assembly, Ze-Hao Lai Jan 2018

Smart Augmented Reality Instructional System For Mechanical Assembly, Ze-Hao Lai

Masters Theses

"Quality and efficiency are pivotal indicators of a manufacturing company. Many companies are suffering from shortage of experienced workers across the production line to perform complex assembly tasks such as assembly of an aircraft engine. This could lead to a significant financial loss. In order to further reduce time and error in an assembly, a smart system consisting of multi-modal Augmented Reality (AR) instructions with the support of a deep learning network for tool detection is introduced. The multi-modal smart AR is designed to provide on-site information including various visual renderings with a fine-tuned Region-based Convolutional Neural Network, which is ...


Investigation Of The Information Provided By Light Touch For Balance Improvement In Humans, Anirudh Saini Jan 2018

Investigation Of The Information Provided By Light Touch For Balance Improvement In Humans, Anirudh Saini

Masters Theses

"This study investigates the information provided by Light Touch (LT) in improving human postural stability without mechanical assistance. Light Touch, an interaction force with a magnitude about 1 N, is known to improve postural stability in humans during quiet standing. However, the nature of the information from LT that helped improve balance is yet unknown. In this work, we hypothesized that LT provides information about one's body kinematics. We used a haptic robot to provide modulated, measurable light interaction force on the high back haptic location of humans to provide body kinematics-dependent information through LT. Standing balance experiments were ...


Development And Management Of Advanced Batteries Via Additive Manufacturing And Modeling, Jie Li Jan 2018

Development And Management Of Advanced Batteries Via Additive Manufacturing And Modeling, Jie Li

Doctoral Dissertations

"The applications of Li-ion batteries require higher energy and power densities, improved safety, and sophisticated battery management systems. To satisfy these demands, as battery performances depend on the network of constituent materials, it is necessary to optimize the electrode structure. Simultaneously, the states of the battery have to be accurately estimated and controlled to maintain a durable condition of the battery system. For those purposes, this research focused on the innovation of 3D electrode via additive manufacturing, and the development of fast and accurate physical based models to predict the battery status for control purposes. Paper I proposed a novel ...