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Full-Text Articles in Engineering

International Analysis On The Traffic Impact Of The Covid-19 Pandemic, Fanny Margaretha Kristiansson May 2021

International Analysis On The Traffic Impact Of The Covid-19 Pandemic, Fanny Margaretha Kristiansson

PhD Dissertations and Master's Theses

The purpose of this research was to assess, compare, and contrast the impact of COVID-19 activity restrictions on road-based transportation activity in regions of the US, Sweden, and China from January 1st to December 31st, 2020. Roadway traffic volumes were used to relate the progression of reported COVID-19 cases and government directives for social separation in three countries with diverse governmental responses.

Among the contributions of this paper was the illustration of the timeline and level of public responses to closures, lockdowns, and reopening as represented through rapid traffic decreases and increases. Traffic was greatly impacted, showing that the pandemic ...


Examination Of The Correlation Between Shear Strength, California Bearing Ratio, And Index Properties Of Fine-Grained Soil, Billy W. Rushema May 2021

Examination Of The Correlation Between Shear Strength, California Bearing Ratio, And Index Properties Of Fine-Grained Soil, Billy W. Rushema

Master of Science in Civil Engineering Theses

Abstract

California Bering Ratio (CBR) is used to evaluate the strength of the pavement materials by comparing bearing capacity of the material with that of a high-quality crushed stone. This test adopted by transportation agencies and widely used in the design and analysis of pavement. Several agencies developed design thickness chart based on the CBR values of the subgrade. However, CBR test is time consuming and expensive to perform compared to shear strength test and therefore several studies have been conducted to establish correlation between shear strength and CBR. The published correlation models between CBR and shear strength of soil ...


Improving Logistics Efficiency Through Collaborative Truck Routing, Patrick Dougherty May 2021

Improving Logistics Efficiency Through Collaborative Truck Routing, Patrick Dougherty

Industrial Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

The logistics industry is among the world’s largest and most essential. Specifically, trucking is a massive component of the modern logistics system. In 2012, truck transportation carried 68% of all freight tonnage in the U.S. However, trucking currently faces significant problems with efficiency and sustainability. Of all miles driven by trucks yearly in the U.S., 25% are driven with empty loads and 36% are driven with underutilized loads. In addition to this economic inefficiency, the industry faces social and environmental challenges. Driver turnover rates are near 100%, and trucking accounts for a significant level of greenhouse gas ...


Analysis Of Shear-Strength In Weathered Shale Strata Along A Highway Slope Failure Site In Northwest Arkansas, Olivia Overton May 2021

Analysis Of Shear-Strength In Weathered Shale Strata Along A Highway Slope Failure Site In Northwest Arkansas, Olivia Overton

Civil Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

Slope failures cost millions of dollars per year to repair and can be deadly. Accurate modeling of slope conditions, including soil parameters, water table locations, and depth to bedrock, are essential to determining the overall stability of a slope. This project is a continuation of the work completed in 2019 by a former University of Arkansas researcher, Vanessa LeBow. LeBow RocScience used Slide2 modeling software to model two highway embankment slopes in Northwest Arkansas that experienced slope movement to determine whether increased use of geophysical data could increase the accuracy of slope stability models. A parametric study of shear strengths ...


Going Green: A Comparative Analysis Of Green Urbanism In Paris And Shanghai, Jeanne Torp Apr 2021

Going Green: A Comparative Analysis Of Green Urbanism In Paris And Shanghai, Jeanne Torp

Honors Theses

As climate change becomes more pressing with each day and as we scramble to slow down the challenges it poses, adapting the means of operation within our cities will become an invaluable tool for reducing humanity’s carbon footprint. This paper seeks to study the ways in which green infrastructure in global cities can be used to do just that—adapting to and mitigating the effects of challenges resulting from climate change. In order to provide a broad overview of the effectiveness of such green infrastructure systems across the globe, this research will focus on two cities that vary greatly ...


A Methodology For Estimating Capacity And Passenger Car Equivalents For Connected And Automated Vehicles Traveling On Freeways, Antonio Hurtado Beltran Apr 2021

A Methodology For Estimating Capacity And Passenger Car Equivalents For Connected And Automated Vehicles Traveling On Freeways, Antonio Hurtado Beltran

Civil and Environmental Engineering Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research

Recently, there has been a significant amount of research related to heavy trucks operating as connected and autonomous vehicles (CAVs). In order to understand the potential impact on the freeway system of CAV technologies, analyses should be conducted using the standard US methodological framework. In the current version of the Highway Capacity Manual (HCM-6), equal-capacity passenger car equivalencies (EC-PCEs) are used to account for the effect of heavy trucks on capacity and quality of service analyses. It is argued in this dissertation the HCM-6 EC-PCE methodology for basic freeway and multilane highway segments can be used to explore a wide ...


Modeling Bus Bunching And Anti-Bunching Control Accounting For Signal Control And Passenger Swapping Behavior, Qi Xin, Rui Fu, Shaowei Yu, Satish V. Ukkusuri, Rui Jiang Apr 2021

Modeling Bus Bunching And Anti-Bunching Control Accounting For Signal Control And Passenger Swapping Behavior, Qi Xin, Rui Fu, Shaowei Yu, Satish V. Ukkusuri, Rui Jiang

Journal of Public Transportation

The conventional bus propagation process has two main shortcomings: one is bus bunching, the other is extra energy consumption by idling at signalized intersection and unexpected speed variation along the route. To overcome these problems simultaneously, an extended bus propagation model and an anti-bunching control are proposed. To extend the time-based bus propagation model, we employ finite state machine and intelligent driver model to establish a spatial-temporal based bus propagation model accounting for bus dynamic motion and passenger swapping behavior between bunching buses. To mitigate bus bunching and improve bus fuel economy in a cyber-traffic environment, an anticipated average speed ...


Evaluation Of Permanent Concrete Barriers To Mash 2016, Samuel Elias Hovde Apr 2021

Evaluation Of Permanent Concrete Barriers To Mash 2016, Samuel Elias Hovde

Civil and Environmental Engineering Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research

The objective of this research project was to develop evaluation criteria for permanent concrete barriers to MASH 2016 TL-3 and TL-4 without crash testing and then to evaluate permanent concrete barrier standards provided by the sponsoring agencies of the Midwest Pooled Fund Program. A literature review was conducted to determine evaluation criteria for stability, shape, strength, and anchorage, and a database of permanent concrete barrier crash tests was compiled. A survey was conducted to collect barrier standards from the members of the Midwest Pooled Fund Program, and barriers were selected and evaluated according to the determined methodology. A total of ...


Optimization And Technology-Based Strategies To Improve Public Transit Performance Accounting For Demand Distribution, Charalampos Sipetas Apr 2021

Optimization And Technology-Based Strategies To Improve Public Transit Performance Accounting For Demand Distribution, Charalampos Sipetas

Doctoral Dissertations

Public transit is important to societies worldwide. The operation of public transit systems is generally associated with great benefits for the users, but there are also cases in which these systems demonstrate inefficient performance. Quantifying transit performance is an important area of research over the last decades. This dissertation presents models to improve transit system performance through optimization techniques and new technologies, recognizing the effects of non-uniform distribution of demand over space and time. The contributions span fixed route transit services and on-demand transit, as well as models for flexible transit operations that lie in between.

Regarding fixed route systems ...


Intersection Redesign For Network Resilience And Safety, Antonio Pratelli, Pietro Leandri, Rosaria Aiello, Reginald R. Souleyrette Apr 2021

Intersection Redesign For Network Resilience And Safety, Antonio Pratelli, Pietro Leandri, Rosaria Aiello, Reginald R. Souleyrette

Civil Engineering Faculty Publications

This paper describes a procedure for improving the resilience of roadway networks. A methodology is outlined that develops a time-dependent and performance-based resilience index. This methodology was applied to an Italian road, with the aim of optimizing intersections that are critical due to inadequate baseline capacity. The methodology uses a calibrated microscopic traffic model (using Aimsun™) whereby average delay at intersection approaches are estimated by an analytical model. From the simulation, average speed over time is obtained for each approach. These values in turn are used as inputs for calculating each intersection’s resilience index. The procedure allows the identification ...


The Role Of Rejuvenators In Embedded Damage Healing For Asphalt Pavement, Shi Xu, Xueyan Liu, Amir Tabakovic, P Lin, Y Zhang, S Nahar, B J. Lommerts, Erik Schlangen Apr 2021

The Role Of Rejuvenators In Embedded Damage Healing For Asphalt Pavement, Shi Xu, Xueyan Liu, Amir Tabakovic, P Lin, Y Zhang, S Nahar, B J. Lommerts, Erik Schlangen

Articles

Rejuvenator encapsulation technique showed great potential for extrinsic asphalt pavement damage healing. Once the capsules are embedded within asphalt pavement, the healing is activated on-demand via progressing microcrack. When the microcrack encounters the capsule, the fracture energy at the tip opens the capsule and releases the rejuvenator. Then the released rejuvenator wets the crack surfaces, diffuses into and softens the aged bitumen, allowing two broken edges to come in the contact, preventing further asphalt pavement deterioration. The quality and speed of the damage repair process strongly depend on the quality of rejuvenator, thus it is important to choose a proper ...


City Best Practices To Improve Transit Operations And Safety, Michelle Derobertis, Christopher E. Ferrell, Richard W. Lee, David Moore Apr 2021

City Best Practices To Improve Transit Operations And Safety, Michelle Derobertis, Christopher E. Ferrell, Richard W. Lee, David Moore

Mineta Transportation Institute Publications

Public, fixed-route transit services most commonly operate on public streets. In addition, transit passengers must use sidewalks to access transit stops and stations. However, streets and sidewalks are under the jurisdiction of municipalities, not transit agencies. Various municipal policies, practices, and decisions affect transit operations, rider convenience, and passenger safety. Thus, these government entities have an important influence over the quality, safety, and convenience of transit services in their jurisdictions. This research identified municipal policies and practices that affect public transport providers’ ability to deliver transit services. They were found from a comprehensive literature review, interviews and discussions with five ...


Cycling Past 50: A Closer Look Into The World Of Older Cyclists, Carol Kachadoorian Apr 2021

Cycling Past 50: A Closer Look Into The World Of Older Cyclists, Carol Kachadoorian

Mineta Transportation Institute Publications

This document reports on 2,300 responses to a nationwide survey of older adults who cycle. The survey, open from February through September 2020, includes questions about a rider’s cycling history, current cycling habits, and falls. It includes a visual preference survey of various cycling facilities and an online journaling option for two rides subsequent to completing the survey (results of the online journals will be available in the summer 2021). Responses reflect the impact of COVID-19 on older adults’ cycling habits, the impact of aging on ability and agility, the impact of the built environment, types of bicycles ...


The Prospect Of Microwave Heating: Towards A Faster And Deeper Crack Healing In Asphalt Pavement, Shi Xu, Xueyan Liu, Amir Tabakovic, Erik Schlangen Mar 2021

The Prospect Of Microwave Heating: Towards A Faster And Deeper Crack Healing In Asphalt Pavement, Shi Xu, Xueyan Liu, Amir Tabakovic, Erik Schlangen

Articles

Microwave heating has been shown to be an effective method of heating asphalt concrete and in turn healing the damage. As such, microwave heating holds great potential in rapid (1–3 min) and effective damage healing, resulting in improvement in the service life, safety, and sustainability of asphalt pavement. This study focused on the microwave healing effect on porous asphalt concrete. Steel wool fibres were incorporated into porous asphalt to improve the microwave heating efficiency, and the optimum microwave heating time was determined. Afterwards, the microwave healing efficiency was evaluated using a semi–circular bending and healing programme. The results ...


Safety Considerations For All Road Users On Edge Lane Roads, Michael Williams, Marcial Lamera, Aleksander Bauranov, Carole Voulgaris, Anurag Pande Mar 2021

Safety Considerations For All Road Users On Edge Lane Roads, Michael Williams, Marcial Lamera, Aleksander Bauranov, Carole Voulgaris, Anurag Pande

Mineta Transportation Institute Publications

Edge lane roads (ELRs), also known as advisory bike lanes or advisory shoulders, are a type of shared street where two-way motor vehicle (MV) traffic shares a single center lane, and edge lanes on either side are preferentially reserved for vulnerable road users (VRUs). This work comprises a literature review, an investigation of ELRs’ operational characteristics and potential road user interactions via simulation, and a study of crash data from existing American and Australian ELRs.

The simulation evaluated the impact of various factors (e.g., speed, volume, directional split, etc.) on ELR operation. Results lay the foundation for a siting ...


Defect Detection In Freight Railcar Tapered-Roller Bearings Using Vibration Techniques, Constantine Tarawneh, Joseph Montalvo, Brent Wilson Feb 2021

Defect Detection In Freight Railcar Tapered-Roller Bearings Using Vibration Techniques, Constantine Tarawneh, Joseph Montalvo, Brent Wilson

Mechanical Engineering Faculty Publications and Presentations

Currently, there are two types of defect detection systems used to monitor the health of freight railcar bearings in service: wayside hot-box detection systems and trackside acoustic detection systems. These systems have proven to be inefficient in accurately determining bearing health, especially in the early stages of defect development. To that end, a prototype onboard bearing condition monitoring system has been developed and validated through extensive laboratory testing and a designated field test in 2015 at the Transportation Technology Center, Inc. in Pueblo, CO. The devised system can accurately and reliably characterize the health of bearings based on developed vibration ...


Development, Implementation, And Tracking Of Preventative Safety Metrics, Zamaan Al-Shabbani, Ashtarout Ammar, Hala Nassereddine, Gabriel B. Dadi Feb 2021

Development, Implementation, And Tracking Of Preventative Safety Metrics, Zamaan Al-Shabbani, Ashtarout Ammar, Hala Nassereddine, Gabriel B. Dadi

Kentucky Transportation Center Research Report

What gets measured, gets improved. With respect to the safety and health of Kentucky Transportation Cabinet (KYTC) employees, the primary metric used has been the OSHA recordable incident rate. This incident rate measures how often a Cabinet employee sustains an injury that demands more than basic first aid. This metric is important for understanding injury frequencies, but it does not assist with management of the safety, health, and overall well-being of KYTC personnel. Based on a review of leading safety indicators adopted by various industries, this study devised a comprehensive list of safety metrics the Cabinet will benefit from tracking ...


Commercial Driver’S License Prosecution, Adjudication, And Data Transmission, Andrew Martin, Jeeyen Koo, Jennifer Walton Feb 2021

Commercial Driver’S License Prosecution, Adjudication, And Data Transmission, Andrew Martin, Jeeyen Koo, Jennifer Walton

Kentucky Transportation Center Research Report

The Kentucky Transportation Center research team examined law enforcement and adjudication of traffic offenses committed by commercial driver’s license holders. The objectives were to identify states that would provide the data, collect information about their court systems, analyze enforcement and/or adjudication data, and make some general observations about trends. Many state agencies were not able to provide their traffic offense data and therefore, the team focused primarily on data from Kentucky and Washington State.

The study focused on enforcement trends and adjudication of safety-related offenses. Overall, conviction rates remain higher than dismissal and amended rates. In recent years ...


Evaluation Of Orange Pavement Striping For Use In Work Zones, Erin Lammers, William Staats, Ken Agent Feb 2021

Evaluation Of Orange Pavement Striping For Use In Work Zones, Erin Lammers, William Staats, Ken Agent

Kentucky Transportation Center Research Report

Interstate widening projects are commonplace in Kentucky, and safety is of primary concern within the project work zone. Past experience with long work zones revealed two critical safety issues: driver confusion due to unclear pavement markings and a lack of continuous work zone signage for motorists indicating they are still within a work zone. This concern is heightened in transition and taper areas. Highly visible markings in an alternative color other than standard yellow or white might better distinguish the proper travel path for motorists and prevent drivers from returning to normal driving behavior and speeds once they get through ...


Fiscal Year 2019 Fhwa-536 Report For The Kentucky Transportation Cabinet, Doug Kreis, Candice Wallace, Bryan Gibson, Sarah Mccormack Feb 2021

Fiscal Year 2019 Fhwa-536 Report For The Kentucky Transportation Cabinet, Doug Kreis, Candice Wallace, Bryan Gibson, Sarah Mccormack

Kentucky Transportation Center Research Report

The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) requires state transportation agencies to submit a biennial report on local highway finances. The purpose of these reports is to provide FHWA with the data it needs to capture the financing of highway activities at the local level. Based on this information, it can identify trends in revenue, expenditures, investments, and program development, and in turn make decisions about future investments. The report, FHWA-536, asks agencies to report on four areas of local highway finance: 1) disposition of highway-user revenues; 2) revenues used for roads and streets identified by source and funding type; 3) road ...


Structural Identification And Damage Detection In Bridges Using Wave Method And Uniform Shear Beam Models: A Feasibility Study, Mehran Rahmani, Manan Naik Feb 2021

Structural Identification And Damage Detection In Bridges Using Wave Method And Uniform Shear Beam Models: A Feasibility Study, Mehran Rahmani, Manan Naik

Mineta Transportation Institute Publications

This report presents a wave method to be used for the structural identification and damage detection of structural components in bridges, e.g., bridge piers. This method has proven to be promising when applied to real structures and large amplitude responses in buildings (e.g., mid-rise and high-rise buildings). This study is the first application of the method to damaged bridge structures. The bridge identification was performed using wave propagation in a simple uniform shear beam model. The method identifies a wave velocity for the structure by fitting an equivalent uniform shear beam model to the impulse response functions of ...


The Legacy Of Car-Share And Light-Rail Transit For Mobility And Accessibility Improvements In Economically Marginalized Neighborhoods In The New York Metro Area, Kyeongsu Kim Feb 2021

The Legacy Of Car-Share And Light-Rail Transit For Mobility And Accessibility Improvements In Economically Marginalized Neighborhoods In The New York Metro Area, Kyeongsu Kim

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

This dissertation explores the value of the car-share program and a new light rail system with respect to their impact on mobility and accessibility improvements in economically and transportation access-wise marginalized neighborhoods in NYC and its adjacent communities. It consists of three main essays that took deep dives into how each new service or system altered mobility or accessibility for those in need. The first essay (Chapter 2) investigates car-share vehicle utilization rates of the Zipcar across NYC. It assesses the utilization rates by vehicle type, service location, time period, and weekday usage compared to weekend activity. With a multivariate ...


Developing Guidelines For Assessing The Effectiveness Of Intelligent Compaction Technology, Mehran Mazari, Siavash F. Aval, Siddharth M. Satani, David Corona, Joshua Garrido Jan 2021

Developing Guidelines For Assessing The Effectiveness Of Intelligent Compaction Technology, Mehran Mazari, Siavash F. Aval, Siddharth M. Satani, David Corona, Joshua Garrido

Mineta Transportation Institute Publications

Many factors affect pavement compaction quality, which can vary. Such variability may result in an additional number of passes required, extended working hours, higher energy consumption, and negative environmental impacts. The use of Intelligent Compaction (IC) technology during construction can improve the quality and longevity of pavement structures while reducing risk for contractors and project owners alike. This study develops guidelines for the implementation of IC in the compaction of pavement layers as well as performing a preliminary life-cycle cost analysis (LCCA) of IC technology compared to the conventional compaction approach. The environmental impacts of the improved construction process were ...


2020 Kentucky Transportation Cabinet Maintenance Customer Survey, Bryan Gibson, Katherine Connair, Chris Van Dyke, Clark Graves, Doug Kreis Jan 2021

2020 Kentucky Transportation Cabinet Maintenance Customer Survey, Bryan Gibson, Katherine Connair, Chris Van Dyke, Clark Graves, Doug Kreis

Kentucky Transportation Center Research Report

The Kentucky Transportation Cabinet (KYTC) periodically surveys drivers to understand their perceptions of the agency’s maintenance activities. In 2020, Quadratics in conjunction with the Kentucky Transportation Center surveyed 2,400 licensed drivers throughout the state to gauge their perceptions of highway maintenance, identify areas of strength and weakness, and discern how drivers obtain information on traffic and weather conditions. Survey participants answered questions about five areas of highway maintenance — roadside features, pavement surfaces, shoulders, drainage, and signs/markings. Drivers reported being most satisfied with the maintenance of signs, guardrail, and striping. Pavement surfaces, potholes, and overall appearance garnered the ...


Transportation Sustainability, Eleni Christofa Jan 2021

Transportation Sustainability, Eleni Christofa

Sustainability Education Resources

An overview of sustainable transportation planning practices and management strategies and policies; current transportation trends; environmental and energy policies; nonmotorized modes (mainly bicycles and pedestrians); public transportation; life-cycle assessment for transportation infrastructure; alternative fuel vehicles; vehicle emission estimation models; demand management strategies (including parking policies, pricing strategies).


Modeling Operational Performance Of Urban Roads With Heterogeneous Traffic Conditions, Swapneel R. Kodupuganti, Sonu Mathew, Srinivas S. Pulugurtha Jan 2021

Modeling Operational Performance Of Urban Roads With Heterogeneous Traffic Conditions, Swapneel R. Kodupuganti, Sonu Mathew, Srinivas S. Pulugurtha

Mineta Transportation Institute Publications

The rapid growth in population and related demand for travel during the past few decades has had a catalytic effect on traffic congestion, air quality, and safety in many urban areas. Transportation managers and planners have planned for new facilities to cater to the needs of users of alternative modes of transportation (e.g., public transportation, walking, and bicycling) over the next decade. However, there are no widely accepted methods, nor there is enough evidence to justify whether such plans are instrumental in improving mobility of the transportation system. Therefore, this project researches the operational performance of urban roads with ...


Incorporating The Standstill Distance And Time Headway Distributions Into Freeway Car-Following Models And An Application To Estimating Freeway Travel Time Reliability, Chaoru Lu, Jing Dong, Andrew Houchin, Chenhui Liu Jan 2021

Incorporating The Standstill Distance And Time Headway Distributions Into Freeway Car-Following Models And An Application To Estimating Freeway Travel Time Reliability, Chaoru Lu, Jing Dong, Andrew Houchin, Chenhui Liu

Civil, Construction and Environmental Engineering Publications

Standstill distances and following time headways are two important microsimulation model parameters associated with driver aggression. This paper investigates the distributions of standstill distances and time headways and incorporates these distributions into car-following models to estimate travel time reliability. By incorporating standstill distance and following headway into car-following models as stochastic parameters, a speed-density region can be generated, based on which various travel-time-reliability measures can be calculated. Key findings of this study are as follows: (1) Both standstill distances and time headways follow fairly dispersed distributions. Therefore, it is suggested that microsimulation models should include the option of allowing standstill ...


Mechanically Spliced Precast Bridge Columns, Ted Sjurseth Jan 2021

Mechanically Spliced Precast Bridge Columns, Ted Sjurseth

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Mechanical bar splices provide an alternative to the traditional method of lap splicing to achieve reinforcement bar continuity in reinforced concrete. Even though mechanical bar splices can be used as new precast column connections to accelerate the bridge construction (ABC), The use of bar couplers in the plastic hinge region of bridge columns is prohibited by the current US codes since the effects of bar couplers on the seismic behavior of columns is not fully investigated. A bridge column including precast columns with couplers located in a high seismic region must be designed to handle large inelastic lateral deformations. The ...


The Life Of A Roundabout In Colorado Springs, Alexis M. Yoder Jan 2021

The Life Of A Roundabout In Colorado Springs, Alexis M. Yoder

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

Colorado Springs is an up-and-coming area where many people have decided to move to for multiple opportunities. With more people, comes more traffic flow and unfortunately, more accidents. Throughout the state, there is a large attempt to lower accidents, especially at intersections. One type of intersection that can be of great benefit is the roundabout. In fact, Colorado was an early adapter of the roundabout in order to improve traffic flow and decrease fatal accident statistics. When designing a roundabout, although good intentions are planned, complications can still arise. In most scenarios, roundabouts are able to reduce the number of ...


A Comparison Of The Effectiveness And Integration Capability Of Personal Aerial Vehicles (Pav) Into The Existing Transportation Network Of The City Of Los Angeles, Alec Perkins Jan 2021

A Comparison Of The Effectiveness And Integration Capability Of Personal Aerial Vehicles (Pav) Into The Existing Transportation Network Of The City Of Los Angeles, Alec Perkins

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

Traffic demands on the current infrastructure network is becoming more strained as populations migrate and increase, particularly in large cities. Therefore, city officials, transportation and traffic authorities and researchers, and city inhabitants themselves are always striving to find faster and more efficient means of transportation. With the rise of new technologies such as autonomous vehicles and drones, the applications for transportation are endless. Therefore, this paper will describe and explore the operations, and consequently the efficacy, of Personal Aerial Vehicles (PAV), also known as Urban Air Mobility (UAM). The machines, while still hypothetical, are being researched extensively by some of ...