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Full-Text Articles in Engineering

3d Tunnel Inspection With Photogrammetric And Hybrid Systems, Michael Mett, Heiner Kontrus, Nina Müller, Stefan Eder Nov 2019

3d Tunnel Inspection With Photogrammetric And Hybrid Systems, Michael Mett, Heiner Kontrus, Nina Müller, Stefan Eder

Shotcrete for Underground Support XIV

The trend in tunnel assessment is towards comprehensive 3D measurement, either based on high quality digital imagery (photogrammetric systems) or the combination of laser and photo systems (hybrid systems). With digital 3D data, quantification and categorization of damage to the tunnel surface as well as the determination of thickness or volumes of layers (e.g. shotcrete) can performed in a comprehensive, fast and economic way.

The faster such tunnel assessment can be executed on site, the lower are the tunnel block times and environmental impairments related to the building measures. The costs for the operating companies can be significantly reduced ...


Geological 3d Analyses Of Tunnel Faces With Software And Hardware Tools Of Dibit, Stefan Eder, Heiner Kontrus, Florian König, Stefan Eder Nov 2019

Geological 3d Analyses Of Tunnel Faces With Software And Hardware Tools Of Dibit, Stefan Eder, Heiner Kontrus, Florian König, Stefan Eder

Shotcrete for Underground Support XIV

The measurement and visualization of tunnel structures is the main competence of Dibit Messtechnik GmbH (Innsbruck, Austria). As the inventor of modern 3D tunnel surveying at the end of the 1990s, Dibit is a leader in global surveying projects and develops innovative software and hardware tools for geological applications in tunnelling.

In tunnel construction, the trend is towards the comprehensive, digital 3D recording and mapping of tunnel faces, especially to measure and quantify geological structures, and to document geological conditions. This must be done under the pressure of time and the harsh conditions of progressive mining and result in objective ...


Conference Program, Dr.-Ing. Matthias Beisler, Preedee Ngamsantikul, Dr.-Ing. Dr. H. C. Herbert Klapperich, Prof. Tarcisio Celestino, Chuchai Sujivorakul Nov 2019

Conference Program, Dr.-Ing. Matthias Beisler, Preedee Ngamsantikul, Dr.-Ing. Dr. H. C. Herbert Klapperich, Prof. Tarcisio Celestino, Chuchai Sujivorakul

Shotcrete for Underground Support XIV

No abstract provided.


Additive Manufacturing Of Monomer-Free Ormocer®-Based Composites For Dental And Audiological Application, Herbert Wolter, Carina Kolb, Somchith Nique Nov 2019

Additive Manufacturing Of Monomer-Free Ormocer®-Based Composites For Dental And Audiological Application, Herbert Wolter, Carina Kolb, Somchith Nique

Composites at Lake Louise 2019

Additive manufacturing has a great potential, especially in the medical area where patient individual parts are required. However, there is still a lack of biocompatible materials which are printable and meet the high requirements of the targeted fields of end-use application (indirect dental restoration and earmolds). For this purpose, new types of inorganic-organic hybridpolymers (ORMOCERÒs) with the indispensable biocompatibility, combined with an adapted profile of properties, have been developed.

Please click Additional Files below to see the full abstract.


Conference Program, John Kieffer, Meisha Shofner, Erik Spoerke Nov 2019

Conference Program, John Kieffer, Meisha Shofner, Erik Spoerke

Composites at Lake Louise 2019

No abstract provided.


Harvesting Energy From Low-Level Vibration Using Alternate Contacts Between Water Drop And Two Dielectric Materials, Jian Yu, David Ma Nov 2019

Harvesting Energy From Low-Level Vibration Using Alternate Contacts Between Water Drop And Two Dielectric Materials, Jian Yu, David Ma

Energy Harvesting from Infrastructure and Ocean Systems (EHIOS)

Advances in low-power electronics and distributed systems have stimulated significant interests in small-scale power supply systems that generate electricity from ambient environmental energy sources. Recently, the rich electrostatic phenomena at liquid-solid interfaces have spurred renewed interest in harvesting mechanical energy through electrostatics.

Please click Additional Files below to see the full abstract.


The Water Power Technologies Office And Powering The Blue Economy, Bill Mcshane Nov 2019

The Water Power Technologies Office And Powering The Blue Economy, Bill Mcshane

Energy Harvesting from Infrastructure and Ocean Systems (EHIOS)

No Abstract.


Energy Harvesting For Micromobility Systems, Alex Kattamis, Zachary Lochner, Nov 2019

Energy Harvesting For Micromobility Systems, Alex Kattamis, Zachary Lochner,

Energy Harvesting from Infrastructure and Ocean Systems (EHIOS)

No Abstract.


Conference Program, Huiming Yin, Muhammad R. Hajj, Lei Zuo, David T. Ma Nov 2019

Conference Program, Huiming Yin, Muhammad R. Hajj, Lei Zuo, David T. Ma

Energy Harvesting from Infrastructure and Ocean Systems (EHIOS)

No abstract provided.


Porous Radiative Cooling Paint For Building Thermal Management, Yuan Yang Nov 2019

Porous Radiative Cooling Paint For Building Thermal Management, Yuan Yang

Energy Harvesting from Infrastructure and Ocean Systems (EHIOS)

Surface coating with high solar reflectance and high thermal emittance are attractive for saving energy in buildings. Conventional paints typically have a solar reflactance < 93% due to UV and near infrared absorption. Here we demonstrate a porous PVdF copolymer surface coating that shows high solar reflectance of over 96% and high thermal emittance of 0.97. When it is placed under sunlight, it can be 6 oC cooler than the environment without any electricity.


Workshop 3: Business Cases For Integrated And Continuous Biomanufacturing, Jessica Molek, Daisie Ogawa Oct 2019

Workshop 3: Business Cases For Integrated And Continuous Biomanufacturing, Jessica Molek, Daisie Ogawa

Integrated Continuous Biomanufacturing IV

No Abstract.


Control Strategies For Integrated Continuous Bioprocessing, Christoph Herwig Oct 2019

Control Strategies For Integrated Continuous Bioprocessing, Christoph Herwig

Integrated Continuous Biomanufacturing IV

Continuous Bioprocessing is perceived to deliver constant product quality and to achieve higher time space yields. This is not new. Other market segments run well established continuous processes successfully since decades. What do we need to do? Just establishing continuous single unit operations (e.g. SMB chromatography) will not suffice. We need to have an integrated look at the entire process chain and stringently use the following control strategies :

  • Capture process variability of the preceding unit operation using advanced PAT tools. Just measuring CPPs will not suffice: We need RMAs and intermediate CQAs to be transparent across the process chain ...


Continuous Process Performance Enhancements For 50 L To 500 L Single-Use Bioreactors: A Technical Comparison Of Erformance Characterization, Cell Culture, And Scale-Up Modeling, Tony Hsiao, Nephi Jones, Jordan Cobia Oct 2019

Continuous Process Performance Enhancements For 50 L To 500 L Single-Use Bioreactors: A Technical Comparison Of Erformance Characterization, Cell Culture, And Scale-Up Modeling, Tony Hsiao, Nephi Jones, Jordan Cobia

Integrated Continuous Biomanufacturing IV

Improvements in single-use systems have allowed implementation of high-density cultures in emerging bioprocess work flows. Specifically, advantages of single-use bioreactors have been realized in perfusion applications in high-density seed train intensification or as a compact production-scale bioreactor system. Due to this and additional progressive advances in media optimization and improved clone genetic selection have increased stress on the perceived performance limitations of single-use bioreactors. This study shows integration of the Thermo Scientific™ HyPerforma™ Single-Use Bioreactor (S.U.B.) and how strategic enhancements to the sparger and agitation systems have revealed the potential for 3-4X improvement of mixing and mass transfer ...


Workshop: Regulatory Gaps In Continuous Processing, Andrew Sinclair, Karen Sitney Oct 2019

Workshop: Regulatory Gaps In Continuous Processing, Andrew Sinclair, Karen Sitney

Integrated Continuous Biomanufacturing IV

1 Objectives To provide a forum for participants to discuss and share experiences relating regulatory approaches and challenges when implementing or considering ICB.

Please click Additional Files below to see the full abstract.


Hydrocyclones For Single-Use Perfusion Application, Ioná W. Bettinardi, Andreas Castan, Ricardo A. Medronho, Leda R. Castilho Oct 2019

Hydrocyclones For Single-Use Perfusion Application, Ioná W. Bettinardi, Andreas Castan, Ricardo A. Medronho, Leda R. Castilho

Integrated Continuous Biomanufacturing IV

Hydrocyclones (HC) are very compact devices that promote solid-liquid separation under the action of a centrifugal field. Despite the small size, HCs have a large processing capacity and do not suffer from clogging. Therefore, several publications explored HCs as a potential cell retention device in perfusion applications in the last 20 years, but limited to non-disposable lab-scale bioreactors and to relatively low cell densities (up to ~10 million cells/mL).

Even though the absence of moving parts may streamline the HC manufacturing, the performance of solid-liquid separation is highly dependent on the HC internal geometry. Said that, hydrocyclones can be ...


Optimization Study On Periodic Counter-Current Chromatography (Pcc) Integrated In A Mab Downstream Process, Joaquin Gomis Fons, Niklas Andersson, Bernt Nilsson Oct 2019

Optimization Study On Periodic Counter-Current Chromatography (Pcc) Integrated In A Mab Downstream Process, Joaquin Gomis Fons, Niklas Andersson, Bernt Nilsson

Integrated Continuous Biomanufacturing IV

In the biopharmaceutical market, there is an increasing pressure to reduce prices. Nowadays, a big part of the manufacturing cost is due to the product purification. A big effort has been made in this matter to reduce costs, and continuous downstream processes like periodic counter-current chromatography (PCC) have gained interest in the last years due to a higher productivity and resin utilization compared to a batch process. Herein, a PCC process is integrated with a virus inactivation and two ion-exchange chromatography steps (polishing steps) for the purification of mAb at lab scale, and multi-objective optimization is used to compare several ...


Conference Program, Veena Warikoo, Alois Jungbauer, Jon Coffman, Jason Walther Oct 2019

Conference Program, Veena Warikoo, Alois Jungbauer, Jon Coffman, Jason Walther

Integrated Continuous Biomanufacturing IV

No Abstract.


Experimental Design And Small-Scale Model For High-Performing Perfusion Media And Processes Scalable To 50 L Bioreactors, Andreas Castan, Patrick M Ayrhofer, Renate Kunert Oct 2019

Experimental Design And Small-Scale Model For High-Performing Perfusion Media And Processes Scalable To 50 L Bioreactors, Andreas Castan, Patrick M Ayrhofer, Renate Kunert

Integrated Continuous Biomanufacturing IV

Cell culture perfusion processes are considered optimal for a truly integrated continuous biomanufacturing pipeline. The nutrient-rich but balanced media should be designed to support very low cell-specific perfusion rates (CSPR) that minimize media consumption but maximize viable cell days and productivities. Optimized processes at low CSPR drastically reduce equipment costs, lab space, and product dilution. Finally, operating at very low CSPR enables running mammalian cell bioprocesses as true chemostat cultures in the future. We demonstrate a general workflow to develop high-performing perfusion media using small-scale models and transferred the process to 50 L scale at CSPR of 20 pL/c ...


Production Of Zika Virus-Like Particles (Vlps) By Perfusion Processes, Renata G. F. Alvim, Leda R. Castilho Oct 2019

Production Of Zika Virus-Like Particles (Vlps) By Perfusion Processes, Renata G. F. Alvim, Leda R. Castilho

Integrated Continuous Biomanufacturing IV

Zika virus (ZIKV) emerged as a major international public health concern in 2015 and rapidly spread to more than 80 countries in Africa, Asia and the Americas. ZIKV infection has been shown to cause Guillain-Barré syndrome in adults, as well as severe congenital malformations in fetuses from as much as 42% of infected mothers (Brasil et al., 2016, doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1602412). While no ZIKV vaccine becomes approved for human use, periodic outbreaks will continue to occur in endemic regions and the risk of spreading to non-endemic regions will continue to exist, especially because ZIKV persists in body fluids for ...


Surface Acoustic Wave Spectroscopy Versus Nanoindentation: Potentials And Limits For Coating Characterization, Martin Zawischa, Dieter Schneider, Stefan, Makowski, Lars Lorenz Oct 2019

Surface Acoustic Wave Spectroscopy Versus Nanoindentation: Potentials And Limits For Coating Characterization, Martin Zawischa, Dieter Schneider, Stefan, Makowski, Lars Lorenz

Nanomechanical Testing in Materials Research and Development VII

Measuring mechanical film properties is essential for understanding and designing coating systems as well for controlling quality in coating manufacturing. Since more than two decades, two methods for determining Young’s modulus and other mechanical properties of thin films are widely used: The instrumented indentation technique (nanoindentation) and the laser-induced surface acoustic wave spectroscopy (LiSAWS). Due to their different physical principles, both methods address different fields of application but also complement each other. This presentation gives an overview for typical applications, strengths and limits for both methods from practical points of view like precision, requirements for sample material, preparation and ...


Effect Of Anisotropic Elasticity On Dislocation Pile-Ups At Grain Boundaries, Xiaolei Chen, Stéphane Berbenni, Christian Motz, Thiebaud Richeton Sep 2019

Effect Of Anisotropic Elasticity On Dislocation Pile-Ups At Grain Boundaries, Xiaolei Chen, Stéphane Berbenni, Christian Motz, Thiebaud Richeton

Nanomechanical Testing in Materials Research and Development VII

This study deals with in-situ micromechanical tests of micron-sized bi-crystals and observations coupling SEM, AFM and EBSD. Different FCC bi-crystals are obtained from FIB machining. A SEM in-situ compression test with a low strain is performed on a micron-sized bi-crystal in order to induce single slip deformation. Spatial variations in the surface step height due to dislocation activity in localized slip bands terminating at the grain boundary (GB) are measured by AFM. This allows the determination of the Burgers vector distribution and hence the dislocation positions in the pile-up as shown in Figure 1. Furthermore, local misorientation along slip bands ...


Conference Program, Jon Molina-Aldareguia Sep 2019

Conference Program, Jon Molina-Aldareguia

Nanomechanical Testing in Materials Research and Development VII

No abstract provided.


Adsorption Of Pb2+ On Magnetic Modified Hemp Biochar Prepared Using Microwave-Assisted Pyrolysis, Muhammad T. Afzal, Patrick Godwin, Huining Xiao Sep 2019

Adsorption Of Pb2+ On Magnetic Modified Hemp Biochar Prepared Using Microwave-Assisted Pyrolysis, Muhammad T. Afzal, Patrick Godwin, Huining Xiao

Bio-Char II: Production, Characterization and Applications

Magnetic modified hemp biochar with an aim of high adsorption capacity and rapid adsorption rate was prepared by two simple steps using microwave pyrolyzed biochar. This was investigated as a potential green adsorbent for lead remediation from wastewater in a batch-mode experiment. The 150 – 300 µm biochar particles obtained from microwave-assisted pyrolysis of 1.5 kg hemp biomass batch at an average temperature of 600˚C were first impregnated with H2O2 and then magnetized by mixing aqueous biochar suspensions with aqueous Fe3+/Fe2+ solutions. The composition, morphology and surface chemistries of this magnetic biochar was ...


Immobilization Of Heavy Metal In Contaminated Mine Technosols Using Biochar: A Phytomanagement Strategy, Domenico Morabito, Manhattan Lebrun, Romain Nandillon, Florie Miard, Nour Hattab Hambli, Simon Chevolleau, Melissa Simiele, Sylvain Bourgerie Sep 2019

Immobilization Of Heavy Metal In Contaminated Mine Technosols Using Biochar: A Phytomanagement Strategy, Domenico Morabito, Manhattan Lebrun, Romain Nandillon, Florie Miard, Nour Hattab Hambli, Simon Chevolleau, Melissa Simiele, Sylvain Bourgerie

Bio-Char II: Production, Characterization and Applications

Soil contamination by metal(loid)s is one of the most important environmental problem. It leads to loss

of environment biodiversity and soil functions and can have harmful effects on human health. Therefore,

contaminated soils could be remediated, using phytomanagement. Indeed, plant growth will improve soil

conditions while accumulating metal(loid)s and modifying their mobility. However, due to the poor

fertility and high metal(loid)s levels of these soils, amendments, like biochar, has to be applied.

Phytomanagement is a technique for rehabilitating these soils and reducing the spread of pollutants. To this end, it is advisable to stabilize ...


Biochar And Organic Matter Co-Composting: A Critical Review, David Chiaramonti, David Casini, Tommaso Barsali, Yuri Herreras Yambanis, Javi Prieto Ruiz Sep 2019

Biochar And Organic Matter Co-Composting: A Critical Review, David Chiaramonti, David Casini, Tommaso Barsali, Yuri Herreras Yambanis, Javi Prieto Ruiz

Bio-Char II: Production, Characterization and Applications

The H2020 BIO4A project aims at producing and deploying Sustainable Aviation Fuels (SAF) at large scale in Europe. A major oil refinery, owned and operated by Total based on Axen’s technology, will run in non-segregated full jet-mode, targeting the production of 5 kt of ASTM-certified bio-based HEFA jet fuel. The produced SAF will then be used in commercial passenger flights: the demonstration activities will be complemented by market and policy analysis. While this part of BIO4A represent the industrial component of the project, the issue of developing additional alternative routes for supplying sustainable lipids to the HVO process represents ...


Biochar Based Silicon Composites For Sensors Applications, Mauro Giorcelli, Mattia Bartoli, Alberto Tagliaferro, Carlo Rosso Sep 2019

Biochar Based Silicon Composites For Sensors Applications, Mauro Giorcelli, Mattia Bartoli, Alberto Tagliaferro, Carlo Rosso

Bio-Char II: Production, Characterization and Applications

Nowadays, the development of innovative sensors represents a field of great interest in the scientific community because of their ever increasing application in everyday life. Piezoresistive transducers are among the most interesting not only as sensors but also as actuators. They are of interest for a number of applicative fields ranging from pressure sensors to applications in nanomanipulation.

Please click Additional Files below to see the full abstract.


The Role Of Feedstock For Biochar And Energy In Reducing The Carbon Footprint Of Bioenergy Projects — A Case Study In North Europe, Lydia Fryda, Rian Visser Sep 2019

The Role Of Feedstock For Biochar And Energy In Reducing The Carbon Footprint Of Bioenergy Projects — A Case Study In North Europe, Lydia Fryda, Rian Visser

Bio-Char II: Production, Characterization and Applications

The study evaluates the GHG emissions of biochar & bioenergy production in a low temperature gasifier based on various feedstocks. A LCA approach is used to assess the environmental impact of the production and use of biochar for selected applications including the whole feedstock supply chain. Three kinds of feedstock were evaluated, namely (1) agro-residues and municipal forest residues (2) clean wood from sustainable forestry (e.g. pine) and (3) fast growing energy crops (short rotation coppice) Miscanthus and/or willow.

The scenarios considered are:

(1) Co-production of bioenergy (syngas) and biochar in a low temperature gasification unit, feedstock used agro-residues and park residues. The biochar is used as soil improver due to its high nutrient content. Syngas is used for heat production in a gas boiler, replacing NG boilers, while biochar is considered a CCS option (BECCS = BioEnergy Carbon Capture & Storage). The reasoning is, residual feedstock streams (agro-waste and park residues) are abundant, and need to be treated anyway. The option of gasification as a treatment process offers the possibility to return part of the carbon to the soil and sequester it (negative CO2 flow = CCS) and also replace part of fossil energy demand by producing energy from waste material (neutral CO2 flow).

(2) Dedicated production of biochar in a pyrolysis unit ( PyroCCS_1). Feedstocks used agro-residues and park residues, same as in Case 1. The product is used as soil improver, for example in poor degraded soils. In contrast to option (1, BECCS) , no fossil energy is replaced because no surplus energy is co-produced.

(3) Dedicated production of biochar in a pyrolysis unit, feedstock used is pine and miscanthus from sustainable forestry. The product, due to its high quality, is entirely used in sustainable growing media replacing peat (PyroCCS_2), and at the end of life it is disposed in the soil. The reason is, high quality biochar should be used for high value end products, such as substrates for high market price products (strawberry, tomato, horticulture).

The functional unit is the use of 1 kg feedstock. All results on GHG emission reduction and other impact categories refer to 1 kg input feedstock. The choice of this functional unit allows the comparison of the scenarios that may have a different purpose, namely producing only biochar or co-producing biochar and bioenergy. In the case of co-produced bioenergy (in the form if syngas) and biochar, the bioenergy part replaces fossil energy from natural gas.Tradeoffs are identified, which influence the final GHG emission mitigation potential per case; biochar is always disposed of in the soil and thus is considered a CCS option.


Comparative Analysis Of Low Nitrogen Emissions Fertilizers Based On Activated Carbon From Residual Materials, Javier Pallarés Ranz, Javier Pallarés Ranz, Maite López-Franco Jiménez Sep 2019

Comparative Analysis Of Low Nitrogen Emissions Fertilizers Based On Activated Carbon From Residual Materials, Javier Pallarés Ranz, Javier Pallarés Ranz, Maite López-Franco Jiménez

Bio-Char II: Production, Characterization and Applications

Nitrate leaching and ammonia volatilization are the main pathways of nitrogen loss in agriculture. New environmentally friendly fertilizers have been investigated in recent years in order to reduce nitrogen losses and associated impacts [1]. One suggested solution has been to incorporate biochar as soil amendment, since its effects on nitrogen retention and soil fertility are well known [2, 3]. Fertilizer production from activated biocarbon is the researched line explored in this work. Biochar has been produced from two different raw materials, residual biomass and coal mine residues. Both have been produced through a physical activation process in an externally heated ...


Biochar - Just A Black Matter Is Not Enough!, Andreas Hornung, Fabian Stenzel Sep 2019

Biochar - Just A Black Matter Is Not Enough!, Andreas Hornung, Fabian Stenzel

Bio-Char II: Production, Characterization and Applications

What differs biochar from charcoal? The simple answer is: Biochar is a carbon rich product obtained from the thermal decomposition of organic material, at the presence of no or a little oxygen. As we can see in principle, the production of biochar is comparable to the production of charcoal, one of the oldest and most established processes used by mankind. While charcoal is made traditionally from wood, biochar can be based on a wide range of biomass and biomass residues.

However, a variety of technologies for the production of biochar was developed in the recent years. The technologies are based ...


Changes In Pore Size Distribution With Pyrolysis Temperature, Particle Aspect Ratio And Pretreatment By Leaching Of Large Beech Wood Particles, Przemyslaw Maziarka, Peter Sommersacher, Stefan Retschitzegger, Wolter Prins, Frederik Ronsse Sep 2019

Changes In Pore Size Distribution With Pyrolysis Temperature, Particle Aspect Ratio And Pretreatment By Leaching Of Large Beech Wood Particles, Przemyslaw Maziarka, Peter Sommersacher, Stefan Retschitzegger, Wolter Prins, Frederik Ronsse

Bio-Char II: Production, Characterization and Applications

When assessing the usefulness of pyrolysis chars as porous materials for the application as adsorbents, catalysts or catalyst supports, one of the most important parameters of the assessment, besides the specific surface area, is their pore size distribution [1, 2]. The aforementioned processes are highly pore size selective, hence inappropriate pores sizes of the applied material can lead to the material’s uselessness for a given application. In terms of the application of pyrolysis char as a soil amendment (i.e., biochar), pore size also plays a major role. For example, in case of a too large share of micropores ...