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Full-Text Articles in Engineering

Development Of Hybrid Ion Exchange Processes Driven By Carbon Dioxide (Hix-Co2), Hang Dong Jan 2019

Development Of Hybrid Ion Exchange Processes Driven By Carbon Dioxide (Hix-Co2), Hang Dong

Theses and Dissertations

Freshwater scarcity is severely faced by humans even though our planet is full of water,being more than 97% of the water is salty water such as seawater or brackish water. Andsome of the brackish water is impaired by various of contaminants, such as nitra


Advancement Of The Hybrid Ion Exchange Nitrogen And Phosphate (Hix-Np) Recovery From Waste Water And A New Approach To Brine-Free Nitrate Removal, Chelsey Shepsko Jan 2019

Advancement Of The Hybrid Ion Exchange Nitrogen And Phosphate (Hix-Np) Recovery From Waste Water And A New Approach To Brine-Free Nitrate Removal, Chelsey Shepsko

Theses and Dissertations

Due to rapid declining freshwater reserves worldwide, societies are reexamining approaches to maintain potable and industrial water supplies to meet the current and future demands. By utilizing wastewater, an impaired water resource that is large, resilie


Hybrid Ion Exchange Processes For Sustainable Softening And Marcellus Flowback Treatment, Jinze Li Aug 2018

Hybrid Ion Exchange Processes For Sustainable Softening And Marcellus Flowback Treatment, Jinze Li

Theses and Dissertations

Hybrid ion exchange technology has been applied in many environmental aspects nowadays due to its high treatment efficiency, reusability, customizable selectivity, operational stability, and low cost. Under certain circumstances, ion exchange technology is a favorable substitute for traditional treatment process, and its applications in industries are continually growing.Water hardness is a concern for many industrial and municipal unit operations, which could result in surface scaling of heat transfer equipment or membranes. Sodium exchange softening, although commonly used, has caused serious pollution to local ecological and water environments due to its discharge of high salinity spent regenerant. Many arid areas ...


Hybrid Anion Exchange Nanotechnology (Haix-Nano) For Concurrent Trace Contaminant Removal With Partial Desalination: Laboratory And Field-Scale Investigations, Michael Scott German Jan 2017

Hybrid Anion Exchange Nanotechnology (Haix-Nano) For Concurrent Trace Contaminant Removal With Partial Desalination: Laboratory And Field-Scale Investigations, Michael Scott German

Theses and Dissertations

Millions of people across the Indian subcontinent are at risk of chronic exposure to arsenic and fluoride in aquifers with excess TDS (>500 mg/L). Hybrid anion exchange resins with nanoparticles of zirconium oxide (HAIX-NanoZr) were created for effective fluoride removal; zirconium oxide selectively bound fluoride, silica, and phosphate. The zeta potential of HAIX-NanoZr was directly correlated to the fluoride removal capacity. Thus, to increase fluoride capacity and achieve partial desalination concurrently, a weak acid cation (WAC) exchange pretreatment was used to lower alkalinity, hardness, pH, and TDS. Consistent partial desalination (~50%) occurred in proportion to influent alkalinity and hardness ...


Chloride Migration Variability In Reinforced Concrete Highway Structures In Pennsylvania, Connor Kane Bradley Jan 2017

Chloride Migration Variability In Reinforced Concrete Highway Structures In Pennsylvania, Connor Kane Bradley

Theses and Dissertations

To assess the potential design life for reinforced concrete highway infrastructure in the Northeastern United States, the resistance to corrosion must be known. Reinforced concrete structures in both cold and marine environments are exposed to chloride, an ion with the potential to migrate through concrete and corrode steel. Chloride content can be assessed relative to the chloride migration coefficient determined at an age of 28-days using methods defined in NT Build 492. This approach is a departure from traditional rapid chloride permeability testing methods used for qualification of concrete mix designs by state departments of transportation. To investigate the impact ...


Investigation Of Indoor Air Pollution And Volatile Organic Compounds Present In Hospitals And Their Treatment Via Photocatalytic Oxidation, Michael John Celente Jan 2017

Investigation Of Indoor Air Pollution And Volatile Organic Compounds Present In Hospitals And Their Treatment Via Photocatalytic Oxidation, Michael John Celente

Theses and Dissertations

While preexisting research regarding cigarette smoke, carbon monoxide poisoning, dust/allergens and other air pollutants exits, studying volatile organic compound (VOC) contamination indoors is a relatively recent endeavor. While certain VOCs are considered carcinogens with known detrimental health effects, new research involves investigating VOC sources, contaminant concentration in ambient indoor air and possible treatment technologies. This paper will not only detail different types of air pollutants, their sources, and health effects, but also delve deeper into VOC contamination in health related facilities (mainly hospitals) and address possible treatment methods such as photocatalytic (PCO) oxidation. Particulate matter, VOCs, biological contaminants, and ...


Real Time Quantification Of Activated Carbon Adsorption Of Butanol And Evaluation Of Influencing Adsorbent Characteristics, Dylan Friedgen-Veitch Jan 2017

Real Time Quantification Of Activated Carbon Adsorption Of Butanol And Evaluation Of Influencing Adsorbent Characteristics, Dylan Friedgen-Veitch

Theses and Dissertations

This paper uses a real-time data collection technique to analyze VOC adsorption onto activated carbon. Specifically, butyl alcohol is run through a column of extruded or granular activated carbon until it reaches an equilibrium concentration. These results are measured by a Photo-ionization Detector (PID) and reported to a computer for easy processing. Twenty-one total types of carbon were tested for capacity and time to breakthrough, with breakthrough being designated as 350 ppm as reported by the PID. Upon analyzing results of these tests, it is confirmed that surface area is proportional to adsorption capacity. It is also found that density ...


Improved Stability Of Methane-Producing Anaerobic Biological Reactors Through Novel Use Of Ion-Exchange Fibers, Yu Tian Jan 2016

Improved Stability Of Methane-Producing Anaerobic Biological Reactors Through Novel Use Of Ion-Exchange Fibers, Yu Tian

Theses and Dissertations

The anaerobic digestion (AD) process uses a series of microbial reactions to convert organic compounds to a methane-rich biogas, and engineered application of this process allows energy recovery from industrial organic waste streams. Poor stability and susceptibility to failure, however, have greatly hindered more frequent application of AD for treatment of industrial wastes. The concern with process stability is particularly true where reactor pH fluctuates due to variations in organic loading. During the organic overloading, the huge difference of growth rate between acetogenic bacteria and methanogenic archaea could induce the accumulation of volatile fatty acids. The accumulated volatile fatty acids ...


Impact Of The Charge-Regulation Effect On Bacterial Growth And Bioavailability Of Sorbed Growth Substrates, Hankai Zhu Jan 2016

Impact Of The Charge-Regulation Effect On Bacterial Growth And Bioavailability Of Sorbed Growth Substrates, Hankai Zhu

Theses and Dissertations

Bacteria are typically found attached to surfaces. Their growth on surfaces can be beneficial, such as with trickling filters, bio-filters and bio-scrubbers, where the attached bacteria are used to biodegrade aqueous organic components. There are also plenty of systems where bacterial surface growth is not desirable, such as with biofilm formation in water distribution pipelines and pathogenic biofilm infections on medical implants and equipment. One consideration in all these systems is the interaction between the bacteria and the adhering surface, and specifically, how the physiochemical properties of the surface can influence bacterial growth. Previous studies demonstrated that the metabolic activity ...


Characterization Of Cryptosporidium Parvum Oocyst Attachment To Environmental Biofilm Surface, Xia Luo Jan 2015

Characterization Of Cryptosporidium Parvum Oocyst Attachment To Environmental Biofilm Surface, Xia Luo

Theses and Dissertations

Biofilms are communities of microorganisms that form on a solid surface. It has been shown previously that Cryptosporidium parvum is able to accumulate and survive in association with bacterial biofilms in aquatic environments. The long-term survival and sudden release of pathogenic microorganisms due to biofilm sloughing may lead to waterborne disease transmission. The fact that biofilms can immobilize C. parvum oocysts from the water column poses fundamental questions regarding interactions of oocysts with biofilm surfaces. Consequently, the main objectives of this study were to: 1) investigate the mechanisms that govern C. parvum oocyst attachment to environmental biofilms; 2) examine the ...


Characterizing The Hydrophobic Properties Of Activated Carbon And The Factors Affecting Voc Adsorption, Steven Michael Sheets Jan 2015

Characterizing The Hydrophobic Properties Of Activated Carbon And The Factors Affecting Voc Adsorption, Steven Michael Sheets

Theses and Dissertations

Regeneration is vital to the life cycle of adsorbents such as activated carbon. Regeneration losses, in the forms of adsorbent mass and adsorption capacity, have long plagued the life-cycle of conventional adsorbents. Adsorption losses are compounded by the presence of moisture in exhaust gas streams during VOC treatment, due to the competition for adsorbent sites between water and VOCs. Since water vapor often out-competes the VOCs for these sites, the carbon’s loss of adsorption capacity can be attributed to water’s affinity to the carbon surface. The present research explores the hypothesis that selective organic phase adsorbents can be ...


Effects Of Surface Properties On The Charge Regulated Bioenergetic Response Of Attached Bacteria: Exploration Within The Framework Of The Chemiosmotic Theory, Lynal Sunila Albert Jan 2015

Effects Of Surface Properties On The Charge Regulated Bioenergetic Response Of Attached Bacteria: Exploration Within The Framework Of The Chemiosmotic Theory, Lynal Sunila Albert

Theses and Dissertations

Microbial adhesion is critical to natural and engineered systems due to the ubiquitous presence of bacteria, their tendency to attach to biotic and abiotic surfaces and their ability to survive in habitats not suitable for most life. Many processes benefit from microbial adhesion, such as attached-growth wastewater treatment and symbiotic nitrogen fixation. In other scenarios, microbial adhesion is highly detrimental and examples include pathogenic biofilm infections on medical implants and devices and bio-corrosion of pipelines and ship hulls. Studies have demonstrated that the metabolic state of adhered bacteria can vary based on the physiochemical properties of the solid surface, but ...


Integrating Tunable Anion Exchange With Reverse Osmosis For Enhanced Recovery During Inland Brackish Water Desalination, Ryan Casey Smith Jan 2015

Integrating Tunable Anion Exchange With Reverse Osmosis For Enhanced Recovery During Inland Brackish Water Desalination, Ryan Casey Smith

Theses and Dissertations

For inland desalination plants, managing and discarding produced brine leftover from the production of pure drinking water can be a significant operating cost. By increasing the recovery of the desalination process, brine volume and disposal costs will be reduced. Achieving high recovery is not immediately possible as when the recovery is increased, there is a higher potential for the precipitation of calcium sulfate which, for reverse osmosis (RO) processes, can foul and damage the RO membrane. Ion exchange may be used as a pretreatment method to selectively remove and replace sulfate by chloride which does not pose any threat to ...


Investigation On The Effects Of Design And Operational Variables On The Efficacy Of Biosand Filters, Julie Napotnik Jan 2014

Investigation On The Effects Of Design And Operational Variables On The Efficacy Of Biosand Filters, Julie Napotnik

Theses and Dissertations

The following paper reports on the efforts made to assist in the overall implementation of one specific household water treatment (HWT) for improving water quality for people in developing countries, biosand filters (BSFs). It is recognized that BSFs are not applicable for every situation or community. When BSFs were first developed for household applications, the minimum sand bed depth was determined to be 50 cm, based on existing Canadian regulations for water treatment through large-scale, high-capacity sand filters. We questioned this basic assumption, and investigated whether smaller, lighter, and cheaper BSFs (with a shorter sand bed depth) are as effective ...


Development Of Hybrid Polymeric/ Inorganic Ion Exchanger: Preparation, Characterization, And Environmental Applications, Surapol Padungthon Jan 2013

Development Of Hybrid Polymeric/ Inorganic Ion Exchanger: Preparation, Characterization, And Environmental Applications, Surapol Padungthon

Theses and Dissertations

The study involves the development of two environmental applications using hybrid polymeric/ inorganic ion exchangers. First, the hybrid polymeric ion exchangers supported hydrated zirconium oxide (HZO) nanoparticles, referred to as HIX-Zr were developed for selective removal of heavy metals and anionic ligands. Second, salt-free water softening processes were presented using three different heterogeneous cation exchanger resins along with novel regeneration schemes. The HIX-Zr nanosorbents have been prepared, characterized, and extensively studied in relation to heavy metal (i.e., zinc) and anionic ligand (i.e., arsenate and fluoride) removal in fixed-bed processes at trace concentrations with the presence of high concentrations ...


Compression Charatceristics Of Compacted Micaceous Soils, David Francis Mccarthy Jr. Jan 1962

Compression Charatceristics Of Compacted Micaceous Soils, David Francis Mccarthy Jr.

Theses and Dissertations

Footings, floor slabs and pavements are frequently placed on compacted soils existing at the site. However, in certain areas of the United States and other countries, the soil found at the site may contain micaceous minerals. Due to the presence of mica, the soil is frequently rejected because it is considered compressible, and a granular mica-free material is substituted for it. This practice many not be justified; the detrimental effect of mica in a soil may be seriously exaggerated.