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Full-Text Articles in Engineering

Substitutional And Interstitial Doping In Laco5 System For The Development Of Hard Magnetic Properties: A First Principles Study, Huseyin Ucar, Renu Choudhary, Durga Paudyal Sep 2020

Substitutional And Interstitial Doping In Laco5 System For The Development Of Hard Magnetic Properties: A First Principles Study, Huseyin Ucar, Renu Choudhary, Durga Paudyal

Ames Laboratory Accepted Manuscripts

We investigate here the changes in the electronic structure at the transition metal sites of the RE-TM5 structure (RE = Rare Earth, TM = Transition Metal) while doping the interstitial sites with nitrogen. LaCo5 compound is taken as the baseline compound owing to its critically needed intrinsic magnetic properties such as magneto-crystalline anisotropy energy (MAE) of ≈5 meV/fu [1] due to the contributions from the cobalt network. In addition, because of the lack of 4f electrons in lanthanum, complications originating from the treatment of the 4f localized electrons are absent in this compound; making it an ideal reference material to all ...


Waiting-Time Paradox In 1922, Naoki Masuda, Takayuki Hiraoka May 2020

Waiting-Time Paradox In 1922, Naoki Masuda, Takayuki Hiraoka

Northeast Journal of Complex Systems (NEJCS)

We present an English translation and discussion of an essay that a Japanese physicist, Torahiko Terada, wrote in 1922. In the essay, he described the waiting-time paradox, also called the bus paradox, which is a known mathematical phenomenon in queuing theory, stochastic processes, and modern temporal network analysis. He also observed and analyzed data on Tokyo City trams to verify the relevance of the waiting-time paradox to busy passengers in Tokyo at the time. This essay seems to be one of the earliest documentations of the waiting-time paradox in a sufficiently scientific manner.


Non-Equilibrium Growth Of Metal Clusters On A Layered Material: Cu On Mos2, Dapeng Jing, Ann Lii-Rosales, King C. Lai, Qiang Li, Jaeyoun Kim, Michael C. Tringides, James W. Evans, Patricia A. Thiel May 2020

Non-Equilibrium Growth Of Metal Clusters On A Layered Material: Cu On Mos2, Dapeng Jing, Ann Lii-Rosales, King C. Lai, Qiang Li, Jaeyoun Kim, Michael C. Tringides, James W. Evans, Patricia A. Thiel

Chemistry Publications

We use a variety of experimental techniques to characterize Cu clusters on bulk MoS2 formed via physical vapor deposition of Cu in ultrahigh vacuum, at temperatures ranging from 300 K to 900 K. We find that large facetted clusters grow at elevated temperatures, using high Cu exposures. The cluster size distribution is bimodal, and under some conditions, large clusters are surrounded by a denuded zone. We propose that defect-mediated nucleation, and coarsening during deposition, are both operative in this system. At 780 K, a surprising type of facetted cluster emerges, and at 900 K this type predominates: pyramidal clusters with ...


Fabrication Of Nanoscale Columnar Diodes By Glancing Angle Deposition, Jacob D. Weightman May 2020

Fabrication Of Nanoscale Columnar Diodes By Glancing Angle Deposition, Jacob D. Weightman

Macalester Journal of Physics and Astronomy

Glancing angle deposition (GLAD) is a process in which thin films are deposited onto a substrate with obliquely incident vapor together with precisely controlled azimuthal substrate rotation. Ballistic shadowing effects due to the oblique incidence produce nanoscale structures, and a variety of feature shapes, including tilted columns, helices, and vertical columns can be achieved by varying the azimuthal rotation during the deposition process. Due to this control of morphology and the compatibility of the process with a wide variety of materials, GLAD films have found applications in a variety of fields including sensing, photonics, photovoltaics, and catalysis, where they are ...


Large Scale Grid Integration Of Wind And Solar Power With Storage, Nicholas Moore May 2020

Large Scale Grid Integration Of Wind And Solar Power With Storage, Nicholas Moore

Macalester Journal of Physics and Astronomy

The current energy grid in the United States is dominated by carbon intense energy generation methods that are based on production when and where it is required. However, solar and wind power have proved themselves as the most promising carbon free energy generation sources. Due to the unpredictable and uncontrollable nature of energy production from solar and wind, large scale integration of these resources into the electric grid will require robust storage capacity. In this project, we model the energy grid of the Midcontinent Independent System Operator (MISO) energy region with high concentrations of solar and wind power to analyze ...


Heel Down And Toe-Off Time Measured With Ultrasonic Doppler System And Force Plate Sensor, Sabin Timsina May 2020

Heel Down And Toe-Off Time Measured With Ultrasonic Doppler System And Force Plate Sensor, Sabin Timsina

Honors Theses

Collie Box is a medical device that measures the gait parameters of the person walk- ing in front of it. This device uses the Ultrasonic Doppler system to extract the heel-contact and toe-off times of a person walking within the range of 2-10 meters. These times are used to determine the leg’s swing phase and double stance times. The ultrasonic transducer of 10mm diameter is driven at 40kHz. At the time of the heel-contact and toe-off, foot velocity is zero while the torso part of the human body is still in motion. The wide directivity of 10mm diameter ultrasonic ...


Investigatin Actin-Myosin Mechanics To Model Heart Disease Using Fluorescence Microscopy And Optical Trapping, Justin Edward Reynolds May 2020

Investigatin Actin-Myosin Mechanics To Model Heart Disease Using Fluorescence Microscopy And Optical Trapping, Justin Edward Reynolds

Honors Theses

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a hereditary disease in which the myocardium becomes hypertrophied, making it more difficult for the heart to pump blood. HCM is commonly caused by a mutation in the β-cardiac myosin II heavy chain. Myosin is a motor protein that facilitates muscle contraction by converting chemical energy from ATP hydrolysis into mechanical work and concomitantly moving along actin filaments. Optical tweezers have been used previously to analyze single myosin biophysical properties; however, myosin does not work as a single unit within the heart. Multiple myosin interacts to displace actin filaments and do not have the same properties ...


Automating 35mm Photographic Film Digitization: X-Y Table Capture System Design And Assessment, Michael J. Bennett May 2020

Automating 35mm Photographic Film Digitization: X-Y Table Capture System Design And Assessment, Michael J. Bennett

Published Works

35mm still image formats are some of the most abundant photographic film types in cultural heritage collections. However, their special handling needs coupled with high resolution digital capture requirements have traditionally posed logistical constraints with regard to the formats’ digitization at scale. Through the use of a programmable X-Y table camera capture system, both slide and strip 35mm photographic film can be digitized in an automated fashion following Federal Agencies Digitization Guidelines (FADGI).


Numerical Modeling Of Magnetic Fields For Mirror Neutron Search Experiment, Adam Johnston May 2020

Numerical Modeling Of Magnetic Fields For Mirror Neutron Search Experiment, Adam Johnston

Pursuit - The Journal of Undergraduate Research at the University of Tennessee

This paper will outline the configuration of 3D magnetic field model simulated from electric current sources using MATLAB. The model is using 3D arrays allowing for quick and accurate numerical approximations of Bio-Savart integrals, of error < , modeling the behavior of a magnetic field due to current carrying wires. We will discuss the development of a 3D magnetic field configuration produced by the current carrying wires around a large 2.5 m diameter vacuum beam tube in the proposed mirror neutron search experiment at High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The simulations demonstrate that the magnetic field with uniformity better than ± 2.5 mG that will allow for optimal results in experiment within the controlled range of net magnetic field magnitudes |B| 500 mG and in the large vacuum tube along 20-m neutron flight path can be achieved for an approximately 6 cm radius section at the center of the tube.


Design Of Submicron Structured Guided-Mode-Resonance Near-Infrared Polarizer, Marzia Zaman May 2020

Design Of Submicron Structured Guided-Mode-Resonance Near-Infrared Polarizer, Marzia Zaman

Theses and Dissertations

The objective of this research is to design a larger submicron linear polarizer in the near-infrared wavelength range with a wide bandwidth which can be fabricated using the conventional thin-film microfabrication technology to reduce cost. For this purpose, a gold (Au) wire-grid transmission-type transverse-magnetic (TM) polarizer and a silicon (Si) wire-grid reflection-type TM polarizer, were designed using the guided-mode-resonance filter. The Au wire-grid TM polarizer of 700nm grating width and 1200nm grating period has 95% transmittance at 2400nm, more than 1000nm resonance peak bandwidth, and an extinction ratio (ER) of around 300 with a moderated level of sidebands. The 700nm ...


Gait Characterization Using Computer Vision Video Analysis, Martha T. Gizaw May 2020

Gait Characterization Using Computer Vision Video Analysis, Martha T. Gizaw

Undergraduate Honors Theses

The World Health Organization reports that falls are the second-leading cause of accidental death among senior adults around the world. Currently, a research team at William & Mary’s Department of Kinesiology & Health Sciences attempts to recognize and correct aging-related factors that can result in falling. To meet this goal, the members of that team videotape walking tests to examine individual gait parameters of older subjects. However, they undergo a slow, laborious process of analyzing video frame by video frame to obtain such parameters. This project uses computer vision software to reconstruct walking models from residents of an independent living retirement ...


Integrated Photonic Device, Brittney Kuhn May 2020

Integrated Photonic Device, Brittney Kuhn

Student Scholar Symposium Abstracts and Posters

In computer mediated communication networks, information is typically encoded optically to transmit signals over long distances. At a network node, the optical signal is transformed into the electrical domain, processed electronically, and transformed back to an optical state to reach its destination. Transitioning between optical and electrical encoding of the signal is a potential security weak point, especially for quantum communication links. If information can remain in one state as it travels through the network, then security breaches can be detected and dealt with more easily. Furthermore, keeping the information in one state can reduce power consumption in the network ...


Development And Upgrade Of A Laser Cooling And Trapping System Of Ultracold Potassium Atoms, Bennett Atwater May 2020

Development And Upgrade Of A Laser Cooling And Trapping System Of Ultracold Potassium Atoms, Bennett Atwater

Undergraduate Honors Theses

This thesis describes work to improve the apparatus that cools and loads potassium atoms onto the atom chip. This work consists of two main thrusts: a laser trap translator to help cool and load atoms onto the atom chip and a temperature stabilization system for the lasers that are used to laser cool potassium atoms. The current iteration of the beam translator has the ability to vertically translate a beam ±4.5 mm relative to its incident height. The translator has been shown to not alter the spatial profile of the beam through interference or obstruction. The translator’s rotation ...


Construction Of A Hyperspectral Imager Using 3d-Printed And Off-The-Shelf Components, Joshua Moorhouse May 2020

Construction Of A Hyperspectral Imager Using 3d-Printed And Off-The-Shelf Components, Joshua Moorhouse

Mechanical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

The Arkansas Center for Space and Planetary Sciences is working in collaboration with the Mechanical Engineering department to create a relatively cheap and modifiable hyperspectral imager. It is constructed using 3D-printed and off-the-shelf components from Edmund Optics and Amazon. The iteration created in this paper delivers spectrograms in the visible spectrum. The long-term goals of the camera are to create hyperspectral images from these spectrograms and to advance the imager into the infrared and near-infrared spectra. This imager is being developed to be used in the Arkansas Center for Space and Planetary Sciences environmental test chambers to further the scientific ...


Single-Atom-Layer Traps In A Solid Electrolyte For Lithium Batteries, Feng Zhu, Md Shafiqul Islam, Lin Zhou, Zhenqi Gu, Ting Liu, Xinchao Wang, Jun Luo, Ce-Wen Nan, Yifei Mo, Cheng Ma Apr 2020

Single-Atom-Layer Traps In A Solid Electrolyte For Lithium Batteries, Feng Zhu, Md Shafiqul Islam, Lin Zhou, Zhenqi Gu, Ting Liu, Xinchao Wang, Jun Luo, Ce-Wen Nan, Yifei Mo, Cheng Ma

Ames Laboratory Accepted Manuscripts

In order to fully understand the lithium-ion transport mechanism in solid electrolytes for batteries, not only the periodic lattice but also the non-periodic features that disrupt the ideal periodicity must be comprehensively studied. At present only a limited number of non-periodic features such as point defects and grain boundaries are considered in mechanistic studies. Here, we discover an additional type of non-periodic feature that significantly influences ionic transport; this feature is termed a “single-atom-layer trap” (SALT). In a prototype solid electrolyte Li0.33La0.56TiO3, the single-atom-layer defects that form closed loops, i.e., SALTs, are found ubiquitous by atomic-resolution electron ...


The Siltcatcher: A Sediment-Capture System For Wetland Creation And Coastal Protection In Western Lake Pontchartrain, Andrew M. Wright Apr 2020

The Siltcatcher: A Sediment-Capture System For Wetland Creation And Coastal Protection In Western Lake Pontchartrain, Andrew M. Wright

LSU Master's Theses

The West Lake Pontchartrain region faces a number of long-term environmental challenges due to anthropogenic climate disturbance and landscape modification, including sea level rise, increased storm surge risk, shoreline erosion, and wetland degradation. In response, this thesis applies recent research in the fields of landscape architecture and civil engineering to propose a dynamic, natural-systems solution for wetland creation and shoreline protection. The project envisions a series of breakwater-like structures in western Lake Pontchartrain positioned to slow water released from the nearby Bonnet Carré Spillway, causing suspended sediment to settle and create self-building and self-sustaining wetlands capable of keeping pace with ...


Studies Of Oval Tube And Fin Heat Exchangers, Phillip Nielsen Apr 2020

Studies Of Oval Tube And Fin Heat Exchangers, Phillip Nielsen

Discovery Day - Prescott

Heating Ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) is a system which changes the temperature of the surroundings for the purposes of cooling or heating. This system requires energy to maintain a temperature difference from the outside temperature. This is important since minimized power is one of the requirements for the system to achieve a better efficiency. Optimizing the flow over the evaporator coils is one way to increase the cooling efficiency. This will reduce the power required to have a sustainable system. Optimizing the flow to increase the energy transfer between the fins and the incoming air could result in a greater ...


One-Dimensional Multi-Frame Blind Deconvolution Using Astronomical Data For Spatially Separable Objects, Marc R. Brown Mar 2020

One-Dimensional Multi-Frame Blind Deconvolution Using Astronomical Data For Spatially Separable Objects, Marc R. Brown

Theses and Dissertations

Blind deconvolution is used to complete missions to detect adversary assets in space and to defend the nation's assets. A new algorithm was developed to perform blind deconvolution for objects that are spatially separable using multiple frames of data. This new one-dimensional approach uses the expectation-maximization algorithm to blindly deconvolve spatially separable objects. This object separation reduces the size of the object matrix from an NxN matrix to two singular vectors of length N. With limited knowledge of the object and point spread function the one-dimensional algorithm successfully deconvolved the objects in both simulated and laboratory data.


Syllabus Ee330 Electromagnetics, Nicholas Madamopoulos Mar 2020

Syllabus Ee330 Electromagnetics, Nicholas Madamopoulos

Open Educational Resources

Concepts covered in the undergraduate electrical engineering class of electromagnetics


Light Control Of Surface–Bulk Coupling By Terahertz Vibrational Coherence In A Topological Insulator, Xu Yang, Liang Luo, Chirag Vaswani, Xin Zhao, Yongxin Yao, Di Cheng, Zhiyan Liu, Richard H. J. Kim, Xinyu Liu, Malgorzata Dobrowolska-Furdyna, Jacek K. Furdyna, Ilias E. Perakis, Cai-Zhuang Wang, Kai-Ming Ho, Jigang Wang Feb 2020

Light Control Of Surface–Bulk Coupling By Terahertz Vibrational Coherence In A Topological Insulator, Xu Yang, Liang Luo, Chirag Vaswani, Xin Zhao, Yongxin Yao, Di Cheng, Zhiyan Liu, Richard H. J. Kim, Xinyu Liu, Malgorzata Dobrowolska-Furdyna, Jacek K. Furdyna, Ilias E. Perakis, Cai-Zhuang Wang, Kai-Ming Ho, Jigang Wang

Ames Laboratory Accepted Manuscripts

The demand for disorder-tolerant quantum logic and spin electronics can be met by generating and controlling dissipationless spin currents protected by topology. Dirac fermions with helical spin-locking surface transport offer a way of achieving such a goal. Yet, surface-bulk coupling can lead to strong Dirac electron scattering with bulk carriers and phonons as well as impurities, assisted by such dissipative channel, which results in “topological breakdown”. Here, we demonstrate that coherent lattice vibrations periodically driven by a single-cycle terahertz (THz) pulse can significantly suppress such dissipative channel in topological insulators. This is achieved by reducing the phase space in the ...


Measuring Localization Confidence For Quantifying Accuracy And Heterogeneity In Single-Molecule Super-Resolution Microscopy, Hesam Mazidi, Tianben Ding, Arye Nehorai, Matthew D. Lew Feb 2020

Measuring Localization Confidence For Quantifying Accuracy And Heterogeneity In Single-Molecule Super-Resolution Microscopy, Hesam Mazidi, Tianben Ding, Arye Nehorai, Matthew D. Lew

Electrical & Systems Engineering Publications and Presentations

We present a computational method, termed Wasserstein-induced flux (WIF), to robustly quantify the accuracy of individual localizations within a single-molecule localization microscopy (SMLM) dataset without ground- truth knowledge of the sample. WIF relies on the observation that accurate localizations are stable with respect to an arbitrary computational perturbation. Inspired by optimal transport theory, we measure the stability of individual localizations and develop an efficient optimization algorithm to compute WIF. We demonstrate the advantage of WIF in accurately quantifying imaging artifacts in high-density reconstruction of a tubulin network. WIF represents an advance in quantifying systematic errors with unknown and complex distributions ...


A Computationally-Efficient Bound For The Variance Of Measuring The Orientation Of Single Molecules, Tingting Wu, Tianben Ding, Hesam Mazidi, Oumeng Zhang, Matthew D. Lew Feb 2020

A Computationally-Efficient Bound For The Variance Of Measuring The Orientation Of Single Molecules, Tingting Wu, Tianben Ding, Hesam Mazidi, Oumeng Zhang, Matthew D. Lew

Electrical & Systems Engineering Publications and Presentations

Modulating the polarization of excitation light, resolving the polarization of emitted fluorescence, and point spread function (PSF) engineering have been widely leveraged for measuring the orientation of single molecules. Typically, the performance of these techniques is optimized and quantified using the Cramér-Rao bound (CRB), which describes the best possible measurement variance of an unbiased estimator. However, CRB is a local measure and requires exhaustive sampling across the measurement space to fully characterize measurement precision. We develop a global variance upper bound (VUB) for fast quantification and comparison of orientation measurement techniques. Our VUB tightly bounds the diagonal elements of the ...


Shapes Of Fe Nanocrystals Encapsulated At The Graphite Surface, Ann Lii-Rosales, Yong Han, Scott E. Julien, Olivier Pierre-Louis, Dapeng Jing, Kai-Tak Wan, Michael C. Tringides, James W. Evans, Patricia A. Thiel Feb 2020

Shapes Of Fe Nanocrystals Encapsulated At The Graphite Surface, Ann Lii-Rosales, Yong Han, Scott E. Julien, Olivier Pierre-Louis, Dapeng Jing, Kai-Tak Wan, Michael C. Tringides, James W. Evans, Patricia A. Thiel

Chemistry Publications

We describe and analyze in detail the shapes of Fe islands encapsulated under the top graphene layers in graphite. Shapes are interrogated using scanning tunneling microscopy. The main outputs of the shape analysis are the slope of the graphene membrane around the perimeter of the island, and the aspect ratio of the central metal cluster. Modeling primarily uses a continuum elasticity (CE) model. As input to the CE model, we use density functional theory to calculate the surface energy of Fe, and the adhesion energies between Fe and graphene or graphite. We use the shaft-loaded blister test (SLBT) model to ...


In-Situ Gold-Ceria Nanoparticles: Superior Optical Fluorescence Quenching Sensor For Dissolved Oxygen, Nader Shehata, Ishac Kandas, Effat Samir Feb 2020

In-Situ Gold-Ceria Nanoparticles: Superior Optical Fluorescence Quenching Sensor For Dissolved Oxygen, Nader Shehata, Ishac Kandas, Effat Samir

Electrical & Computer Engineering Faculty Publications

Cerium oxide (ceria) nanoparticles (NPs) have been proved to be an efficient optical fluorescent material through generating visible emission (~530 nm) under violet excitation. This feature allowed ceria NPs to be used as an optical sensor via the fluorescence quenching Technique. In this paper, the impact of in-situ embedded gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) inside ceria nanoparticles was studied. Then, gold–ceria NPs were used for sensing dissolved oxygen (DO) in aqueous media. It was observed that both fluorescence intensity and lifetime were changed due to increased concentration of DO. Added gold was found to enhance the sensitivity of ceria to ...


Defect-Free Plastic Deformation Through Dimensionality Reduction And Self-Annihilation Of Topological Defects In Crystalline Solids, Yipeng Gao, Yongfeng Zhang, Larry K. Aagesen, Jianguo Yu, Min Long, Yunzhi Wang Feb 2020

Defect-Free Plastic Deformation Through Dimensionality Reduction And Self-Annihilation Of Topological Defects In Crystalline Solids, Yipeng Gao, Yongfeng Zhang, Larry K. Aagesen, Jianguo Yu, Min Long, Yunzhi Wang

Computer Science Faculty Publications and Presentations

As a signature of symmetry-breaking processes, the generation and annihilation of topological defects (domain walls, strings, etc.) are of great interest in condensed matter physics and cosmology. Here we propose a distinctive self-organization process through phase transitions, in which all the generated topological defects are dimensionality reduced and self-annihilated. In crystalline solids, such a unique mechanism allows a perfect single crystal after plastic deformation, which originates from the coupling of different types of broken symmetries.


Ii-Vi Type-Ii Quantum Dot Superlattices For Novel Applications, Vasilios Deligiannakis Feb 2020

Ii-Vi Type-Ii Quantum Dot Superlattices For Novel Applications, Vasilios Deligiannakis

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

In this thesis, we discuss the growth procedure and the characterization results obtained for epitaxially grown submonolayer type-II quantum dot superlattices made of II-VI semiconductors. We have investigated the spin dynamics of ZnSe layers with embedded type-II ZnTe quantum dots and the use of (Zn)CdTe/ZnCdSe QDs for intermediate band solar cell (IBSC). Samples with a higher quantum dot density exhibit longer electron spin lifetimes, up to ~1 ns at low temperatures. Tellurium isoelectronic centers, which form in the ZnSe spacer regions as a result of the growth conditions, were also probed. A new growth sequence for type-II (Zn ...


Unusual Effect Of Iodine Ions On The Self-Assembly Of Poly(Ethylene Glycol)-Capped Gold Nanoparticles, Wenjie Wang, Hyeong Jin Kim, Wei Bu, Surya Mallapragada, David Vaknin Jan 2020

Unusual Effect Of Iodine Ions On The Self-Assembly Of Poly(Ethylene Glycol)-Capped Gold Nanoparticles, Wenjie Wang, Hyeong Jin Kim, Wei Bu, Surya Mallapragada, David Vaknin

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

We use synchrotron X-ray reflectivity and grazing incidence small-angle X-ray scattering to investigate the surface assembly of the polyethylene glycol (PEG) grafted gold nanoparticles (PEG-AuNPs) induced by different salts. We find that NaCl and CsCl behave as many other electrolytes, namely drive the PEG-AuNPs to the vapor/suspension interface to form a layer of single particle depth and organize them into very high quality two-dimensional (2D) hexagonal crystals. By contrast, NaI induces the migration of PEG-AuNPs to the aqueous surface at much higher surface densities than the other salts (at similar concentrations). The resulting 2D ordering at moderate NaI concentrations ...


Nanoscale Colocalization Of Fluorogenic Probes Reveals The Role Of Oxygen Vacancies In The Photocatalytic Activity Of Tungsten Oxide Nanowires, Meikun Shen, Tianben Ding, Steven T. Hartman, Fudong Wang, Christina Krucylak, Zheyu Wang, Che Tan, Bo Yin, Rohan Mishra, Matthew D. Lew, Bryce Sadtler Jan 2020

Nanoscale Colocalization Of Fluorogenic Probes Reveals The Role Of Oxygen Vacancies In The Photocatalytic Activity Of Tungsten Oxide Nanowires, Meikun Shen, Tianben Ding, Steven T. Hartman, Fudong Wang, Christina Krucylak, Zheyu Wang, Che Tan, Bo Yin, Rohan Mishra, Matthew D. Lew, Bryce Sadtler

Electrical & Systems Engineering Publications and Presentations

Defect engineering is a strategy that has been widely used to design active semiconductor photocatalysts. However, understanding the role of defects, such as oxygen vacancies, in controlling photocatalytic activity remains a challenge. Here, we report the use of chemically triggered fluorogenic probes to study the spatial distribution of active regions in individual tungsten oxide nanowires using super-resolution fluorescence microscopy. The nanowires show significant heterogeneity along their lengths for the photocatalytic generation of hydroxyl radicals. Through quantitative, coordinate-based colocalization of multiple probe molecules activated by the same nanowires, we demonstrate that the nanoscale regions most active for the photocatalytic generation of ...


Tunable-Focus Liquid Lens Through Charge Injection, Shizhi Qian, Wenxiang Shi, Huai Zheng, Zhaohui Liu Jan 2020

Tunable-Focus Liquid Lens Through Charge Injection, Shizhi Qian, Wenxiang Shi, Huai Zheng, Zhaohui Liu

Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering Faculty Publications

Liquid lenses are the simplest and cheapest optical lenses, and various studies have been conducted to develop tunable-focus liquid lenses. In this study, a simple and easily implemented method for achieving tunable-focus liquid lenses was proposed and experimentally validated. In this method, charges induced by a corona discharge in the air were injected into dielectric liquid, resulting in “electropressure” at the interface between the air and the liquid. Through a 3D-printed U-tube structure, a tunable-focus liquid lens was fabricated and tested. Depending on the voltage, the focus of the liquid lens can be adjusted in large ranges (−∞ to −9 mm ...


Fifth-Degree Elastic Potential For Predictive Stress-Strain Relations And Elastic Instabilities Under Large Strain And Complex Loading In Si, Hao Chen, Nikolai A. Zarkevich, Valery I. Levitas, Duane D. Johnson, Xiancheng Zhang Jan 2020

Fifth-Degree Elastic Potential For Predictive Stress-Strain Relations And Elastic Instabilities Under Large Strain And Complex Loading In Si, Hao Chen, Nikolai A. Zarkevich, Valery I. Levitas, Duane D. Johnson, Xiancheng Zhang

Aerospace Engineering Publications

Materials under complex loading develop large strains and often transition via an elastic instability, as observed in both simple and complex systems. Here, we present Si I under large strain in terms of Lagrangian strain by an 5th-order elastic potential found by minimizing error relative to density functional theory (DFT) results. The Cauchy stress-Lagrangian strain curves for arbitrary complex loadings are in excellent correspondence with DFT results, including elastic instability driving Si I→II phase transformation (PT) and the shear instabilities. PT conditions for Si I→II under action of cubic axial stresses are linear in Cauchy stresses in agreement ...