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Full-Text Articles in Engineering

Sectional Model Of A Prairie Buffer Strip In A Laboratory Flume For Water Quality Research, Andrew J. Craig, Michelle L. Soupir, Chris R. Rehmann Feb 2021

Sectional Model Of A Prairie Buffer Strip In A Laboratory Flume For Water Quality Research, Andrew J. Craig, Michelle L. Soupir, Chris R. Rehmann

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Vegetative buffers have shown promising results in reducing runoff volume, sediment, nutrients, and manure‐borne contaminants in runoff from agricultural fields. Although these vegetative buffer systems have been extensively tested in field and plot‐scale studies that utilize either natural or simulated rainfall, studies of such systems under highly controlled conditions in the laboratory have been limited. Here, we present the development of a new system for laboratory testing of a full‐scale, sectional, physical model of a new practice under the Continuous Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) Clean Lakes, Estuaries, and Rivers (CLEAR) Initiative, CP‐43 Prairie Strips. This work ...


Summary And Overview Of The Odour Regulations Worldwide, Anna Bokowa, Carlos Diaz, Jacek A. Koziel, Michael Mcginley, Jennifer Barclay, Günther Schauberger, Jean-Michel Guillot, Robert Sneath, Laura Capelli, Vania Zorich, Cyntia Izquierdo, Ilse Bilsen, Anne-Claude Romain, Maria Del Carmen Cabeza, Dezhao Liu, Ralf Both, Hugo Van Belois, Takaya Higuchi, Landon Wahe Feb 2021

Summary And Overview Of The Odour Regulations Worldwide, Anna Bokowa, Carlos Diaz, Jacek A. Koziel, Michael Mcginley, Jennifer Barclay, Günther Schauberger, Jean-Michel Guillot, Robert Sneath, Laura Capelli, Vania Zorich, Cyntia Izquierdo, Ilse Bilsen, Anne-Claude Romain, Maria Del Carmen Cabeza, Dezhao Liu, Ralf Both, Hugo Van Belois, Takaya Higuchi, Landon Wahe

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

When it comes to air pollution complaints, odours are often the most significant contributor. Sources of odour emissions range from natural to anthropogenic. Mitigation of odour can be challenging, multifaceted, site-specific, and is often confounded by its complexity—defined by existing (or non-existing) environmental laws, public ordinances, and socio-economic considerations. The objective of this paper is to review and summarise odour legislation in selected European countries (France, Germany, Austria, Hungary, the UK, Spain, the Netherlands, Italy, Belgium), North America (the USA and Canada), and South America (Chile and Colombia), as well as Oceania (Australia and New Zealand) and Asia (Japan ...


Mitigation Of Gaseous Emissions From Stored Swine Manure With Biochar: Effect Of Dose And Reapplication On A Pilot-Scale, Baitong Chen, Jacek A. Koziel, Chumki Banik, Hantian Ma, Myeongseong Lee, Samuel C. O'Brien, Peiyang Li, Daniel S. Andersen, Andrzej Białowiec, Robert C. Brown Jan 2021

Mitigation Of Gaseous Emissions From Stored Swine Manure With Biochar: Effect Of Dose And Reapplication On A Pilot-Scale, Baitong Chen, Jacek A. Koziel, Chumki Banik, Hantian Ma, Myeongseong Lee, Samuel C. O'Brien, Peiyang Li, Daniel S. Andersen, Andrzej Białowiec, Robert C. Brown

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Rural communities are affected by gaseous emissions from intensive livestock production. Practical mitigation technologies are needed to minimize emissions from stored manure and improve air quality inside barns. In our previous research, the one-time surficial application of biochar to swine manure significantly reduced emissions of NH3 and phenol. We observed that the mitigation effect decreased with time during the 30-day trials. In this research, we hypothesized that bi-weekly reapplication of biochar could improve the mitigation effect on a wider range of odorous compounds using a larger scale and longer trials. The objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of biochar ...


Lake Atitlan: A Review Of The Food, Energy, And Water Sustainability Of A Mountain Lake In Guatemala, Timothy P. Neher, Michelle L. Soupir, Rameshwar S. Kanwar Jan 2021

Lake Atitlan: A Review Of The Food, Energy, And Water Sustainability Of A Mountain Lake In Guatemala, Timothy P. Neher, Michelle L. Soupir, Rameshwar S. Kanwar

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

This paper summarizes the findings of an extensive review of literature that was conducted to understand the historical state of the food, energy, and water nexus in the Lake Atitlan basin and to recommend incentive-based, long-term sustainable policies to become a significant driver to Guatemala’s tourism industry and GDP growth. The SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) was implemented in the basin to work towards the goal of simulating nutrient loading. A key conclusion of this review study is for the local population to have advocacy for the “zero wastewater discharge to Lake Atitlan” initiative to bring long-term benefits ...


The Prediction Of Calorific Value Of Carbonized Solid Fuel Produced From Refuse-Derived Fuel In The Low-Temperature Pyrolysis In Co2, Ewa Syguła, Kacper Świechowski, Paweł Stępień, Jacek A. Koziel, Andrzej Białowiec Jan 2021

The Prediction Of Calorific Value Of Carbonized Solid Fuel Produced From Refuse-Derived Fuel In The Low-Temperature Pyrolysis In Co2, Ewa Syguła, Kacper Świechowski, Paweł Stępień, Jacek A. Koziel, Andrzej Białowiec

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

The decrease in the calorific value of refuse-derived fuel (RDF) is an unintended outcome of the progress made toward more sustainable waste management. Plastics and paper separation and recycling leads to the overall decrease in waste’s calorific value, further limiting its applicability for thermal treatment. Pyrolysis has been proposed to densify energy in RDF and generate carbonized solid fuel (CSF). The challenge is that the feedstock composition of RDF is variable and site-specific. Therefore, the optimal pyrolysis conditions have to be established every time, depending on feedstock composition. In this research, we developed a model to predict the higher ...


Deep Neural Network For Complex Open-Water Wetland Mapping Using High-Resolution Worldview-3 And Airborne Lidar Data, Vitor S. Martins, Amy L. Kaleita, Brian K. Gelder, Gustavo W. Nagel, Daniel A. Maciel Dec 2020

Deep Neural Network For Complex Open-Water Wetland Mapping Using High-Resolution Worldview-3 And Airborne Lidar Data, Vitor S. Martins, Amy L. Kaleita, Brian K. Gelder, Gustavo W. Nagel, Daniel A. Maciel

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Wetland inventory maps are essential information for the conservation and management of natural wetland areas. The classification framework is crucial for successful mapping of complex wetlands, including the model selection, input variables and training procedures. In this context, deep neural network (DNN) is a powerful technique for remote sensing image classification, but this model application for wetland mapping has not been discussed in the previous literature, especially using commercial WorldView-3 data. This study developed a new framework for wetland mapping using DNN algorithm and WorldView-3 image in the Millrace Flats Wildlife Management Area, Iowa, USA. The study area has several ...


Mitigation Of Gaseous Emissions From Swine Manure With The Surficial Application Of Biochars, Zhanibek Meiirkhanuly, Jacek A. Koziel, Baitong Chen, Andrzej Białowiec, Myeongseong Lee, Jisoo Wi, Chumki Banik, Robert C. Brown, Santanu Bakshi Nov 2020

Mitigation Of Gaseous Emissions From Swine Manure With The Surficial Application Of Biochars, Zhanibek Meiirkhanuly, Jacek A. Koziel, Baitong Chen, Andrzej Białowiec, Myeongseong Lee, Jisoo Wi, Chumki Banik, Robert C. Brown, Santanu Bakshi

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Environmental impact associated with odor and gaseous emissions from animal manure is one of the challenges for communities, farmers, and regulatory agencies. Microbe-based manure additives treatments are marketed and used by farmers for mitigation of emissions. However, their performance is difficult to assess objectively. Thus, comprehensive, practical, and low-cost treatments are still in demand. We have been advancing such treatments based on physicochemical principles. The objective of this research was to test the effect of the surficial application of a thin layer (¼ inches; 6.3 mm) of biochar on the mitigation of gaseous emissions (as the percent reduction, % R ...


Application Of Hydroprocessing, Fermentation, And Anaerobic Digestion In A Carbon-Negative Pyrolysis Refinery, Arna Ganguly, Irene M. Martin, Robert C. Brown, Mark M. Wright Oct 2020

Application Of Hydroprocessing, Fermentation, And Anaerobic Digestion In A Carbon-Negative Pyrolysis Refinery, Arna Ganguly, Irene M. Martin, Robert C. Brown, Mark M. Wright

Mechanical Engineering Publications

This study investigates the economic and environmental benefits of integrating hydroprocessing, fermentation, and anaerobic digestion into a pyrolysis refinery. Two scenarios were developed for upgrading and/or utilizing the primary products of pyrolysis (bio-oil, gas, and char). The first (hydroprocessing) scenario hydroprocesses whole bio-oil into gasoline and diesel. The second (fractionation) scenario fractionates bio-oil into sugars for fermentation to cellulosic ethanol and residual phenolic oil as the primary product. Both scenarios use the gaseous product of pyrolysis for process heat in the plant and employ biochar to enhance anaerobic digestion of manure for power generation. The fast pyrolysis plant processes ...


Synergy Of Thermochemical Treatment Of Dried Distillers Grains With Solubles With Bioethanol Production For Increased Sustainability And Profitability, Samuel O’Brien, Jacek A. Koziel, Chumki Banik, Andrzej Białowiec Sep 2020

Synergy Of Thermochemical Treatment Of Dried Distillers Grains With Solubles With Bioethanol Production For Increased Sustainability And Profitability, Samuel O’Brien, Jacek A. Koziel, Chumki Banik, Andrzej Białowiec

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

The bioethanol industry continues improving sustainability, specifically focused on plant energy and GHG emission management. Dried distiller grains with solubles (DDGS) is a byproduct of ethanol fermentation and is used for animal feed. DDGS is a relatively low-value bulk product that decays, causes odor, and is challenging to manage. The aim of this research was to find an alternative, value-added-type concept for DDGS utilization. Specifically, we aimed to explore the techno-economic feasibility of torrefaction, i.e., a thermochemical treatment of DDGS requiring low energy input, less sophisticated equipment, and resulting in fuel-quality biochar. Therefore, we developed a research model that ...


Is Biochar From The Torrefaction Of Sewage Sludge Hazardous Waste?, Andrzej Białowiec, Jakub Pulka, Marzena Styczyńska, Jacek A. Koziel, Joanna Kalka, Marcelina Jureczko, Ewa Felis, Piotr Manczarski Aug 2020

Is Biochar From The Torrefaction Of Sewage Sludge Hazardous Waste?, Andrzej Białowiec, Jakub Pulka, Marzena Styczyńska, Jacek A. Koziel, Joanna Kalka, Marcelina Jureczko, Ewa Felis, Piotr Manczarski

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Improved technologies are needed for sustainable management of sewage sludge (SS). The torrefaction (also known as biomass “roasting”) is considered a pretreatment of SS before use in agriculture. However, it is not known whether the torrefaction has the potential to decrease heavy metals’ (HMs) leachability and the SS toxicity. Thus, the aim of the study was to evaluate the influences of the SS torrefaction parameters (temperature and process time) on HM contents in biochar, HM leachability, and biochar toxicity, and compare them with raw SS. The experiments were designed in 18 combinations (six temperatures, 200, 220, 240, 260, 280, and ...


Notes On The Gridlab-D Household Equivalent Thermal Parameter Model, Leigh Tesfatsion, Swathi Battula Jul 2020

Notes On The Gridlab-D Household Equivalent Thermal Parameter Model, Leigh Tesfatsion, Swathi Battula

Economics Working Papers

GridLAB-D (GLD) is an agent-based platform, developed by researchers at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, that permits users to accurately simulate the state dynamics of power distribution systems at time scales ranging from sub-seconds to years. The purpose of this study is to present, in careful comprehensive form, a complete analytical state-space control representation for a version of the GLD Household Equivalent Thermal Parameter Model as support documentation for model users. This model is a physically-based implementation of a household with multiple price-responsive and conventional appliances whose thermal dynamics are determined over successive days by resident appliance usage and external weather ...


Water–Energy–Food Nexus Framework For Promoting Regional Integration In Central Asia, Olimjon Saidmamatov, Inna Rudenko, Stephan Pfister, Jacek A. Koziel Jul 2020

Water–Energy–Food Nexus Framework For Promoting Regional Integration In Central Asia, Olimjon Saidmamatov, Inna Rudenko, Stephan Pfister, Jacek A. Koziel

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

This paper focuses on regional integration through the lenses of the Water–Food–Energy (WEF) nexus, a concept putting strong emphasis on cross-sectoral and multi-level interactions as well as on resource interdependencies. There is an extensive amount of published research focusing on the Aral Sea basin. In this paper, the authors build upon these different contributions and provide a meta-analysis of the literature of WEF nexus opportunities in Central Asia (CA) countries. This paper contributes to ongoing discussions regarding how the WEF Nexus can represent an opportunity for reinforced collaboration regarding resources management. To do so, focusing on existing literature ...


Effects Of Treated Manure Conditions On Ammonia And Hydrogen Sulfide Emissions From A Swine Finishing Barn Equipped With Semicontinuous Pit Recharge System In Summer, Jisoo Wi, Seunghun Lee, Eunjong Kim, Myeongseong Lee, Jacek A. Koziel, Heekwon Ahn Jul 2020

Effects Of Treated Manure Conditions On Ammonia And Hydrogen Sulfide Emissions From A Swine Finishing Barn Equipped With Semicontinuous Pit Recharge System In Summer, Jisoo Wi, Seunghun Lee, Eunjong Kim, Myeongseong Lee, Jacek A. Koziel, Heekwon Ahn

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Gaseous emissions from animal production systems affect the local and regional air quality. Proven farm-scale mitigation technologies are needed to lower these emissions and to provide management practices that are feasible and sustainable. In this research, we evaluate the performance of a unique approach that simultaneously mitigates emissions and improves air quality inside a barn equipped with a manure pit recharge system. Specifically, we tested the effects of summertime feeding rations (used by farmers to cope with animal heat stress) and manure management. To date, the pit recharge system has been proven to be effective in mitigating both ammonia (NH ...


Analytical Scuc/Sced Optimization Formulation For Ames V5.0, Leigh Tesfatsion, Swathi Battula Jul 2020

Analytical Scuc/Sced Optimization Formulation For Ames V5.0, Leigh Tesfatsion, Swathi Battula

Economics Working Papers

U.S. centrally-managed wholesale power markets currently rely on Security-Constrained Unit Commitment (SCUC) and Security Constrained Economic Dispatch (SCED) optimizations to determine unit commitments, reserve, and scheduled dispatch levels for generating units during future operating periods. AMES V5.0 is an open source Java/Python platform that implements a combined SCUC/SCED optimization capturing salient features of these actual market SCUC/SCED optimizations. This report provides extensive documentation for the analytical formulation of the AMES V5.0 SCUC/SCED optimization.


Low-Temperature Pyrolysis Of Municipal Solid Waste Components And Refuse-Derived Fuel—Process Efficiency And Fuel Properties Of Carbonized Solid Fuel, Kacper Swiechowski, Ewa Syguła, Jacek A. Koziel, Paweł Stepien, Szymon Kugler, Piotr Manczarski, Andrzej Białowiec Jun 2020

Low-Temperature Pyrolysis Of Municipal Solid Waste Components And Refuse-Derived Fuel—Process Efficiency And Fuel Properties Of Carbonized Solid Fuel, Kacper Swiechowski, Ewa Syguła, Jacek A. Koziel, Paweł Stepien, Szymon Kugler, Piotr Manczarski, Andrzej Białowiec

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

New technologies to valorize refuse-derived fuels (RDFs) will be required in the near future due to emerging trends of (1) the cement industry’s demands for high-quality alternative fuels and (2) the decreasing calorific value of the fuels derived from municipal solid waste (MSW) and currently used in cement/incineration plants. Low-temperature pyrolysis can increase the calorific value of processed material, leading to the production of value-added carbonized solid fuel (CSF). This dataset summarizes the key properties of MSW-derived CSF. Pyrolysis experiments were completed using eight types of organic waste and their two RDF mixtures. Organic waste represented common morphological ...


Laying Hens Biochar Diet Supplementation—Effect On Performance, Excreta N Content, Nh3 And Vocs Emissions, Egg Traits And Egg Consumers Acceptance, Kajetan Kalus, Damian Konkol, Mariusz Korczynski, Jacek A. Koziel, Sebastian Opalinski Jun 2020

Laying Hens Biochar Diet Supplementation—Effect On Performance, Excreta N Content, Nh3 And Vocs Emissions, Egg Traits And Egg Consumers Acceptance, Kajetan Kalus, Damian Konkol, Mariusz Korczynski, Jacek A. Koziel, Sebastian Opalinski

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Sustainable solutions for intensive poultry production can help farmers, rural communities, consumers, and regulatory agencies. This study assessed supplementation of laying hens diet with beechwood biochar (BC, 1~2%) and BC–aluminosilicates–glycerin mixture (BCM, 1.5~3%) to lower the environmental impact while maintaining egg quality. The effect on feed intake, laying performance, egg quality, the sensory quality of hardboiled eggs, ammonia (NH3) and volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from excreta, and the excreta composition, were evaluated. A total of 90 hens were distributed into 30 cages and divided into five groups (n=6 replications). BC addition increased ...


Emissions From Swine Manure Treated With Current Products For Mitigation Of Odors And Reduction Of Nh3, H2s, Voc, And Ghg Emissions, Baitong Chen, Jacek A. Koziel, Chumki Banik, Hantian Ma, Myeongseong Lee, Jisoo Wi, Zhanibek Meiirkhanuly, Daniel S. Andersen, Andrzej Białowiec, David B. Parker Jun 2020

Emissions From Swine Manure Treated With Current Products For Mitigation Of Odors And Reduction Of Nh3, H2s, Voc, And Ghg Emissions, Baitong Chen, Jacek A. Koziel, Chumki Banik, Hantian Ma, Myeongseong Lee, Jisoo Wi, Zhanibek Meiirkhanuly, Daniel S. Andersen, Andrzej Białowiec, David B. Parker

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Odor and gaseous emissions from the swine industry are of concern for the wellbeing of humans and livestock. Additives applied to the swine manure surface are popular, marketed products to solve this problem and relatively inexpensive and easy for farmers to use. There is no scientific data evaluating the effectiveness of many of these products. We evaluated 12 manure additive products that are currently being marketed on their effectiveness in mitigating odor and gaseous emissions from swine manure. We used a pilot-scale system simulating the storage of swine manure with a controlled ventilation of headspace and periodic addition of manure ...


Waste To Energy: Solid Fuel Production From Biogas Plant Digestate And Sewage Sludge By Torrefaction-Process Kinetics, Fuel Properties, And Energy Balance, Kacper Świechowski, Martyna Hnat, Paweł Stępień, Sylwia Stegenta-Dąbrowska, Szymon Kugler, Jacek A. Koziel, Andrzej Białowiec Jun 2020

Waste To Energy: Solid Fuel Production From Biogas Plant Digestate And Sewage Sludge By Torrefaction-Process Kinetics, Fuel Properties, And Energy Balance, Kacper Świechowski, Martyna Hnat, Paweł Stępień, Sylwia Stegenta-Dąbrowska, Szymon Kugler, Jacek A. Koziel, Andrzej Białowiec

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Sustainable solutions are needed to manage increased energy demand and waste generation. Renewable energy production from abundant sewage sludge (SS) and digestate (D) from biogas is feasible. Concerns about feedstock contamination (heavy metals, pharmaceuticals, antibiotics, and antibiotic-resistant bacteria) in SS and D limits the use (e.g., agricultural) of these carbon-rich resources. Low temperature thermal conversion that results in carbonized solid fuel (CSF) has been proposed as sustainable waste utilization. The aim of the research was to investigate the feasibility of CSF production from SS and D via torrefaction. The CSF was produced at 200~300 °C (interval of 20 ...


Seasonal Variations In Export Of Antibiotic Resistance Genes And Bacteria In Runoff From An Agricultural Watershed In Iowa, Timothy P. Neher, Lanying Ma, Thomas B. Moorman, Adina Howe, Michelle L. Soupir Jun 2020

Seasonal Variations In Export Of Antibiotic Resistance Genes And Bacteria In Runoff From An Agricultural Watershed In Iowa, Timothy P. Neher, Lanying Ma, Thomas B. Moorman, Adina Howe, Michelle L. Soupir

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Seasonal variations of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) indicators in runoff water can help improve our understanding of AMR sources and transport within an agricultural watershed. This study aimed to monitor multiple areas throughout the Black Hawk Lake (BHL) watershed (5324 ha) in central Iowa during 2017 and 2018 that consists of both swine and cattle feeding operations as well as known areas with manure application. The measured indicators included plate counts for fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) E. coli, Enterococcus, antibiotic resistant fecal indicator bacteria (ARBs) tylosin resistant Enterococcus, tetracycline resistant Enterococcus, and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs): ermB, ermF (macrolide), tetA, tetM ...


Can Biochar Save Lives? The Impact Of Surficial Biochar Treatment On Acute H2s And Nh3 Emissions During Swine Manure Agitation Before Pump-Out, Baitong Chen, Jacek A. Koziel, Myeongseong Lee, Hantian Ma, Zhanibek Meiirkhanuly, Peiyang Li, Andrzej Białowiec, Robert C. Brown Jun 2020

Can Biochar Save Lives? The Impact Of Surficial Biochar Treatment On Acute H2s And Nh3 Emissions During Swine Manure Agitation Before Pump-Out, Baitong Chen, Jacek A. Koziel, Myeongseong Lee, Hantian Ma, Zhanibek Meiirkhanuly, Peiyang Li, Andrzej Białowiec, Robert C. Brown

Mechanical Engineering Publications

Hydrogen sulfide and ammonia are always a concern in the livestock industries, especially when farmers try to clear their manure storage pits. Agitation of manure can cause dangerously high concentrations of harmful agents such as H2S and NH3 to be emitted into the air. Biochar has the ability to sorb these gases. We hypothesized that applying biochar on top of manure can create an effective barrier to protect farmers and animals from exposure to NH3 and H2S. In this study, two kinds of biochar were tested, highly alkaline, and porous (HAP, pH 9.2) biochar made from corn stover and ...


Voc Removal From Manure Gaseous Emissions With Uv Photolysis And Uv-Tio2 Photocatalysis, Xiuyan Yang, Jacek A. Koziel, Yael Laor, Wenda Zhu, J. (Hans) Van Leeuwen, William S. Jenks, Steven J. Hoff, Jeffrey Zimmerman, Shicheng Zhang, Uzi Ravid, Robert Armon Jun 2020

Voc Removal From Manure Gaseous Emissions With Uv Photolysis And Uv-Tio2 Photocatalysis, Xiuyan Yang, Jacek A. Koziel, Yael Laor, Wenda Zhu, J. (Hans) Van Leeuwen, William S. Jenks, Steven J. Hoff, Jeffrey Zimmerman, Shicheng Zhang, Uzi Ravid, Robert Armon

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Control of gaseous emissions from livestock operations is needed to ensure compliance with environmental regulations and sustainability of the industry. The focus of this research was to mitigate livestock odor emissions with UV light. Effects of the UV dose, wavelength, TiO2 catalyst, air temperature, and relative humidity were tested at lab scale on a synthetic mixture of nine odorous volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and real poultry manure offgas. Results show that it was feasible to control odorous VOCs with both photolysis and photocatalysis (synthetic VOCs mixture) and with photocatalysis (manure offgas). The treatment effectiveness R (defined as % conversion), was proportional ...


Effective Dispersion Of Mgo Nanostructure On Biochar Support As A Basic Catalyst For Glucose Isomerization, Season S. Chen, Yang Cao, Daniel C.W. Tsang, Jean-Philippe Tessonnier, Jin Shang, Deyi Hou, Zhengtao Shen, Shicheng Zhang, Yong Sik Ok, Kevin C.-W. Wu Apr 2020

Effective Dispersion Of Mgo Nanostructure On Biochar Support As A Basic Catalyst For Glucose Isomerization, Season S. Chen, Yang Cao, Daniel C.W. Tsang, Jean-Philippe Tessonnier, Jin Shang, Deyi Hou, Zhengtao Shen, Shicheng Zhang, Yong Sik Ok, Kevin C.-W. Wu

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

Glucose isomerization to fructose is one of the most important reactions in the field of biomass valorization. We demonstrate wood waste valorization with MgCl2 salt to synthesize an environment-friendly catalyst (i.e., MgO-biochar), which exhibits effective glucose-to-fructose isomerization with over 30% fructose yield and 80% selectivity at only 100 °C for 30 min in water as a green medium. This study highlights that one-step synthesis can effectively disperse and tether MgO nanostructures to the biochar matrix, which displays a significant reduction of Mg leaching compared to MgO-biochars produced by two-step synthesis and pure MgO. The MgCl2 acts as a porogen ...


Evaluating Lignin Valorization Via Pyrolysis And Vapor-Phase Hydrodeoxygenation For Production Of Aromatics And Alkenes, Alireza Saraeian, Alvina Aui, Yu Gao, Mark M. Wright, Marcus Foston, Brent H. Shanks Mar 2020

Evaluating Lignin Valorization Via Pyrolysis And Vapor-Phase Hydrodeoxygenation For Production Of Aromatics And Alkenes, Alireza Saraeian, Alvina Aui, Yu Gao, Mark M. Wright, Marcus Foston, Brent H. Shanks

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

Lignin valorization to chemicals is an important component of creating economically viable biofuels production from lignocellulosic biomass. Any such strategy should aim at producing chemicals used at scales that can appropriately match lignin availability. Herein, a combined pyrolysis and low-pressure hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) process configuration is proposed to achieve total oxygen removal and obtain hydrocarbon (aromatic and alkene) products. This approach is tested for its robustness for lignin feedstocks obtained from a variety of sources and extracted using different procedures. The experimental results demonstrate that regardless of the lignin source, the HDO process using a MoO3 catalyst was able to funnel ...


Ac And Dc Differential Bridge Structure Suitable For Electrochemical Interfacial Capacitance Biosensing Applications, Sara Neshani, Charles K. A. Nyamekye, Scott Melvin, Emily A. Smith, Degang J. Chen, Nathan Neihart Mar 2020

Ac And Dc Differential Bridge Structure Suitable For Electrochemical Interfacial Capacitance Biosensing Applications, Sara Neshani, Charles K. A. Nyamekye, Scott Melvin, Emily A. Smith, Degang J. Chen, Nathan Neihart

Electrical and Computer Engineering Publications

This paper presents a capacitive differential bridge structure with both AC and DC excitation and balancing capability for low cost electrode-solution interfacial capacitance biosensing applications. The proposed series RC balancing structure offers higher sensitivity, lower susceptibility to common-mode interferences, and drift control. To evaluate the bridge performance in practice, possible effects of initial bridge imbalance due to component mismatches are investigated considering the required resolution of the balancing networks, sensitivity, and linearity. This evaluation is also a guideline to designing the balancing networks, balancing algorithm and the proceeding readout interface circuitry. The proposed series RC bridge structure is implemented along ...


An Environmental And Economic Analysis Of Flocculation Technology Applied To A Corn-Based Ethanol Plant, Maria Da Conceição T. B. E Oliveira, Kurt A. Rosentrater Feb 2020

An Environmental And Economic Analysis Of Flocculation Technology Applied To A Corn-Based Ethanol Plant, Maria Da Conceição T. B. E Oliveira, Kurt A. Rosentrater

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

The stimulation of renewable fuel production is related to the environmental issues resulting from the extraction and utilization of fossil fuels. Although corn-based ethanol is one of the leading renewable fuels and promises to mitigate these environmental impacts, it generates large volumes of wastewater with high concentrations of organic material (CODcr > 30,000 mg/L) and low pH (3.5–4.5), which leads to serious environmental concerns. A common method of treatment of distillery wastewater is the Dry Distilled Grain Soluble (DDGS) process, which separates liquid and solid fractions; however, a disadvantage of this process is its high ...


Utilization Of Mechanocatalytic Oligosaccharides By Ethanologenic Escherichia Coli As A Model Microbial Cell Factory, Tao Jin, Mats Käldström, Adriana Benavides, Marcelo D. Kaufman Rechulski, Laura R. Jarboe Feb 2020

Utilization Of Mechanocatalytic Oligosaccharides By Ethanologenic Escherichia Coli As A Model Microbial Cell Factory, Tao Jin, Mats Käldström, Adriana Benavides, Marcelo D. Kaufman Rechulski, Laura R. Jarboe

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

Mechanocatalysis is a promising method for depolymerization of lignocellulosic biomass. Microbial utilization of the resulting oligosaccharides is one potential route of adding value to the depolymerized biomass. However, it is unclear how readily these oligosaccharides are utilized by standard cell factories. Here, we investigate utilization of cellulose subjected to mechanocatalytic depolymerization, using ethanologenic Escherichia coli as a model fermentation organism. The mechanocatalytic oligosaccharides supported ethanol titers similar to those observed when glucose was provided at comparable concentrations. Tracking of the various oligomers, using maltose (alpha-1,4) and cellobiose (beta-1,4) oligomers as representative standards of the orientation, but not linkage ...


Electricity Without Fuel, Nikolai A. Zarkevich Jan 2020

Electricity Without Fuel, Nikolai A. Zarkevich

Ames Laboratory Accepted Manuscripts

Most power plants produce electricity by converting a mechanical motion into alternating current (AC). Photovoltaic solar panels convert an electromagnetic flux of light into direct current (DC). In general, electric energy can be harvested from a flux in the environment or from a change of the environment itself. One can produce electricity from mechanical, chemical, thermal, electromagnetic (light), or another physical flux, or from a change of temperature, chemical composition, or a physical field: gravitational, magnetic, electric, mechanical stress and strain, etc. Flux examples are mechanical motions of air and water, surface waves and tides, heat fluxes due to a ...


Evaluating Of Products For Mitigation Of Odor And Reduction Of Nh3, H2s, Ghg, And Voc Emissions From Swine Manure In Deep Pit Storage Structures, Baitong Chen, Jacek A. Koziel, Chumki Banik, Hantian Ma, Myeongseong Lee, Jisoo Wi, Zhanibek Meiirkhanuly, Daniel S. Andersen, Andrzej Białowiec, David B. Parker Jan 2020

Evaluating Of Products For Mitigation Of Odor And Reduction Of Nh3, H2s, Ghg, And Voc Emissions From Swine Manure In Deep Pit Storage Structures, Baitong Chen, Jacek A. Koziel, Chumki Banik, Hantian Ma, Myeongseong Lee, Jisoo Wi, Zhanibek Meiirkhanuly, Daniel S. Andersen, Andrzej Białowiec, David B. Parker

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Conference Proceedings and Presentations

Odorous gas emissions from swine production are the unwanted by-product of farmers. Manure additive has a great potential to solve this problem. Manure additives are considered low-cost and user-friendly; they can be implemented without changing the current manure storage practices. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of 12 current commercial manure additives on mitigating odor, ammonia (NH3), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), greenhouse gas (GHG), and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from stored swine manure with pilot-scale setup by strictly following the recommended dosages and procedures from the product labels. Each product was tested for 2 months while gas ...


Effects Of Uv-A Light Treatment On Ammonia In Lab-Scale, Myeongseong Lee, Jiso Wi, Jacek A. Koziel, Heekwon Ahn, Peiyang Li, Baitong Chen, Zhanibek Meiirkhanuly, Chumki Banik, William S. Jenks Jan 2020

Effects Of Uv-A Light Treatment On Ammonia In Lab-Scale, Myeongseong Lee, Jiso Wi, Jacek A. Koziel, Heekwon Ahn, Peiyang Li, Baitong Chen, Zhanibek Meiirkhanuly, Chumki Banik, William S. Jenks

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Conference Proceedings and Presentations

Gaseous emissions, a side effect of livestock and poultry production, need to be mitigated to improve sustainability. Emissions of odorous gases like ammonia (NH3) have a detrimental effect on the environment. We are building on previous research to bring advanced oxidation technologies from the lab to the farm. To date, we have shown that ultraviolet A (UV-A) has the potential to mitigate selected odorous gases in the swine production. Much less research on emissions mitigation has been conducted in the poultry production. Thus, the study objective was to investigate whether the UV-A can mitigate NH3 that is a surrogate gas ...


The Impact Of Biochar Treatment On H2s And Nh3 Emissions During Manure Agitation Prior To Pump-Out, Baitong Chen, Jacek A. Koziel, Myeongseong Lee, Hantian Ma, Zhanibek Meiirkhanuly, Peiyang Li, Andrzej Białowiec, Robert C. Brown Jan 2020

The Impact Of Biochar Treatment On H2s And Nh3 Emissions During Manure Agitation Prior To Pump-Out, Baitong Chen, Jacek A. Koziel, Myeongseong Lee, Hantian Ma, Zhanibek Meiirkhanuly, Peiyang Li, Andrzej Białowiec, Robert C. Brown

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Conference Proceedings and Presentations

Hydrogen sulfide and ammonia are always a concern in the livestock industries, especially when farmers try to clear their manure storage pits. Agitation of manure can cause dangerously high concentrations of harmful agents such as H2S and NH3 to be emitted into the air. Biochar can absorb these gases. We hypothesized that applying biochar on top of manure can create an effective barrier to protect farmers and animals from exposure to NH3 and H2S. In this study, one kind of biochar was tested, highly alkaline, and porous (HAP, pH 9.2) biochar made from ...