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Full-Text Articles in Engineering

Dynamic Optimization Of High-Altitude Solar Aircraft Trajectories Under Station-Keeping Constraints, Abe Martin, Nathaniel S. Gates, Andrew Ning, John Hedengren Nov 2018

Dynamic Optimization Of High-Altitude Solar Aircraft Trajectories Under Station-Keeping Constraints, Abe Martin, Nathaniel S. Gates, Andrew Ning, John Hedengren

All Student Publications

This paper demonstrates the use of nonlinear dynamic optimization to calculate energy optimal trajectories for a high-altitude, solar-powered Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). The objective is to maximize the total energy in the system while staying within a 3 km mission radius and meeting other system constraints. Solar energy capture is modeled using the vehicle orientation and solar position, and energy is stored both in batteries and in potential energy through elevation gain. Energy capture is maximized by optimally adjusting the angle of the aircraft surface relative to the sun. The UAV flight and energy system dynamics are optimized over a ...


Deep Rc: Enabling Remote Control Through Deep Learning, Jaron Ellingson, Gary Ellingson, Tim Mclain Sep 2018

Deep Rc: Enabling Remote Control Through Deep Learning, Jaron Ellingson, Gary Ellingson, Tim Mclain

All Student Publications

Human remote-control (RC) pilots have the ability to perceive the position and orientation of an aircraft using only third-person-perspective visual sensing. While novice pilots often struggle when learning to control RC aircraft, they can sense the orientation of the aircraft with relative ease. In this paper, we hypothesize and demonstrate that deep learning methods can be used to mimic the human ability to perceive the orientation of an aircraft from monocular imagery.

This work uses a neural network to directly sense the aircraft attitude. The network is combined with more conventional image processing methods for visual tracking of the aircraft ...


Visual Servoing For Multirotor Precision Landing In Varying Light Conditions, Jesse Wynn, Tim Mclain Aug 2018

Visual Servoing For Multirotor Precision Landing In Varying Light Conditions, Jesse Wynn, Tim Mclain

All Faculty Publications

The problem of performing a precision landing of an autonomous multirotor UAV in various lighting conditions is studied. A vision-based approach is proposed and consists of varying degree-of-freedom image-based visual servoing (VDOF-IBVS), and a specialized landing marker. The proposed approach is validated through extensive flight testing outdoors in both lighted and dark conditions, and is done using a standard off-the-shelf autopilot system.


Efficient Incorporation Of Fatigue Damage Constraints In Wind Turbine Blade Optimization, Bryce Taylor Ingersoll Aug 2018

Efficient Incorporation Of Fatigue Damage Constraints In Wind Turbine Blade Optimization, Bryce Taylor Ingersoll

All Theses and Dissertations

Improving the wind turbine blade design has a significant effect on the efficiency of the wind turbine. This is a challenging multi-disciplinary optimization problem. During the blade design process, the aerodynamic shapes, sizing of the structural members, and material composition must all be determined and optimized. Some previous blade design methods incorporate the wind turbine's static response with an added safety factor to account for neglected dynamic effects. Others incorporate the dynamic response, but in general is limited to a few design cases. By not fully incorporating the dynamic response of the wind turbine, the final turbine ...


Developable Compliant-Aided Rolling-Contact Mechanisms, Todd G. Nelson, Just L. Herder Aug 2018

Developable Compliant-Aided Rolling-Contact Mechanisms, Todd G. Nelson, Just L. Herder

All Student Publications

Rolling-contact mechanisms can provide low-friction motion with unique kinematic paths. We show that developable surfaces can be used as a design tool for rolling-contact mechanisms joined with compliant bands. These mechanisms can exhibit 3D motion paths, couple rotational and translational motions into a single degree of freedom, and can be designed to exhibit various tailored kinetic responses. We set forth developable surface parametrizations well suited to the creation of rolling contacts. We highlight how the geodesic and principal curvatures of the non-ruling principal curves of a developable surface are meaningful design quantities for rolling contacts. We provide kinematic and kinetic ...


Methods And Metrics To Measure And Predict The Social Impact Of Engineered Products, Phillip Douglas Stevenson Aug 2018

Methods And Metrics To Measure And Predict The Social Impact Of Engineered Products, Phillip Douglas Stevenson

All Theses and Dissertations

More than ever before, engineers are creating products for developing countries. One of the purposes of these products is to improve the consumer's quality of life. Currently, there is no established method of measuring the social impact of these types of products. As a result, engineers have used their own metrics to assess their product's impact, if at all. Some of the common metrics used include products sold and revenue, which measure the financial success of a product without recognizing the social successes or failures it might have. In this thesis I introduce a potential metric, the Product ...


Vertical Electrical Impedance Measurements On Concrete Bridge Decks Using A Large-Area Electrode, Jeffrey David Barton Aug 2018

Vertical Electrical Impedance Measurements On Concrete Bridge Decks Using A Large-Area Electrode, Jeffrey David Barton

All Theses and Dissertations

In regions where chloride-based deicing salts are applied to bridge decks, corrosion of the interior steel reinforcement is a major problem. Vertical electrical impedance (VEI) is an effective measurement technique to quantitatively assess the cover protection on bridges against aggressive chemical penetration of reinforced concrete. In its current form, traditional vertical electrical impedance is time-consuming and destructive because a direct connection to the reinforcing steel is required to provide a ground reference. A new method using a large-area electrode (LAE) permits VEI measurement without a direct electrical connection to the steel reinforcement. The LAE creates a nondestructive, semi-direct, low impedance ...


Relative Navigation: A Keyframe-Based Approach For Observable Gps-Degraded Navigation, David O. Wheeler, Daniel P. Koch, James S. Jackson, Timothy W. Mclain, Randal W. Beard Jul 2018

Relative Navigation: A Keyframe-Based Approach For Observable Gps-Degraded Navigation, David O. Wheeler, Daniel P. Koch, James S. Jackson, Timothy W. Mclain, Randal W. Beard

All Faculty Publications

State estimation for micro air vehicles (MAVs) often depends heavily on reliable global measurements such as GPS. When global measurements are unavailable, additional sensors, such as cameras or laser scanners, are commonly used to provide measurements of the MAV’s translation and rotation relative to a previously observed keyframe image or scan. With the use of only relative sensors, however, the global position and heading of the vehicle are unobservable and cannot be reliably reconstructed. Many existing approaches work with respect to a global reference frame, resulting in a loss of state observability. This article highlights that unobservability leads to ...


Design For Maintainability In Developing Communities—A Case Study On The Uros Islands, Thomas Barlow Jul 2018

Design For Maintainability In Developing Communities—A Case Study On The Uros Islands, Thomas Barlow

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Designing products for developing communities has exposed many of the underlying assumptions that engineers from developed nations have during the design process. There has been much written about these underlying assumptions in order to create a better framework for designing for developing communities. One unexplored, yet important area is the universality of common maintainability principles used in developed countries when designing products used in developing communities. Such principles include: simplicity, diagnosability, standardization of parts, modular subassemblies, minimizing assembly and disassembly parts, labeling components, increased life of moving parts, manuals, and simplifying tools needed for repairs [1]–[3]. The purpose of ...


Smart Technologies For Oil Production With Rod Pumping, Brigham Wheeler Hansen Jul 2018

Smart Technologies For Oil Production With Rod Pumping, Brigham Wheeler Hansen

All Theses and Dissertations

This work enables accelerated fluid recovery in oil and gas reservoirs by automatically controlling fluid height and bottomhole pressure in wells. Several literature studies show significant increase in recovered oil by determining a target bottomhole pressure but rarely consider how to control to that value. This work enables those benefits by maintaining bottomhole pressure or fluid height. Moving Horizon Estimation (MHE) determines uncertain well parameters using only common surface measurements. A Model Predictive Controller (MPC) adjusts the stroking speed of a sucker rod pump to maintain fluid height. Pump boundary conditions are simulated with Mathematical Programs with Complementarity Constraints (MPCCs ...


Automated Impact Response Sounding For Accelerated Concrete Bridge Deck Inspection, Jacob Lynn Larsen Jul 2018

Automated Impact Response Sounding For Accelerated Concrete Bridge Deck Inspection, Jacob Lynn Larsen

All Theses and Dissertations

Infrastructure deterioration is an international problem requiring significant attention. One particular manifestation of this deterioration is the occurrence of sub-surface cracking (delaminations) in reinforced concrete bridge decks. Of many techniques available for inspection, air-coupled impact-echo testing, or sounding, is a non-destructive evaluation technique to determine the presence and location of delaminations based upon the acoustic response of a bridge deck when struck by an impactor. In this work, two automated air-coupled impact echo sounding devices were designed and constructed. Each device included fast and repeatable impactors, moving platforms for traveling across a bridge deck, microphones for air-coupled sensing, distance measurement ...


Tactile Sensing And Position Estimation Methods For Increased Proprioception Of Soft-Robotic Platforms, Nathan Mcclain Day Jul 2018

Tactile Sensing And Position Estimation Methods For Increased Proprioception Of Soft-Robotic Platforms, Nathan Mcclain Day

All Theses and Dissertations

Soft robots have the potential to transform the way robots interact with their environment. This is due to their low inertia and inherent ability to more safely interact with the world without damaging themselves or the people around them. However, existing sensing for soft robots has at least partially limited their ability to control interactions with their environment. Tactile sensors could enable soft robots to sense interaction, but most tactile sensors are made from rigid substrates and are not well suited to applications for soft robots that can deform. In addition, the benefit of being able to cheaply manufacture soft ...


Integrated Scheduling And Control In Discrete-Time With Dynamic Parameters And Constraints, Logan Beal, Damon Petersen, David R. Grimsman, Sean Warnick, John Hedengren Jul 2018

Integrated Scheduling And Control In Discrete-Time With Dynamic Parameters And Constraints, Logan Beal, Damon Petersen, David R. Grimsman, Sean Warnick, John Hedengren

All Faculty Publications

Integrated scheduling and control (SC) seeks to unify the objectives of the various layers of optimization in manufacturing. This work investigates combining scheduling and control using a nonlinear discrete-time formulation, utilizing the full nonlinear process model throughout the entire horizon. This discrete-time form lends itself to optimization with time-dependent constraints and costs. An approach to combined SC is presented, along with sample pseudo-binary variable functions to ease the computational burden of this approach. An initialization strategy using feedback linearization, nonlinear model predictive control, and continuous-time scheduling optimization is presented. The formulation is applied with a generic continuous stirred tank reactor ...


A Framework And Exploration Of A Cybersecurity Education Escape Room, Justin Charles Snyder Jul 2018

A Framework And Exploration Of A Cybersecurity Education Escape Room, Justin Charles Snyder

All Theses and Dissertations

This thesis presents a review of educational-escape-room literature followed by a design-oriented framework (the Snyder Escape Room Framework or SERF) and demonstrates the potential efficacy of escape-rooms in cybersecurity education. Several authors have proposed frameworks and guidelines for game and educational design regarding escape rooms. This work coalesces some of those ideas into a more substantial and comprehensive framework (SERF) that designers can use when developing educational escape rooms. The Snyder Escape Room Framework provides heuristics for goals and objectives, players, activities, context, trajectory design, and evaluation. Additionally, this work describes and analyzes the novel prototyped BYU GCC escape room ...


Homogeneous Reaction Kinetics Of Carbohydrates With Viologen Catalysts For Biofuel Cell Applications, Hilary Bingham Jul 2018

Homogeneous Reaction Kinetics Of Carbohydrates With Viologen Catalysts For Biofuel Cell Applications, Hilary Bingham

All Theses and Dissertations

Energy usage is continually on the rise and significant efforts are being extended to provide more renewable energy. One area of exploration is the development of fuel cells, which includes biofuel cells that can extract energy from carbohydrates obtained from biomass. Recently, viologen catalysts have been shown to enhance reaction rates of energy extraction and improve carbohydrate conversion efficiencies. However, characterizing the effects of process parameters such as pH, reactant concentrations, and carbohydrate exposure time to buffer solutions with a rigorous model is lacking. This thesis characterizes the homogeneous reaction between carbohydrates and a methyl viologen catalyst to provide insights ...


Total Hemispherical Apparent Radiative Properties Of The Infinite V-Groove With Diffuse Reflection, Rydge B. Mulford, Nathan S. Collins, Michael S. Farnsworth, Matthew R. Jones, Brian D. Iverson Jul 2018

Total Hemispherical Apparent Radiative Properties Of The Infinite V-Groove With Diffuse Reflection, Rydge B. Mulford, Nathan S. Collins, Michael S. Farnsworth, Matthew R. Jones, Brian D. Iverson

All Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Art To Engineering: Curved Folding And Developable Surfaces In Mechanism And Deployable Structure Design, Todd G. Nelson Jun 2018

Art To Engineering: Curved Folding And Developable Surfaces In Mechanism And Deployable Structure Design, Todd G. Nelson

All Theses and Dissertations

This work investigates how curved-crease origami and the developable surfaces which compose it can be transitioned to engineering design. Methods for creating flexible, tailorable-property surfaces that function as thick panels in place of paper are presented. Concepts from curved-crease origami and developable surfaces that can describe and extend engineering applications are discussed and demonstrated. These concepts are particularly beneficial to applications where curved surfaces are integral to the function, deployability is desired, and planar manufacturing could be beneficial.The first part of this work uses arrays of compliant elements to create flexible-tailorable property surfaces. The key feature to these arrays ...


Using Quantitative Mri To Measure Cartilage Health, Laurel Jane Hales Jun 2018

Using Quantitative Mri To Measure Cartilage Health, Laurel Jane Hales

All Theses and Dissertations

Osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the leading causes of disability world-wide. It affects 12% of all Americans ages 25-74 [1]. One of the challenges with OA, is that there are currently no clinically viable methods to measure the health of the cartilage before cartilage loss. There are no ways to replace or heal the cartilage after it has been lost. It is known that the early stages of OA involve a decrease in the amount of glycosaminoglycans (GAG), one of the main molecules in cartilage. This decrease in GAG leads to a change in the fixed charge density of the ...


Universal Airfoil Parametrization Using B-Splines, Dev Rajnarayan, Andrew Ning, Judd Mehr Jun 2018

Universal Airfoil Parametrization Using B-Splines, Dev Rajnarayan, Andrew Ning, Judd Mehr

All Faculty Publications

In this paper, we apply well-known techniques for parametric curves to the definition and deformation of airfoil sections. While it has already been shown that many versions of Kulfan’s Class Shape Transformation (CST) are exactly equivalent to Bézier curves, we show here that all NACA 4-digit thickness distributions and the PARSEC parametrization of Sobiezcky are also higher-order Bézier curves. As with CST, Béziers and B-Splines provide direct control over aerodynamically meaningful features such as nose radius and boat-tail angle, but also provide more a intuitive parametrization of the rest of the airfoil surface. We show the efficacy of B-Spline-based ...


Development Of A Vortex Particle Code For The Modeling Of Wake Interaction In Distributed Propulsion, Eduardo Alvarez, Andrew Ning Jun 2018

Development Of A Vortex Particle Code For The Modeling Of Wake Interaction In Distributed Propulsion, Eduardo Alvarez, Andrew Ning

All Faculty Publications

Recent developments in electric aircraft technology have enabled the use of distributed propulsion for the next generation of vertical lift vehicles. However, the ability to rapidly assess the performance of these design concepts, with sufficient fidelity, is a current weakness of this nascent industry. This paper explores the capacity of the viscous Vortex Particle Method (VPM) to model wake interactions found in distributed propulsion. The elements of the vortex particle method are summarized, and a new approach for the calculation of vortex stretching through the complex-step derivative approximation is presented. Preliminary validation is performed on vortex ring cases resembling the ...


Augmented Design Capabilities For Origami Tessellations, Janette Darlene Herron Jun 2018

Augmented Design Capabilities For Origami Tessellations, Janette Darlene Herron

All Theses and Dissertations

Applying engineering principles to tessellation origami-based designs enables the control of certain design properties, such as flexibility, bending stiffness, mechanical advantage, shape conformance, and deployment motion. The ability to control these and other properties will enable augmented design capabilities in environments which currently limit the design to specific materials, including space, medicine, harsh environments, and scaled environments (such as MEMS applications). Other applications will be able to achieve more complex motions or better satisfy design and performance requirements.This research demonstrates augmented design capabilities of origami tessellations in engineering design in rigid-foldable and non-rigid-foldable applications. First, a method to determine ...


Increased Energy Yield Through Fast Pyrolysis: Empowering Malawian Villages, Diehl Mutamba Jun 2018

Increased Energy Yield Through Fast Pyrolysis: Empowering Malawian Villages, Diehl Mutamba

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Biomass contributes to several renewable energy technologies. This project will explore the use of fast pyrolysis to produce fuels by designing an apparatus for fast pyrolysis. Malawian people harvest firewood from the forests, which is a major contributor to deforestation. Furthermore, they convert some of it to charcoal with about 10-15% efficiency to sell to city dwellers. The project will enable herbaceous fuels to replace wood, increase charcoal yields and create new products. Firewood and charcoal produce smoke and carbon monoxide (CO) that compromises the villagers’ health.

This project will address deforestation problems, improve sustainability, decrease health hazards and improve ...


Crash Severity Distributions For Life-Cycle Benefit-Cost Analysis Of Safety-Related Improvements On Utah Roadways, Conor Judd Seat Jun 2018

Crash Severity Distributions For Life-Cycle Benefit-Cost Analysis Of Safety-Related Improvements On Utah Roadways, Conor Judd Seat

All Theses and Dissertations

The Utah Department of Transportation developed life-cycle benefit-cost analysis spreadsheets that allow engineers and analysts to evaluate multiple safety countermeasures. The spreadsheets have included the functionality to evaluate a roadway based on the 11 facility types from the Highway Safety Manual (HSM) with the use of crash severity distributions. The HSM suggests that local agencies develop crash severity distributions based on their local crash data. The Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering at Brigham Young University worked with the Statistics Department to develop crash severity distributions for the facility types from the HSM.The primary objective of this research was ...


Suitability Of The Kalina Cycle For Power Conversion From Pressurized Water Reactors, Jack Ryan Webster Jun 2018

Suitability Of The Kalina Cycle For Power Conversion From Pressurized Water Reactors, Jack Ryan Webster

All Theses and Dissertations

The primary objective of this work is to determine the Kalina cycle's suitability for thermal power conversion from a pressurized water reactor. Several previous papers have examined this application, but these either lack proof of concept or make unfeasible assumptions. This work expands current knowledge by simulating the Kalina cycle and comparing it to current pressurized water reactor Rankine cycles in order to identify which is more efficient. Prerequisite to the modeling is a simulation tool capable of modeling the thermodynamics of ammonia/water mixtures. Instead of using an existing program, a new one called Clearwater is used. This ...


High Throughput Fpga Configuration Using A Custom Dma Configuration Controller, Peter William Zabriskie Jun 2018

High Throughput Fpga Configuration Using A Custom Dma Configuration Controller, Peter William Zabriskie

All Theses and Dissertations

SRAM-based Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) must be programmed with configuration data every time they are powered on. In addition to initially programming an FPGA, there are many other applications that require access to FPGA configuration memory such as partial reconfiguration, fault injection, and memory scrubbing. This thesis describes a system that provides high-speed, programmable configuration management for Xilinx FPGAs through external interfaces. This system is an improvement upon the JTAG Configuration Manager (JCM) previously created at BYU. The JCM consists of a custom I/O board paired with a MicroZed development board which includes a Xilinx ZYNQ SoC. This ...


Adjustment Of Rapidscat Backscatter Measurements For Improved Radar Images, Garrett Scott Mcdonald Jun 2018

Adjustment Of Rapidscat Backscatter Measurements For Improved Radar Images, Garrett Scott Mcdonald

All Theses and Dissertations

RapidScat is a spaceborne wind scatterometer mounted on the International Space Station (ISS). The RapidScat mission lasted from September 2014 to November 2016. RapidScat enables the measurement of diurnal patterns of sigma-0 measurements. This capability is possible because of the non-sun-synchronous orbit of the ISS, in which the local time of day (LTOD) of sigma-0 measurements gradually shifts over time in any given location. The ISS platform is a relatively unstable platform for wind scatterometers. Because of the varying attitude of the ISS, RapidScat experiences a constant variation of its pointing vector. Variations of the pointing vector cause variations in ...


Friction Bit Joining Of Similar Alloy Sheets Of High-Strength Aluminum Alloy 7085, Matthew R. Okazaki Jun 2018

Friction Bit Joining Of Similar Alloy Sheets Of High-Strength Aluminum Alloy 7085, Matthew R. Okazaki

All Theses and Dissertations

Friction Bit Joining (FBJ) is a new technology used primarily in joining dissimilar metals. Its primary use has been focused in the automotive industry to provide an alternative joining process to welding. As automotive manufacturing has continually pushed toward using dissimilar materials, new joining processes have been needed to replace traditional welding practices that do not perform well when materials are not weld compatible. FBJ meets these needs perfectly as it provides strength as well as the ability to join materials of almost any kind.The purpose of this research was to explore different applications of the FBJ process. Traditionally ...


Addressing The Regulator's Dilemma: A Self Drive Framework For Balancing Safety And Innovation, Craig Maughan May 2018

Addressing The Regulator's Dilemma: A Self Drive Framework For Balancing Safety And Innovation, Craig Maughan

Brigham Young University Prelaw Review

Policymakers are tasked with creating regulations that responsibly oversee the growth and deployment of emerging technologies. I argue that the SELF DRIVE Act, currently being deliberated in Congress, offers one such intelligent regulatory structure for autonomous vehicles: it prioritizes public safety over adherence to outdated requirements, giving innovators greater freedom to field-test new designs. More importantly, I examine how key principles of the SELF DRIVE Act should be applied to other emerging technologies currently facing regulatory roadblock. Specifically, I suggest the drone industry be subject to regulatory changes that incentivize safety, allow exploration, and anticipate future growth. Such regulations allow ...


Autonomous Cars And The Anonymous Threat: The Immediate Need For Cybersecurity Legislation For Self-Driving Vehicles, Forrest Albiston May 2018

Autonomous Cars And The Anonymous Threat: The Immediate Need For Cybersecurity Legislation For Self-Driving Vehicles, Forrest Albiston

Brigham Young University Prelaw Review

This paper addresses the immediate need for cybersecurity regulations on self-driving cars. The focus of this paper is to discuss the urgency of these laws and put forth the SPY Car Act of 2017 as a solution with some edits. This Act will help ensure the safety of US citizens and will also benefit businesses.


Intersection Safety Analysis Methodology For Utah Roadways, Joshua Daniel Gibbons May 2018

Intersection Safety Analysis Methodology For Utah Roadways, Joshua Daniel Gibbons

All Theses and Dissertations

Roadway safety continues to be a priority for the Utah Department of Transportation (UDOT) Traffic and Safety Division. UDOT has participated in and managed several research projects in recent years to determine the roadway segments of highest safety concern in the state. This research has provided UDOT with more tools to assist in safety project prioritization. Researchers in Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering at Brigham Young University (BYU) have worked with UDOT and the Statistics Department at BYU to create two network screening statistical tools called the Utah Crash Prediction Model (UCPM) and the Utah Crash Severity Model (UCSM ...