Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Engineering Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

Discipline
Keyword
Publication Year
Publication
Publication Type
File Type

Articles 1 - 30 of 1759

Full-Text Articles in Engineering

A New Framework For Securing, Extracting And Analyzing Big Forensic Data, Hitesh Sachdev, Hayden Wimmer, Lei Chen, Carl Rebman Oct 2018

A New Framework For Securing, Extracting And Analyzing Big Forensic Data, Hitesh Sachdev, Hayden Wimmer, Lei Chen, Carl Rebman

Journal of Digital Forensics, Security and Law

Finding new methods to investigate criminal activities, behaviors, and responsibilities has always been a challenge for forensic research. Advances in big data, technology, and increased capabilities of smartphones has contributed to the demand for modern techniques of examination. Smartphones are ubiquitous, transformative, and have become a goldmine for forensics research. Given the right tools and research methods investigating agencies can help crack almost any illegal activity using smartphones. This paper focuses on conducting forensic analysis in exposing a terrorist or criminal network and introduces a new Big Forensic Data Framework model where different technologies of Hadoop and EnCase software are ...


Julia Language Ephemeris And Physical Constants Reader For Solar System Bodies, Julia Mihaylov, Renee Spear Oct 2018

Julia Language Ephemeris And Physical Constants Reader For Solar System Bodies, Julia Mihaylov, Renee Spear

Undergraduate Research Symposium - Prescott

This presentation was the forerunner a second paper by the authors for the AAS/AIAA conference in January 2019, and is not available for download. For a description of the first presentation, see the authors' Discovery Day 2018 - Presentation.

Publicly released in 2012, the Julia language is a relatively new, open source dynamic language. One major benefit of Julia is its combined capabilities of both dynamic and static coding languages. It nearly matches the computational efficiency of static languages, such as FORTRAN or C, and exceeds that of dynamic languages, such as MATLAB or Python. Additionally, unlike Python, Julia was ...


Design Of A Heavy Lift Rc Aircraft - Society Of Automotive Engineers (Sae) Aero Design® West Competition Team, Jiyoung Hwang, Phillip Nielsen Oct 2018

Design Of A Heavy Lift Rc Aircraft - Society Of Automotive Engineers (Sae) Aero Design® West Competition Team, Jiyoung Hwang, Phillip Nielsen

Undergraduate Research Symposium - Prescott

The SAE Aero West design competition challenges undergraduate students to design and build an RC aircraft that will fly with the maximum number of passengers and luggage possible. The ERAU SAE team focuses on simulation-based research and project methods such as Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), aircraft optimization, and Finite Element Analysis (FEA). Designing and manufacturing a well-designed heavy lift aircraft and competing with other groups will give experience in solving engineering problems. The Aerodynamics team is currently focusing on score optimization, aircraft performance and configuration. The propulsion team is constructing a test rig to test various propellers and motors to ...


Design Of A Thrust Stand For Low Power Electric Propulsion, John Norton Oct 2018

Design Of A Thrust Stand For Low Power Electric Propulsion, John Norton

Undergraduate Research Symposium - Prescott

Electric propulsion (EP) has been gaining popularity due to the high efficiencies and specific impulse. These thrusters all follow the same general idea of converting stored electrical potential energy to kinetic energy for the craft; typically, this is accomplished by the acceleration of gas particles through three main methods, electrothermal, electromagnetic, and/or electrostatic. The specific impulse is the change of momentum per unit of propellant expended. While chemical propulsion produces a high change in momentum, they use much more propellant mass than an electric thruster. EP devices will typically produce very low thrust, which makes it difficult to measure ...


Fly This Sim! Basic Aircrew Training Device (Batd) Impact On Student Progression And Retention, Jordan Stephens Oct 2018

Fly This Sim! Basic Aircrew Training Device (Batd) Impact On Student Progression And Retention, Jordan Stephens

Undergraduate Research Symposium - Prescott

The researchers’ goal was to design a project implemented in Fall 2018 which studies the effect of using a Helicopter Basic Aircrew Training Device (BATD) on helicopter flight student progression and retention. Measuring the efficacy of the BATD will allow ERAU to determine the need for purchase of additional BATDs in the future. The design included the methodology and preparation of all of the materials required to undertake the Fall project. This included a student focus group design, student survey design, student progress tracker, BATD utilization tracker, data analysis plan, design and testing of the practical skills to be practiced ...


Developing High Performance Grid Computing Systems On A Budget, Forrest Mobley Oct 2018

Developing High Performance Grid Computing Systems On A Budget, Forrest Mobley

Undergraduate Research Symposium - Prescott

High performance grid computing systems are essential for today’s engineering and research projects, as they make certain impossibilities possible, and save time and money as well. However, these supercomputers can cost upwards of a hundred million dollars and require large amounts of space and energy to keep, making them all but inaccessible to small engineering firms and universities. As most of these institutions do not require the massive level of computing power offered by these large grid computers, small scale versions are often built, with various setups. The purpose of this project was to set up a new small ...


Project Janus, Theodore J. Lilyeblade, Jacqueline Worley, Garrison Bybee Oct 2018

Project Janus, Theodore J. Lilyeblade, Jacqueline Worley, Garrison Bybee

Undergraduate Research Symposium - Prescott

The development goal of Project Janus is to design, fabricate, and program two robotic heads that can serve as animatronic chatbots. Each robotic head will be equipped with two USB webcams, a mono speaker within the robot’s mouth, and a pair of microphones. Additionally, each robotic head will feature a three degree of freedom neck, a one degree-of-freedom jaw, and a two degree-of-freedom gimbal for the eyes upon which the cameras will be mounted. The robotic heads will be interfaced to separate internet connected personal computers. Through these computers, they will make use of online speech recognition tools, online ...


Eagle Aero Sport: Student-Built Aircraft, Rachael Bradshaw, Nick Bartholet Oct 2018

Eagle Aero Sport: Student-Built Aircraft, Rachael Bradshaw, Nick Bartholet

Undergraduate Research Symposium - Prescott

Eagle Aero Sport (EAS) is the first student operated aircraft build team at Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University. Our team allows students to gain hands-on experience in all aspects of aircraft production including: aircraft assembly, design engineering, management of production operations, finance, marketing, and team building skills. Through research, and consulting with the Experimental Aircraft Association, our airplane of choice is the Van’s RV-12. EAS is modifying the airplane to add real time flight test instrumentation for research. These instruments will gather data for aerodynamic, structural, as well as aircraft performance experiments. Presently, EAS is progressing with Build Team 60% complete ...


An Analysis Of Cabin Ozone Regulations, Taylor L. Pottinger, Cheryl L. Marcham Aug 2018

An Analysis Of Cabin Ozone Regulations, Taylor L. Pottinger, Cheryl L. Marcham

Publications

Exposure to elevated levels of ozone have been reported to be associated with complaints of discomfort such as dry mouth, eye irritation and dryness, nasal irritation coughing, and headaches. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) established regulatory requirements in 1980 to limit cabin ozone levels to no more than 0.25 parts per million (ppm) at any time or 0.1 ppm averaged over a 3-hour interval for any flight over four hours in length. The FAA also published an Advisory Circular (AC), AC 120-38, to provide guidance to air carriers on how to comply with these then new ozone regulations ...


Quantitative Jeopardy Feud, Jonathan M. Gallimore Aug 2018

Quantitative Jeopardy Feud, Jonathan M. Gallimore

MSF 600 PR - Gallimore - Fall 2018

This activity - Quantitative Jeopardy Feud - is a method for using a game as a final exam.


An Alternative Method Of Identification Of A Failed Engine In Twin-Engine Propeller Aircraft, Andrey Babin, Andrew R. Dattel Ph.D. Aug 2018

An Alternative Method Of Identification Of A Failed Engine In Twin-Engine Propeller Aircraft, Andrey Babin, Andrew R. Dattel Ph.D.

National Training Aircraft Symposium (NTAS)

Previous research revealed that wrong identification of a failed engine during flight is not an uncommon event in twin-engine propeller aircraft. Most accidents of this type have happened on takeoff when pilot workload was at its highest level. This study was based on the assumption that the “dead leg – dead engine” method was not efficient enough. An alternative method of identification of a failed engine, which involved a visual indicator inside a cockpit, was introduced and tested. Method: Student pilots from Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University who had not obtained multi-engine (MEL) rating were sampled and assigned to two groups – either the ...


A Study Of Human-Machine Interface (Hmi) Learnability For Unmanned Aircraft Systems Command And Control, Tom Haritos Ph.D. Aug 2018

A Study Of Human-Machine Interface (Hmi) Learnability For Unmanned Aircraft Systems Command And Control, Tom Haritos Ph.D.

National Training Aircraft Symposium (NTAS)

The operation of sophisticated unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) involves complex interactions between human and machine. Unlike other areas of aviation where technological advancement has flourished to accommodate the modernization of the National Airspace System (NAS), the scientific paradigm of UAS user interface design has received little research attention. This study examined system learnability of an industry standard UAS HMI as minimal usability data exists to support the state-of-the art for innovative command and control user interface designs. Data collected pertained to the three classes of objective usability measures as prescribed by the ISO 9241-11. The three classes included: (1) effectiveness ...


Aviation Cybersecurity: An Overview, Gary C. Kessler, J. Philip Craiger Aug 2018

Aviation Cybersecurity: An Overview, Gary C. Kessler, J. Philip Craiger

National Training Aircraft Symposium (NTAS)

Information security—aka cybersecurity—is the most rapidly growing threat to critical infrastructures, including the aviation industry. Due to the plethora of digital devices, ubiquity of the Internet and other networks, and the rapid growth in the adoption of technology, everyone is an information system security manager. Every professional in the aviation and aeronautics industry use computers, mobile devices, tablets, GPS devices, and/or other hardware on a daily basis, as well as go online for a variety of reasons.

Attacks on information have been ongoing since the inception of the industry a hundred years ago, in such forms as ...


Gender Difference In Situation Awareness When Receiving Wayfinding Direction By Landmarks And Headings, Ziyi Dong Aug 2018

Gender Difference In Situation Awareness When Receiving Wayfinding Direction By Landmarks And Headings, Ziyi Dong

National Training Aircraft Symposium (NTAS)

This paper explores how gender differences affect wayfinding strategies and how gender differences and wayfinding preferences can explain variances with situation awareness (SA) in dynamic environments. Four hypotheses were tested: H1: women navigate better from landmarks cues. H2: men navigate better from cardinal directions (i.e., south and northeast). H3: women have better SA than men when given landmarks directions. H4: men show better SA when given cardinal directions. In this study, 38 participants drove a driving simulator twice — once with landmarks and once with headings instructions. These two types of instructions were presented in a random counterbalanced order. Participants ...


A Method Of Identification Of A Failed Engine In Twin-Engine Turboprop Aircraft: A Survey, Andrey Babin, Andrew R. Dattel Ph.D. Aug 2018

A Method Of Identification Of A Failed Engine In Twin-Engine Turboprop Aircraft: A Survey, Andrey Babin, Andrew R. Dattel Ph.D.

National Training Aircraft Symposium (NTAS)

Previous research identified that wrong identification of a failed engine during a flight is not an uncommon event in an aircraft cockpit. A number of fatal accidents in the past, including the recent TransAsia Flight 235 accident, resulted from failed engine mis-identification. Most accidents of this type happened on takeoff when pilot workload was at its highest level. A short survey was created and distributed among airline pilots who operate twin-engine turboprop aircraft to gather their opinions regarding the issue. Forty-nine pilots responded to the survey. The average flight experience was more than 6,000 flight hours and almost nine ...


Personal Safety Culture: A New Measure For General Aviation Pilots, Bradley S. Baugh, Kimberly M. Bracewell, Urara Takano, Mattie N. Milner, Emily C. Anania, Nadine K. Ragbir, Mudhur Bharat Gupta, Diego M. Garcia, Drishti O. Valecha, Daniel A. Marte, Scott R. Winter, Stephen Rice Aug 2018

Personal Safety Culture: A New Measure For General Aviation Pilots, Bradley S. Baugh, Kimberly M. Bracewell, Urara Takano, Mattie N. Milner, Emily C. Anania, Nadine K. Ragbir, Mudhur Bharat Gupta, Diego M. Garcia, Drishti O. Valecha, Daniel A. Marte, Scott R. Winter, Stephen Rice

National Training Aircraft Symposium (NTAS)

Safety culture has been a subject of research for over three decades and is now widely accepted as a critical component of organizational safety programs both domestically and internationally. Through the development of a healthy safety culture, aviation organizations can improve safety processes, reduce mishaps, and mitigate risk more effectively. This is done through the holistic team efforts of an organization’s members and the organization’s leadership. How about aviators who are not part of an organization? Is it possible to identify a personal safety culture defined outside of the traditional organization? And, is it possible to create an ...


Effects Of Lighting And Noise On Performance And Situation Awareness In An Air Traffic Control Task, Saralee Pruksaritanon, Andrew Dattel Ph.D., Steven Hampton Ed.D. Aug 2018

Effects Of Lighting And Noise On Performance And Situation Awareness In An Air Traffic Control Task, Saralee Pruksaritanon, Andrew Dattel Ph.D., Steven Hampton Ed.D.

National Training Aircraft Symposium (NTAS)

Work environment influences an individual’s performance and situation awareness (SA). This study aims to investigate the effects of lighting and noise levels on performance and situation awareness in an air traffic control (ATC) task. These two variables are important in the domain of ATC because the task requires an individual to receive and process information both visually and auditorily. The results are useful for designing air traffic control rooms, which are set differently among different air navigation service providers. The subjects are 16 students majoring in Air Traffic Management (ATM) at Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University (ERAU) – Daytona Beach, FL. The ...


Human Factors Evaluation Of Laptops As A Technical Data Repository In Aircraft Maintenance, Sarah Talley, Christopher Groom Aug 2018

Human Factors Evaluation Of Laptops As A Technical Data Repository In Aircraft Maintenance, Sarah Talley, Christopher Groom

National Training Aircraft Symposium (NTAS)

Digital technology is employed more and more in society for both personal and professional use. Specifically, laptops and tablets are used in diverse environments in a variety of capacities. In the aircraft maintenance environment, many instances of technical data repositories exist in paper form. Retrieval and interaction with these documents can be limiting and introduce human factors that are less than ideal for maintenance operations. The deployment of laptops can alleviate some of those strains and offer a more ergonomic solution for technical data repositories. However, despite the many benefits introduced by technology, laptops may also present ergonomic strains not ...


Enhancing Aviation Maintenance Training Using Scenario-Based Education, Raymond Thompson Aug 2018

Enhancing Aviation Maintenance Training Using Scenario-Based Education, Raymond Thompson

National Training Aircraft Symposium (NTAS)

Aviation maintenance technician training programs primarily utilize general aviation equipment. Most graduates in the current demand-driven environment are taking positions with air carriers and MRO’s. Industry reports that new technicians required between 2 – 5 years of further training and experience to be considered able to work independently on the shop floor which exacerbates the technician shortage.

Scenario-based education provides graduates with an experience that provides a greater understanding of how large aircraft maintenance is developed and delivered in comparison to small general aviation aircraft. This will allow new hires to become capable of independent work in a shorter time ...


Uas Maintenance: A Critical Component In Maintaining Airworthiness, Bettina M. Mrusek Ph.D., Patti J. Clark Ph.D., Kristy W. Kiernan Ph.D. Aug 2018

Uas Maintenance: A Critical Component In Maintaining Airworthiness, Bettina M. Mrusek Ph.D., Patti J. Clark Ph.D., Kristy W. Kiernan Ph.D.

National Training Aircraft Symposium (NTAS)

Over the last several decades, the notion of traditional aircraft design has significantly changed. While there are many modern aircraft that resemble earlier models, their components, systems, and overall architecture have evolved, including the introduction of small unmanned aircraft systems. Despite the growing consumer attraction to own and operate these aircraft, the subsequent impact on safety is an area of intense concern. The requirement of an established maintenance program for manned aircraft is rooted in ensuring that all aircraft are deemed safe for flight. Preventive maintenance schedules are based on component reliability data, which minimizes unnecessary maintenance while preventing maintenance-related ...


The 4 C'S Model - A Common Framework For Professional Aviator Development, Kenyatta Hents Ruffin Aug 2018

The 4 C'S Model - A Common Framework For Professional Aviator Development, Kenyatta Hents Ruffin

National Training Aircraft Symposium (NTAS)

The United States Air Force currently has an acute shortage of pilots while simultaneously, the commercial airline industry is currently experiencing unprecedented growth. With 100's of thousands aviation professionals required over the next 15-25 years, the need for a collaborative and comprehensive approach to attract, motivate, and prepare the next generation of aerospace leaders is clear. The 4C's Model presents a partnered civil-military strategy to efficiently and effectively take youth from from the cradle to the cockpit. Through deliberate, engaging activities over the course of four distinct time periods—childhood, college, cockpit, career—with specific outcomes, the 4C ...


Enhanced Learnability Of Flight Techniques Through The Introduction Of Targeted Observation Flights With Ab-Initio Through Advanced Flight Training Candidates, Gary A. Carter M.Div., Nicola M. O'Toole M.S., John M. Robbins Ph.D. Aug 2018

Enhanced Learnability Of Flight Techniques Through The Introduction Of Targeted Observation Flights With Ab-Initio Through Advanced Flight Training Candidates, Gary A. Carter M.Div., Nicola M. O'Toole M.S., John M. Robbins Ph.D.

National Training Aircraft Symposium (NTAS)

Flight training paradigms exist to provide a framework for instructors to relay both technical and applied knowledge to students in the most efficient way possible. Traditional methods imply the use of pre/post flight briefings coincident with flight in either an actual or simulated environments. The demonstration of maneuvers may be accomplished by the instructor followed by the student or solely by the student. In this phase, aeronautical knowledge, procedural knowledge, and performance metrics are usually assessed. With regard to enhanced learnability, the study of effectiveness becomes critical to the application of new methods that could significantly lower the amount ...


Suas: Cybersecurity Threats, Vulnerabilities, And Exploits, Philip Craiger, Gary Kessler, William Rose Aug 2018

Suas: Cybersecurity Threats, Vulnerabilities, And Exploits, Philip Craiger, Gary Kessler, William Rose

National Training Aircraft Symposium (NTAS)

The FAA predicts that purchases of hobbyist small unmanned aerial systems (sUAS) will grow from 1.9 million in 2016 to 4.3 million by 2020, and commercial sUAS to increase from 600,000 in 2016 to 2.7 million by 2020. sUAS, often referred to as 'drones,' are comprised of aeronautical hardware, a CPU, RAM, onboard storage, radio frequency communications, sensors, a camera, and a controller used by the pilot-in-command (PIC). Some have argued that a sUAS is essentially a flying computer. As such, sUAS are sometimes susceptible to many of the types of attacks that are often used ...


Uas Pilots Code: Tools To Advance Uas Safety & Professionalism, Ryan J. Wallace Ed.D., John M. Robbins Ph.D. Aug 2018

Uas Pilots Code: Tools To Advance Uas Safety & Professionalism, Ryan J. Wallace Ed.D., John M. Robbins Ph.D.

National Training Aircraft Symposium (NTAS)

As unmanned aircraft operations become more ubiquitous in the National Airspace System, one of the key remaining challenges is instilling the precepts of safety culture, aviation professionalism, airmanship, and effective aeronautical decision-making among these non-traditional aviators. To address these challenges, researchers codified best practices and operational recommendations from across the UAS industry, collectively publishing them in a compendium titled the UAS Pilots Code (UASPC). Guidance for the UASPC was informed by material assembled from leading governmental and industry organizations including: FAA, AEA, AMA, AOPA, ASTM, AUVSI, CANSO, EAA, EASA, EUROCAE, ICAO, ISO, JARUS, NBAA, RTCA, SAE, UVS, and others. Extensive ...


Assessing Small Uas Operator Flight Behavior And Potential Interference With Aviation Operations In Controlled Airspace, Ryan J. Wallace Ed.D., Tom Haritos Ph.D., John M. Robbins Ph.D. Aug 2018

Assessing Small Uas Operator Flight Behavior And Potential Interference With Aviation Operations In Controlled Airspace, Ryan J. Wallace Ed.D., Tom Haritos Ph.D., John M. Robbins Ph.D.

National Training Aircraft Symposium (NTAS)

The rapid rise of small UAS (sUAS) operations in the National Airspace System is generating an increasing concern about possible interference with manned aircraft. Reported sightings of UAS by manned aircraft pilots rose from an average of 147 sightings per month in 2016 to 188 sightings per month in the first three quarters of 2017. The purpose of this study was to evaluate sUAS operator behaviors and identify sUAS interference with aviation operations in the sample area. The authors partnered with a UAS technology company to deploy an AeroScope, a passive radio frequency detection device, in proximity to Tampa International ...


Clean-Fuel E-Vtol Air Mobility Vehicles For Unmanned And Manned Operations, Larry D. Mccarroll, Brian Morrison, Bruce J. Holmes D.E., Faiaa, Fraes, Henry Vu Aug 2018

Clean-Fuel E-Vtol Air Mobility Vehicles For Unmanned And Manned Operations, Larry D. Mccarroll, Brian Morrison, Bruce J. Holmes D.E., Faiaa, Fraes, Henry Vu

National Training Aircraft Symposium (NTAS)

Imagine for a moment, having your very own safe, affordable, clean-fuel, point-to-any point vehicle for travel in the 21st-century 3-dimensional airspace system. Your ultra-reliable e-VTOL allows commuters to leave behind the constraints of hub-and-spoke airports, and the congestion of interstates, turnpikes and freeways. Facilitating Inter- and Intra-urban travel, such as downtown-to-airport, or metropolis-to-metropolis, or home-to-work. Perfect for dense urban environments worldwide. And all while offering the clean power of hydrogen for zero-emission travel.

This vision for efficient, clean, delay-free mobility has been talked about for decades, but always waived aside as some kind of futurist vision. This future requires tackling ...


Advanced Uas Training; Integration Of Remote Live Aircraft Crash Investigation With Uas, Scott S. Burgess Aug 2018

Advanced Uas Training; Integration Of Remote Live Aircraft Crash Investigation With Uas, Scott S. Burgess

National Training Aircraft Symposium (NTAS)

Current Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) flight training generally operates at the ab-initio level. As UAS flight and academic programs evolve, so also must UAS training advance, specifically regarding new and evolving uses of UAS. This task must present a quality delivery in a distributed modality. As an example, integration of UAS into missions such as aircraft crash investigation are occurring or in development with safety investigators globally. Bringing this type of specialization (theory and practice) to academia must follow, but currently can only be done well in a face-to-face setting. Near term technology for UAS will allow distribution of a ...


Jetblue Pilot Gateway Programs: Creative Approaches To Pilot Sourcing, Nancy Shane Ph.D. Aug 2018

Jetblue Pilot Gateway Programs: Creative Approaches To Pilot Sourcing, Nancy Shane Ph.D.

National Training Aircraft Symposium (NTAS)

The JetBlue University Gateway program was the first pathway program in our industry. When it started, it offered the only structured path for aviation students to earn an aviation degree, build time as a flight instructor, gain experience at a regional partner and then end up as a first officer – and eventually a captain - on a JetBlue airplane. Now almost 10 years after its inception, the program continues to help young pilots as they make their way from dreaming of the skies to sitting in a JetBlue airplane. While still going strong, the University Gateway program is not the only ...


Implementing Immersive Virtual Reality In An Aviation/Aerospace Teaching And Learning Paradigm, Tom Haritos, Stephanie G. Fussell Aug 2018

Implementing Immersive Virtual Reality In An Aviation/Aerospace Teaching And Learning Paradigm, Tom Haritos, Stephanie G. Fussell

National Training Aircraft Symposium (NTAS)

The ubiquity of computing technology has revolutionized the workplace and has also had a significant impact on education. The use of interactive simulations based on virtual reality (VR), augmented reality (AR), and mixed reality (MR) has gained wide acceptance and become a prominent mechanism for learning to occur. Interactive simulations may afford unique learning advantages revealed as effective knowledge retention and skill transfer when information is presented using multi-modal sensory approach. The goal of VR is to create an environment that mimics real world complexities; one that offers comparable stimuli in the virtual environment (VE) to elicit cognitive and psychomotor ...


Holographic Micro-Simulations To Enhance Aviation Training With Mixed Reality, Lori Brown Fraes, Msc, Hfavn Aug 2018

Holographic Micro-Simulations To Enhance Aviation Training With Mixed Reality, Lori Brown Fraes, Msc, Hfavn

National Training Aircraft Symposium (NTAS)

Mixed reality technologies present a new medium, a new paradigm of augmented reality, where for the first time we have the ability to take the analog world and superimpose digital training artifacts and create a ‘mixed reality’ to enhance aviation training. Digital computing headsets such as Microsoft HoloLens are intuitive and offer a natural means of interaction with no computer, wire or touch-screen. This approach has several practical advantages to overlay holographic elements onto real-world crew environments which makes holographic micro-simulations particularly suited to aviation training and education. Unlike virtual reality—the user is not isolated from their surroundings. MR ...