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Full-Text Articles in Engineering

Assessment Of Differences Between Near-Surface Air And Soil Temperatures For Reliable Detection Of High-Latitude Freeze And Thaw States, Farjana Shati, Satya Prakash, Hamid Norouzi, Reginald Blake Oct 2017

Assessment Of Differences Between Near-Surface Air And Soil Temperatures For Reliable Detection Of High-Latitude Freeze And Thaw States, Farjana Shati, Satya Prakash, Hamid Norouzi, Reginald Blake

Publications and Research

Near-surface air temperature and the underlying soil temperature are among the key components of the Earth’s surface energy budget, and they are important variables for the comprehensive assessment of global climate change. Better understanding of the difference in magnitude between these two variables over high-latitude regions is also crucial for accurate detections of freeze and thaw (FT) states. However, these differences are not usually considered and included in current remote sensing-based FT detection algorithms. In this study, the difference between near-surface air temperature at the 2-meter height and soil temperature at the 5-centimeter depth is assessed using ground-based observations ...


Interannual Variability And Seasonal Predictability Of Wind And Solar Resources, Nir Krakauer, Daniel S. Cohen Jul 2017

Interannual Variability And Seasonal Predictability Of Wind And Solar Resources, Nir Krakauer, Daniel S. Cohen

Publications and Research

Solar and wind resources available for power generation are subject to variability due to meteorological factors. Here, we use a new global climate reanalysis product, Version 2 of the NASA Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA-2), to quantify interannual variability of monthly-mean solar and wind resource from 1980 to 2016 at a resolution of about 0.5 degrees. We find an average coefficient of variation (CV) of 11% for monthly-mean solar radiation and 8% for wind speed. Mean CVs were about 25% greater over ocean than over land and, for land areas, were greatest at high latitude. The ...


Development Of Geospatial And Temporal Characteristics For Hispaniola’S Lake Azuei And Enriquillo Using Landsat Imagery, Mahrokh Moknatian, Michael Piasecki, Jorge Gonzalez May 2017

Development Of Geospatial And Temporal Characteristics For Hispaniola’S Lake Azuei And Enriquillo Using Landsat Imagery, Mahrokh Moknatian, Michael Piasecki, Jorge Gonzalez

Publications and Research

In this paper, we used Landsat imagery for water body identification to create a novel 36-year surface area extent time series for lakes Azuei (Haiti) and Enriquillo (Dominican Republic) aimed at illuminating the dramatic temporal changes of these two lakes not just at yearly but at monthly or even sub-monthly scales. We used the Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) to extract water features and we also used spatial differentiation and thresholding techniques to remove clouds and associated shadows from the scene that were then passed through gap filling algorithms to complete and extract the lake extent polygons. We also explored ...


Proof Of Concept: Development Of Snow Liquid Water Content Profiler Using Cs650 Reflectometers At Caribou, Me, Usa, Carlos L. Pérez Díaz, Jonathan Muñoz, Tarendra Lakhankar, Reza Khanbilvardi, Peter Romanov Mar 2017

Proof Of Concept: Development Of Snow Liquid Water Content Profiler Using Cs650 Reflectometers At Caribou, Me, Usa, Carlos L. Pérez Díaz, Jonathan Muñoz, Tarendra Lakhankar, Reza Khanbilvardi, Peter Romanov

Publications and Research

The quantity of liquid water in the snowpack defines its wetness. The temporal evolution of snow wetness’s plays a significant role in wet-snow avalanche prediction, meltwater release, and water availability estimations and assessments within a river basin. However, it remains a difficult task and a demanding issue to measure the snowpack’s liquid water content (LWC) and its temporal evolution with conventional in situ techniques. We propose an approach based on the use of time-domain reflectometry (TDR) and CS650 soil water content reflectometers to measure the snowpack’s LWC and temperature profiles. For this purpose, we created an easily-applicable ...


A Comparison Of Modis/Viirs Cloud Masks Over Ice-Bearing River: On Achieving Consistent Cloud Masking And Improved River Ice Mapping, Simon Kraatz, Reza Khanbilvardi, Peter Romanov Mar 2017

A Comparison Of Modis/Viirs Cloud Masks Over Ice-Bearing River: On Achieving Consistent Cloud Masking And Improved River Ice Mapping, Simon Kraatz, Reza Khanbilvardi, Peter Romanov

Publications and Research

The capability of frequently and accurately monitoring ice on rivers is important, since it may be possible to timely identify ice accumulations corresponding to ice jams. Ice jams are dam-like structures formed from arrested ice floes, and may cause rapid flooding. To inform on this potential hazard, the CREST River Ice Observing System (CRIOS) produces ice cover maps based on MODIS and VIIRS overpass data at several locations, including the Susquehanna River. CRIOS uses the respective platform’s automatically produced cloud masks to discriminate ice/snow covered grid cells from clouds. However, since cloud masks are produced using each instrument ...