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Air Force Institute of Technology

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Full-Text Articles in Engineering

Monolithically Integrated Microscale Pressure Sensor On An Optical Fiber Tip [U.S. Patent Us11326970b2], Jeremiah C. Williams, Hengky Chandrahalim May 2022

Monolithically Integrated Microscale Pressure Sensor On An Optical Fiber Tip [U.S. Patent Us11326970b2], Jeremiah C. Williams, Hengky Chandrahalim

Faculty Publications

A passive microscopic Fabry-Pérot Interferometer (FPI) pressure sensor includes an optical fiber and a three-dimensional microscopic optical enclosure. The three-dimensional microscopic optical enclosure includes tubular side walls having lateral pleated corrugations and attached to a cleaved tip of the optical fiber to receive a light signal. An optically reflecting end wall is distally engaged to the tubular side walls to enclose a trapped quantity of gas that longitudinally positions the optically reflecting end wall in relation to ambient air pressure, changing a distance traveled by a light signal reflected back through the optical fiber.


Hinged Temperature-Immune Self-Referencing Fabry–Pérot Cavity Sensors [Us Patent Us11320596b2], Jeremiah C. Williams, Hengky Chandrahalim May 2022

Hinged Temperature-Immune Self-Referencing Fabry–Pérot Cavity Sensors [Us Patent Us11320596b2], Jeremiah C. Williams, Hengky Chandrahalim

Faculty Publications

A passive microscopic Fabry-Pérot Interferometer (FPI) sensor includes a three-dimensional microscopic optical structure formed on a cleaved tip of the optical fighter using a two-photon polymerization process on a photosensitive polymer by a three-dimensional micromachining device. The three-dimensional microscopic optical structure having a hinged optical layer pivotally connected to a distal portion of a suspended structure. A reflective layer is deposited on a mirror surface of the hinged optical layer while in an open position. The hinged optical layer is subsequently positioned in the closed position to align the mirror surface to at least partially reflect a light signal back ...


Two-Photon Nanomachining Of A Micromechanically Enhanced Optical Cavity Sensor On An Optical Fiber Tip, Jeremiah C. Williams, Hengky Chandrahalim, Joseph S. Suelzer, Nicholas G. Usechak Apr 2022

Two-Photon Nanomachining Of A Micromechanically Enhanced Optical Cavity Sensor On An Optical Fiber Tip, Jeremiah C. Williams, Hengky Chandrahalim, Joseph S. Suelzer, Nicholas G. Usechak

Faculty Publications

Herein, a two-photon nanostructuring process that is employed to monolithically integrate dynamic three-dimensional (3D) micromechanical features into Fabry–Pérot cavity (FPC) sensors on an optical fiber tip is demonstrated. These features represent a breakthrough in the integration and fabrication capabilities of micro optomechanical devices and systems. The demonstrated dynamic optical surface enables directional thin-film deposition onto obscured areas. The rotation of the dynamically movable mirror to deposit a thin reflective coating onto the inner surfaces of a FPC with curved geometry is leveraged. The reflective coating in conjunction with the dynamically rotatable mirror greatly improves the quality factor of the ...


Application Of Machine Learning To Predict The Performance Of An Emipg Reactor Using Data From Numerical Simulations, Owen Sedej, Eric G. Mbonimpa, Trevor Sleight, Jeremy Slagley Mar 2022

Application Of Machine Learning To Predict The Performance Of An Emipg Reactor Using Data From Numerical Simulations, Owen Sedej, Eric G. Mbonimpa, Trevor Sleight, Jeremy Slagley

Faculty Publications

Microwave-driven plasma gasification technology has the potential to produce clean energy from municipal and industrial solid wastes. It can generate temperatures above 2000 K (as high as 30,000 K) in a reactor, leading to complete combustion and reduction of toxic byproducts. Characterizing complex processes inside such a system is however challenging. In previous studies, simulations using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) produced reproducible results, but the simulations are tedious and involve assumptions. In this study, we propose machine-learning models that can be used in tandem with CFD, to accelerate high-fidelity fluid simulation, improve turbulence modeling, and enhance reduced-order models. A ...


Method Of Making Hinged Self-Referencing Fabry–Pérot Cavity Sensors [U.S. Patent Us11287575b2], Jeremiah C. Williams, Hengky Chandrahalim Mar 2022

Method Of Making Hinged Self-Referencing Fabry–Pérot Cavity Sensors [U.S. Patent Us11287575b2], Jeremiah C. Williams, Hengky Chandrahalim

Faculty Publications

A method is provided for fabricating a passive optical sensor on a tip of an optical fiber. The method includes perpendicularly cleaving a tip of an optical fiber and mounting the tip of the optical fiber in a specimen holder of a photosensitive polymer three-dimensional micromachining machine. The method includes forming a three-dimensional microscopic optical structure within the photosensitive polymer that comprises a two cavity Fabry-Perot Interferometer (FPI) having a hinged optical layer that is pivotally coupled to a suspended structure. The method includes removing an uncured portion of the photosensitive polymer using a solvent. The method includes depositing a ...


Considerations For Radio Frequency Fingerprinting Across Multiple Frequency Channels, Jose A. Gutierrez Del Arroyo, Brett J. Borghetti, Michael A. Temple Mar 2022

Considerations For Radio Frequency Fingerprinting Across Multiple Frequency Channels, Jose A. Gutierrez Del Arroyo, Brett J. Borghetti, Michael A. Temple

Faculty Publications

Radio Frequency Fingerprinting (RFF) is often proposed as an authentication mechanism for wireless device security, but application of existing techniques in multi-channel scenarios is limited because prior models were created and evaluated using bursts from a single frequency channel without considering the effects of multi-channel operation. Our research evaluated the multi-channel performance of four single-channel models with increasing complexity, to include a simple discriminant analysis model and three neural networks. Performance characterization using the multi-class Matthews Correlation Coefficient (MCC) revealed that using frequency channels other than those used to train the models can lead to a deterioration in performance from ...


Madfam: Microarchitectural Data Framework And Methodology, Tor J. Langehaug, Scott R. Graham, Christine M. Schubert Kabban, Brett J. Borghetti Mar 2022

Madfam: Microarchitectural Data Framework And Methodology, Tor J. Langehaug, Scott R. Graham, Christine M. Schubert Kabban, Brett J. Borghetti

Faculty Publications

In the aftermath of Spectre and Meltdown researchers have proposed a variety of attack detection solutions by applying machine learning to data collected from hardware performance monitoring units. Although many microarchitectural attack detection systems provide high-accuracy detection results, the behavior of the underlying data collection mechanisms is not well described or understood. This research introduces the MicroArchitectural Data Framework And Methodology (MADFAM) to prescribe a systematic approach to collecting and preserving the information available in sequences of microarchitectural data. The proposed framework focuses on hardware performance counters (HPCs) as the primary data source. HPC configuration is complex, which makes it ...


A Comparison Of Sporadic-E Occurrence Rates Using Gps Radio Occultation And Ionosonde Measurements, Rodney Carmona, Omar A. Nava, Eugene V. Dao, Daniel J. Emmons Jan 2022

A Comparison Of Sporadic-E Occurrence Rates Using Gps Radio Occultation And Ionosonde Measurements, Rodney Carmona, Omar A. Nava, Eugene V. Dao, Daniel J. Emmons

Faculty Publications

Sporadic-E (Es) occurrence rates from Global Position Satellite radio occultation (GPS-RO) measurements have shown to vary by a factor of five between studies, motivating the need for a comparison with ground-based measurements. In an attempt to find accurate GPS-RO techniques for detecting Es formation, occurrence rates derived using five previously developed GPS-RO techniques are compared to ionosonde measurements over an eight-year period from 2010–2017. GPS-RO measurements within 170 km of a ionosonde site are used to calculate Es occurrence rates and compared to the ground-truth ionosonde measurements. The techniques are compared individually for each ionosonde site ...


Robust Error Estimation Based On Factor-Graph Models For Non-Line-Of-Sight Localization, O. Arda Vanli, Clark N. Taylor Jan 2022

Robust Error Estimation Based On Factor-Graph Models For Non-Line-Of-Sight Localization, O. Arda Vanli, Clark N. Taylor

Faculty Publications

This paper presents a method to estimate the covariances of the inputs in a factor-graph formulation for localization under non-line-of-sight conditions. A general solution based on covariance estimation and M-estimators in linear regression problems, is presented that is shown to give unbiased estimators of multiple variances and are robust against outliers. An iteratively re-weighted least squares algorithm is proposed to jointly compute the proposed variance estimators and the state estimates for the nonlinear factor graph optimization. The efficacy of the method is illustrated in a simulation study using a robot localization problem under various process and measurement models and measurement ...


A Simulation–Optimization Framework For Post-Disaster Allocation Of Mental Health Resources, Stephen Cunningham, Steven J. Schuldt, Christopher M. Chini, Justin D. Delorit Dec 2021

A Simulation–Optimization Framework For Post-Disaster Allocation Of Mental Health Resources, Stephen Cunningham, Steven J. Schuldt, Christopher M. Chini, Justin D. Delorit

Faculty Publications

Extreme events, such as natural or human-caused disasters, cause mental health stress in affected communities. While the severity of these outcomes varies based on socioeconomic standing, age group, and degree of exposure, disaster planners can mitigate potential stress-induced mental health outcomes by assessing the capacity and scalability of early, intermediate, and long-term treatment interventions by social workers and psychologists. However, local and state authorities are typically underfunded, understaffed, and have ongoing health and social service obligations that constrain mitigation and response activities. In this research, a resource assignment framework is developed as a coupled-state transition and linear optimization model that ...


Combat Assessment For The Simulation Of Warfare, Benjamin L. Finch Dec 2021

Combat Assessment For The Simulation Of Warfare, Benjamin L. Finch

Theses and Dissertations

Military assessment seeks to answer two primary questions: "are we creating the effects that we desire?" and "are we accomplishing tasks to standard?" This thesis steps through several desirable characteristics for a simulated combat assessment methodology. After developing a value hierarchy from these characteristics, this thesis provides and evaluates several candidate methodologies for use within a combat simulation. Each alternative's evaluation is informed by its application to a small combat simulation. Upon recommending the use of Linear Programming, we utilize value-focused thinking to modify this alternative. The thesis terminates with some conclusory thoughts and ideas for future research.


Using Custom Ner Models To Extract Dod Specific Entities From Contracts, Kayla P. Haberstich Dec 2021

Using Custom Ner Models To Extract Dod Specific Entities From Contracts, Kayla P. Haberstich

Theses and Dissertations

The Air Force Sustainment Center collected 3.7 million contracts onto the Air Force Research Laboratory’s high power computers. They are in the format of a .pdf or scanned document, making them unstructured data. The Data Analytics Resource Team extracted the documents into a textual format for use in further analysis. This thesis looks to extract four DOD specific entities (NSN, Part Number, CAGE Code, and Supplier Name) from the contracts using custom NER models. This newly extracted information will allow the Air Force to identify what parts are supplied by which vendors. This information along with historical CLIN ...


Approaches To Improve The Execution Time Of A Quantum Network Simulation, Joseph B. Tippit Dec 2021

Approaches To Improve The Execution Time Of A Quantum Network Simulation, Joseph B. Tippit

Theses and Dissertations

Evaluating quantum networks is an expensive and time-consuming task that benefits from simulation. A potential improvement is to utilize GPUs, namely by leveraging NVIDIA's programming framework, CUDA. To avoid performance pitfalls of higher level languages and programming models such as the so called "two language problem," the Julia Programming Language provides the basis for the development effort. This research develops a two module prototype quantum network simulation framework using GPUs and Julia. Performance of the software is measured and compared against other languages such as MATLAB.


Creep Behavior And Deformation Mechanisms Of Spark Plasma Sintered Oxide Ceramics For Aerospace Systems At 1300˚C - 1400˚C, David D. Swanson Dec 2021

Creep Behavior And Deformation Mechanisms Of Spark Plasma Sintered Oxide Ceramics For Aerospace Systems At 1300˚C - 1400˚C, David D. Swanson

Theses and Dissertations

The mechanical behavior of YAG and LuAG was investigated at elevated temperatures. The specific materials investigated in this work include high-purity, polycrystalline YAG, high-purity, polycrystalline LuAG, and two doped variants of YAG: 2at% Yb-doped, polycrystalline YAG and 2at% Er-doped, polycrystalline YAG. Several billets of each material were prepared and processed by means of spark plasma sintering (SPS). Many different sintering parameters were utilized in order to obtain materials with various physical properties and to identify the effects of sintering parameters on the average grain size of the resulting materials. The compressive creep behavior of these materials was investigated at 1300 ...


Assessment Of Visual Field Performance Asymmetries While Utilizing Aircraft Attitude Symbology, George A. Reis Dec 2021

Assessment Of Visual Field Performance Asymmetries While Utilizing Aircraft Attitude Symbology, George A. Reis

Theses and Dissertations

Two experiments were conducted to examine visual performance asymmetries when perceiving complex, meaningful visual stimuli, such as the Arc Segment Attitude Reference (ASAR). The ASAR symbology represents an aircraft’s attitude. Experiment 1 examined participants’ performance while recalling and reporting various attitudes of ASAR symbology and a Gabor patch, which were briefly presented in the peripheral visual field. Performance was assessed for coordinate and categorical judgments at various display locations. The results were consistent with the horizontal-vertical anisotropy literature, which implies that performance would be better for stimuli placed on the horizontal meridian as compared to stimuli placed on the ...


Design And Performance Characterization Of A Water Propellant Resistojet Thruster, Sean M. Weathersby Dec 2021

Design And Performance Characterization Of A Water Propellant Resistojet Thruster, Sean M. Weathersby

Theses and Dissertations

Secondary payloads, such as CubeSats, are being increasingly used by the US Department of Defense in the role of defense capability enhancement, and these increasingly complex defense missions can require extended lifespans that result in the need for a thruster. While many thruster options exist, characteristics such as propellant toxicity, complexity, and low performance limit many viable solutions. However, a potential answer that satisfies these thruster limitations is found in electrothermals, specifically the resistojet. The research presented here represents the first attempt to construct a 1U water-propellant resistojet thruster design and establish an initial characterization through evaluation of various performance ...


Meta-Analysis Of Performance Characteristics Of Modern Database Schemas, Carter Grove Dec 2021

Meta-Analysis Of Performance Characteristics Of Modern Database Schemas, Carter Grove

Theses and Dissertations

Industry and academia alike are more commonly using databases as solutions to advanced and complex problems. Unfortunately, not all database schemas are created equal and can yield different advantages in different areas. To try to understand what database schema might be best suited for a user’s needs, we sought out to distinguish how databases are measured against each other, what their performance characteristics are, and what advantages each type of database inherently possesses. To allow for the ingestion of data across the five different categories of database schemas, we used a met-analysis of past literature and aggregated the data ...


Space Domain Awareness Assessment Of Cislunar Periodic Orbits For Lagrange Point Surveillance, Adam P. Wilmer Dec 2021

Space Domain Awareness Assessment Of Cislunar Periodic Orbits For Lagrange Point Surveillance, Adam P. Wilmer

Theses and Dissertations

Cislunar periodic orbits provide an elegant means to fill the observational capability gaps which are present in ground-based and/or near-Earth spaced-base sensors. This research involves theoretical analysis on the effectiveness of cislunar periodic orbits for Space Domain Awareness (SDA) mission architectures. Specifically, cislunar periodic orbits are analyzed, both individually and in constellations with one another, for their effectiveness at monitoring target satellites in Lyapunov and halo orbits about the Earth - Moon L1 and L2 Lagrange points. All orbits are created and modeled in the Circular Restricted Three-Body Problem (CR3BP), then subject to perturbations in both the Elliptical Restricted Three-Body ...


Investigation Of Mirror Satellite Concept To Augment Natural Lighting Conditions On Orbit, Daniel M. Dombrowski Dec 2021

Investigation Of Mirror Satellite Concept To Augment Natural Lighting Conditions On Orbit, Daniel M. Dombrowski

Theses and Dissertations

A method of augmenting on-orbit lighting conditions for rendezvous and proximity operations through the novel use of solar reflectors is presented. Natural lighting conditions on-orbit pose extreme challenges to these already complex missions. This research summarizes and applies the historical basis of solar reflectors to the proximity operations issues encountered today. Building on this past research, a simulation has been created to test the efficacy of a solar reflector constellation in facilitating less complex servicing/inspection missions. Initial testing has shown promising results for low mass membrane mirrors in augmenting illumination conditions with particular benefit in the geosynchronous orbital regime ...


The Effect Of Shot Dependency On Composite Materials Subject To Ballistic Testing, Clayton C. Hankins Dec 2021

The Effect Of Shot Dependency On Composite Materials Subject To Ballistic Testing, Clayton C. Hankins

Theses and Dissertations

Ballistic analysis was performed on four common composite armor materials: 3k standard modulus plain weave carbon fiber, 8HS satin weave S-glass fiber, plain weave Kevlar® KM2 600 Denier fiber, and Spectra Shield® 4232 ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene to determine shot dependency based upon shot-to-shot impact distance, degree of penetration from the initial impacts, and the delamination effects from the initial impact. The primary measure of ballistic performance was the projectile velocity which represents a 50% probability of penetration, V50. This velocity was determined using a three-phase optimal design test method with an average of twelve shots per test. Delamination ...


Injection Studies On A Small-Scale Rotating Detonation Engine With Improved Flow Control, Jonathan J. Wyatt Dec 2021

Injection Studies On A Small-Scale Rotating Detonation Engine With Improved Flow Control, Jonathan J. Wyatt

Theses and Dissertations

The Rotating Detonation Engine (RDE) has gained increasing attention in recent years for its potential advantages over typical deflagration combustion. A Micro-RDE design with an outer diameter of 28mm operating on Nitrous Oxide and Ethylene was recently developed, which stretched the limits of small-scale detonation engines. The testing on this rig has shown a stable one wave mode detonation with frequencies reaching 16.8 kHz. Key parameters that influence the detonation wave mode are cell size, fill height, and wave speed, which are heavily influence d by injection schemes. Previous testing utilized a partially premixed jets in crossflow (JIC) injection ...


Machine Learning Application For Mission Data Reprogramming, Paolo A. Bingham Dec 2021

Machine Learning Application For Mission Data Reprogramming, Paolo A. Bingham

Theses and Dissertations

Before entering a conflict or theater, USAF aircraft require updated mission data software reprogramming. Mission data controls all electronic warfare (EW) operations of the aircraft. EW operations include identifying and jamming radar operated systems, whether they are friendly or hostile. The process of reprogramming software is continuous and routinely updated for every EW system annually. On specific circumstances, the process can be expedited to months, but this puts a strain on the development team and shifts all attention to one specific mission data file. Unfortunately, a growing number of requests to upgrade mission data to a higher priority state, has ...


The Effect Of Information Acquisition Automation And Workspace Design On Human Pattern Recognition For Information Fusion, Kellie L. Turner Dec 2021

The Effect Of Information Acquisition Automation And Workspace Design On Human Pattern Recognition For Information Fusion, Kellie L. Turner

Theses and Dissertations

Automation employed in information fusion systems is designed to help humans combine information derived from multiple sources to form a cohesive assessment of the situation. Research using the Levels of Automation model (Parasuraman, Wickens, and Sheridan, 2000) have produced conflicting results, which Patterson (2017) posited was because it focused solely on analytical processing while neglecting the effects of intuitive cognition. The present study examined how information acquisition automation affects the human’s ability to detect patterns in data needed to reach higher levels of information fusion. Results showed that when information acquisition was performed through manual operations, pattern recognition performance ...


Design, Development, And Testing Of Embedded Computing On Afit's Control & Autonomy Space Proximity Robot (Caspr), Collin A. Gwaltney Dec 2021

Design, Development, And Testing Of Embedded Computing On Afit's Control & Autonomy Space Proximity Robot (Caspr), Collin A. Gwaltney

Theses and Dissertations

This thesis reviews RPO algorithm testbeds and discusses the development of the Control and Autonomy Space proximity Robot (CASpR) kinematic testbed housed at the Air Force Institute of Technology (AFIT). CASpR operates on a rail system to propagate the trajectories of two satellites using the Hill-Clohessy-Wiltshire (HCW) Equations of Motion (EOMs). In this study, the implementation of a Jetson TX2i as an onboard flight computer is discussed and accomplished. Each hardware component used in the process of adding embedded computing as well as the software and paths of communication are all discussed in detail. Tests are conducted to assess the ...


Two-Dimensional Steady Boussinesq Convection: Existence, Computation And Scaling, Jeremiah S. Lane, Benjamin F. Akers Benjamin.Akers@Afit.Edu Nov 2021

Two-Dimensional Steady Boussinesq Convection: Existence, Computation And Scaling, Jeremiah S. Lane, Benjamin F. Akers Benjamin.Akers@Afit.Edu

Faculty Publications

This research investigates laser-induced convection through a stream function-vorticity formulation. Specifically, this paper considers a solution to the steady Boussinesq Navier–Stokes equations in two dimensions with a slip boundary condition on a finite box. A fixed-point algorithm is introduced in stream function-vorticity variables, followed by a proof of the existence of steady solutions for small laser amplitudes. From this analysis, an asymptotic relationship is demonstrated between the nondimensional fluid parameters and least upper bounds for laser amplitudes that guarantee existence, which accords with numerical results implementing the algorithm in a finite difference scheme. The findings indicate that the upper ...


Ionospheric F-Layer Dipole Flute Instability Effects On Electromagnetic Scattering In A Magnetohydrodynamic Plasma, Andrew J. Knisely Nov 2021

Ionospheric F-Layer Dipole Flute Instability Effects On Electromagnetic Scattering In A Magnetohydrodynamic Plasma, Andrew J. Knisely

Theses and Dissertations

The ionosphere has significant impact on radio frequency (RF) applications such as satellites, over-the-horizon radar, and commercial communication systems. The dynamic processes effecting the behavior of the ionic content leads to a variety of instabilities that adversely affect the quality of RF signals. In the F-layer ionosphere, flute instability persists, appearing as two radial regions of high and low density perturbations elongated along the earth's geomagnetic field lines. The sizes of flute structures are comparable to the wavelengths in the high frequency spectrum. The objective is to characterize the high frequency scattering of an incident field by developing a ...


Traffic Collision Avoidance System: False Injection Viability, John Hannah, Robert F. Mills, Richard A. Dill, Douglas D. Hodson Nov 2021

Traffic Collision Avoidance System: False Injection Viability, John Hannah, Robert F. Mills, Richard A. Dill, Douglas D. Hodson

Faculty Publications

Safety is a simple concept but an abstract task, specifically with aircraft. One critical safety system, the Traffic Collision Avoidance System II (TCAS), protects against mid-air collisions by predicting the course of other aircraft, determining the possibility of collision, and issuing a resolution advisory for avoidance. Previous research to identify vulnerabilities associated with TCAS’s communication processes discovered that a false injection attack presents the most comprehensive risk to veritable trust in TCAS, allowing for a mid-air collision. This research explores the viability of successfully executing a false injection attack against a target aircraft, triggering a resolution advisory. Monetary constraints ...


Wavelet Methods For Very-Short Term Forecasting Of Functional Time Series, Jared K. Nystrom Sep 2021

Wavelet Methods For Very-Short Term Forecasting Of Functional Time Series, Jared K. Nystrom

Theses and Dissertations

Space launch operations at Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Space Force Station (KSC/CCSFS) are complicated by unique requirements for near-real time determination of risk from lightning. Lightning forecast weather sensor networks produce data that are noisy, high volume, and high frequency time series for which traditional forecasting methods are often ill-suited. Current approaches result in significant residual uncertainties and consequentially may result in forecasting operational policies that are excessively conservative or inefficient. This work proposes a new methodology of wavelet-enabled semiparametric modeling to develop accurate and timely forecasts robust against chaotic functional data. Wavelets methods are first used ...


Stochastic Satellite Air Drag With The Ballistic Coefficient As A Random Variable, Everett B. Palmer Iv Sep 2021

Stochastic Satellite Air Drag With The Ballistic Coefficient As A Random Variable, Everett B. Palmer Iv

Theses and Dissertations

The drag acceleration caused by the Earth's atmosphere is a significant cause of prediction uncertainty for low Earth orbit satellites. Most existing research has focused on improving deterministic atmospheric density predictions or on density as a random variable. This research investigates a new paradigm and focuses on modeling the uncertainty caused by air drag using the ballistic coefficient, a component of air drag that is independent of the model used to predict atmospheric density. Time series of ballistic coefficient values were calculated and analyzed as random processes. These random processes were then used as the foundation of a stochastic ...


Evaluating Testing Procedures For Openflow Controller Network Re-Provisioning Time, Steven J. Jensen Sep 2021

Evaluating Testing Procedures For Openflow Controller Network Re-Provisioning Time, Steven J. Jensen

Theses and Dissertations

Software-Defined Networking promises several advantages over traditional networking architectures, but has seen little adoption. Recently codified controller evaluation methodologies have seen little validation without strong statistical analysis of the results. The research developed an environment testing implementing a published Network Re-provisioning Time methodology to evaluate five OpenFlow controllers. The methodology is strong with required parameters but had issues with some edge cases. Further refinement and adding a convergence metric may close the gaps.