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Full-Text Articles in Engineering

Elaia 2018, Stephen Case Dec 2018

Elaia 2018, Stephen Case

ELAIA

Over the years, the Program has continued to grow and flourish, and the depth of its research continues to increase. This inaugural journal represents the fruits of that development, containing capstone research projects from the 2018 Honors Program senior class and their faculty mentors. The Table of Contents is diverse, and in that way it is a crystal clear reflection of our program’s community of scholars.

I, along with the members of the Honors Council, am gratified by the work of each student and faculty mentor printed within these pages. Congratulations, everyone!

- Stephen Lowe, Honors Program Director


Removal Of Carbamazepine From Drinking Water, Thomas Krumpolc, Juan Rodriguez, Jordan Alex Gadberry, Zach Wiese, Paola Marrero-Rivera, Adam Johnson Dec 2018

Removal Of Carbamazepine From Drinking Water, Thomas Krumpolc, Juan Rodriguez, Jordan Alex Gadberry, Zach Wiese, Paola Marrero-Rivera, Adam Johnson

Chemical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

Due to the increasing prevalence of prescription medication over the past few decades, pharmaceuticals have accumulated in various water sources. This has become a public health concern because many pharmaceuticals have limited research on the effects of chronic low-level exposure. According to the World’s Health Organization (WHO), traces of pharmaceuticals products have been reported in different water sources such as surface waters, wastewater, groundwater, and drinking water.[1] One pharmaceutical of interest that has been detected in water sources is carbamazepine. Carbamazepine (CBZ) is a common pharmaceutical prescribed for the treatment of seizure disorders, neuropathic pain, and various psychological ...


Integrating Crash, Hospital, And Roadway Data To Investigate The Effect Of Cable Median Barriers On Injury Severity, Michael D. Singleton, Eric R. Green, William Nicholas Staats, I-Chen Chen Dec 2018

Integrating Crash, Hospital, And Roadway Data To Investigate The Effect Of Cable Median Barriers On Injury Severity, Michael D. Singleton, Eric R. Green, William Nicholas Staats, I-Chen Chen

Kentucky Transportation Center Research Report

Executive Summary

  • In median-involved crashes, the odds of a police-reported injury were estimated to be 42% lower on road segments with a cable median barrier (CMB) than on road segments with a concrete median barrier, and the difference was statistically significant [odds ratio 0.58, 95% confidence interval (0.43, 0.78)].
  • In median-involved crashes, the odds of having an injury severity score of 8 or greater were estimated to be 34% higher on road segments with a CMB than on road segments with a concrete median barrier; however, the difference was not statistically significant [odds ratio 1.34, 95 ...


Smart Disease Prevention App: Informing The Public In Their Own Geographic Location, Apoorva Sulakhe, Shafali Rana, Zoe Disori, William Nogay, Kyle Plummer, Meredith Shannon, Morgan Young, Alyssa Zielinski, Vincent G. Duffy Nov 2018

Smart Disease Prevention App: Informing The Public In Their Own Geographic Location, Apoorva Sulakhe, Shafali Rana, Zoe Disori, William Nogay, Kyle Plummer, Meredith Shannon, Morgan Young, Alyssa Zielinski, Vincent G. Duffy

Purdue Journal of Service-Learning and International Engagement

Apoorva Sulakhe and Shefali Rana are graduate students in the School of Industrial Engineering at Purdue. They have both been teaching assistants under their coauthor, Dr. Vincent Duffy, while supervising multiple projects. Coauthors Zoe Disori, William Nogay, Kyle Plummer, Meredith Shannon, Morgan Young, and Alyssa Zielinski are listed in alphabetical order. They were all seniors in School of Industrial Engineering at the time of this project in 2017. The purpose of their study, described in this article, was to develop an application to provide users with accurate information about diseases spreading in their geographic locations.


Funding Opportunities Specifically For Early Career Unh Investigators: Science, Technology, Engineering, And Math (Stem) – Sponsors Other Than Federal Agencies -- 11.14.18, Lynnette Hentges Nov 2018

Funding Opportunities Specifically For Early Career Unh Investigators: Science, Technology, Engineering, And Math (Stem) – Sponsors Other Than Federal Agencies -- 11.14.18, Lynnette Hentges

Early Career Investigators

This comprehensive list of funding opportunities specifically for early career investigators offered by foundations and other nonprofit sponsors that are appropriate for UNH researchers working in the areas of science, technology, engineering, and math provides information about program focus, eligibility requirements, funding amount and time period, as well as deadlines and links to program web sites and application instructions.


Funding Opportunities Specifically For Early Career Unh Investigators: Science, Technology, Engineering, And Math (Stem) – Federal Agencies -- 11.14.18, Lynnette Hentges Nov 2018

Funding Opportunities Specifically For Early Career Unh Investigators: Science, Technology, Engineering, And Math (Stem) – Federal Agencies -- 11.14.18, Lynnette Hentges

Early Career Investigators

This comprehensive list of funding opportunities for early career investigators offered by federal agencies that are appropriate for UNH researchers working in the areas of science, technology, engineering, and math provides information about program focus, eligibility requirements, funding amount and time period, as well as deadlines and links to program web sites and application instructions.

Opportunities available from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) are listed separately.


Funding-Opportunities-And-Strategies-For-Early-Career 11.15.18, Lynnette Hentges Nov 2018

Funding-Opportunities-And-Strategies-For-Early-Career 11.15.18, Lynnette Hentges

Early Career Investigators

Slides and handouts from the November 15, 2018 workshop that presented strategies and resources for taking advantage of the special funding opportunities provided to early-career scholars by federal agencies, not-for-profits, professional societies, and other sponsors


Modeling In The Physiology Classroom, Sowmya Anjur Nov 2018

Modeling In The Physiology Classroom, Sowmya Anjur

Faculty Publications & Research

Physiology and Disease is a Biology elective at IMSA that has been developed to be mostly student-centered. Some examples of student projects include modeling heart structure to reflect function and creating LED arduino monitors to measure heart rate. Students also measure their lung capacity and blood pressure to demonstrate correlation of these values with heart rate, and trace the correlation back to neuronal controls. Projects such as these integrate other disciplines such as engineering and conform to NGSS Science and Engineering standards and NGSS Cross cutting Concepts standards. Students take responsibility for their own learning and articulate better on tests.


Computational Investigation Of The Interactions Between Bioactive Compounds And Biological Assemblies, Tye D. Martin Nov 2018

Computational Investigation Of The Interactions Between Bioactive Compounds And Biological Assemblies, Tye D. Martin

Shared Knowledge Conference

Design of small molecules is an ongoing focus for developing agents against pathogenic viruses and bacteria that are threats to worldwide health. Viruses such as Zika feature assemblies of repeat peptide subunits or capsid proteins which are potential targets for antiviral compounds. Other protein assemblies are implicated in pathology of Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) and additional neurodegenerative diseases characterized by large assemblies of misfolded proteins such as amyloid-beta (Aβ) and tau. Recent studies on a class of conjugated polyelectrolytes (CPEs) with phenylene ethynylene moieties and charged functional groups have shown potential both as bioactive antimicrobials and theragnostic sensing agents for ...


Improving The Palatability Of Colonoscopy Preparations, Phuong Anh Hoang Nguyen, Darnell Leon Cuylear, Heather Elizabeth Canavan Nov 2018

Improving The Palatability Of Colonoscopy Preparations, Phuong Anh Hoang Nguyen, Darnell Leon Cuylear, Heather Elizabeth Canavan

Shared Knowledge Conference

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States. The most reliable screening method of CRC is a colonoscopy which requires a 4-Liter polymer with electrolytes preparation. Two in five patients are non-compliant to their colonoscopy schedules, with many patients who abstain reporting refusal due to significant discomfort associated with this preparation. Furthermore, there are distinct gender differences in the tolerance of colonoscopy preparations in male and female populations. We hypothesize the differences in clinic are a result of toxic effects of the drug associated with poor mixing by individual patients. PEG, the drug ...


An Engineer’S Take On The Bone-Ligament Interface: Utilizing Novel Technology To Improve Clinical Outcomes, Emma Garcia Nov 2018

An Engineer’S Take On The Bone-Ligament Interface: Utilizing Novel Technology To Improve Clinical Outcomes, Emma Garcia

Shared Knowledge Conference

Ligament repair is a common surgical practice with a significant lack of viable replacements. The current gold standard for repair is the use of tendon grafts from cadavers or from another place in the patient’s body; however, these often cause more problems than they solve including immune responses or a lack of mobility in another place in the body. Synthetic replacements are of growing interest, though the ability to mimic the complex structure of the ligament and how it connects to the bone remains an obstacle. Our lab built a 3D bioprinter combined with an electrospinner to address this ...


3d Bioprinting And Near-Field Electrospinning Composite Scaffolds For The Bone-Ligament Interface, Emma Garcia, Christina Salas, Matthew N. Rush, Christopher Buksa, Marissa Perez, Ava Mauser, Steven Nery, Fermin Prieto, Darielys Morales Nov 2018

3d Bioprinting And Near-Field Electrospinning Composite Scaffolds For The Bone-Ligament Interface, Emma Garcia, Christina Salas, Matthew N. Rush, Christopher Buksa, Marissa Perez, Ava Mauser, Steven Nery, Fermin Prieto, Darielys Morales

Shared Knowledge Conference

3D bioprinting is an additive manufacturing technique that can utilize a range of bioactive materials to construct specific architectures that mimic native tissue. Near-field electrospinning (NFE) offers precise alignment control to create non-woven mats with high tensile strengths. We built a custom E-spin printer that enables layer-by-layer alternating deposition between 3D bioprinting and NFE to create composite scaffolds for the bone-ligament interface. This complex region is difficult to simulate due to its functionally graded mechanical and biochemical properties. We created NFE poly(caprolactone) highly aligned micro-fibers which formed collagen fibril-like bundles. Poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate with decellularized bone was encased ...


Improving The Palatability Of Colonoscopy Preparations, Phuong Anh Hoang Nguyen, Sarah Mounho, Darnell Cuylear, Heather Canavan Nov 2018

Improving The Palatability Of Colonoscopy Preparations, Phuong Anh Hoang Nguyen, Sarah Mounho, Darnell Cuylear, Heather Canavan

Shared Knowledge Conference

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States. The most reliable screening method of CRC is a colonoscopy which requires a 4-Liter polymer with electrolytes preparation. Two in five patients are non-compliant to their colonoscopy schedules, with many patients who abstain reporting refusal due to significant discomfort associated with this preparation. Furthermore, there are distinct gender differences in the tolerance of colonoscopy preparations in male and female populations. We hypothesize the differences in clinic are a result of toxic effects of the drug associated with poor mixing by individual patients. PEG, the drug ...


Dual-Display Laparoscopic Laser Speckle Contrast Imaging For Real-Time Surgical Assistance, Jaepyeong Cha, Corey Zheng, Lung Wai Lau Nov 2018

Dual-Display Laparoscopic Laser Speckle Contrast Imaging For Real-Time Surgical Assistance, Jaepyeong Cha, Corey Zheng, Lung Wai Lau

Pediatrics Faculty Publications

Laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI) utilizes the speckle pattern of a laser to determine the blood flow in tissues. The current approaches for its use in a clinical setting require a camera system with a laser source on a separate optical axis making it unsuitable for minimally invasive surgery (MIS). With blood flow visualization, bowel viability, for example, can be determined. Thus, LSCI can be a valuable tool in gastrointestinal surgery. In this work, we develop the first-of-its-kind dual-display laparoscopic vision system integrating LSCI with a commercially available 10mm rigid laparoscope where the laser has the same optical axis as ...


The Santa Clara, 2018-11-01, Santa Clara University Nov 2018

The Santa Clara, 2018-11-01, Santa Clara University

The Santa Clara

No abstract provided.


Classification Of Intensity-Modulated Proton Therapy Plans, Louise Gabrielle Lima '19, Alice Liu '19 Nov 2018

Classification Of Intensity-Modulated Proton Therapy Plans, Louise Gabrielle Lima '19, Alice Liu '19

Student Publications & Research

Proton Radiotherapy

Proton radiotherapy is a form of radiation treatment that uses energized protons to break DNA, leading to cell death and killing cancers.


Direct Crystal Formation From Micronized Bone And Lactic Acid: The Writing On The Wall For Calcium-Containing Crystal Pathogenesis In Osteoarthritis?, Anna A. Bulysheva, Nardos Sori, Michael P. Francis Nov 2018

Direct Crystal Formation From Micronized Bone And Lactic Acid: The Writing On The Wall For Calcium-Containing Crystal Pathogenesis In Osteoarthritis?, Anna A. Bulysheva, Nardos Sori, Michael P. Francis

Bioelectrics Publications

Introduction

Pathological calcium-containing crystals accumulating in the joints, synovial fluid, and soft tissues are noted in most elderly patients, yet arthritic crystal formation remains idiopathic. Interestingly, elevated lactic acid and bone erosion are frequently among the comorbidities and clinical features of patients with highest incidence of crystal arthropathies. This work shows that bone particulates (modeling bone erosion) dissolve in lactic acid and directly generate crystals, possibly presenting a mechanism for crystal accumulation in osteoarthritis.

Methods and results

Micronized human bone (average particle size of 160 μm x 79 μm ) completely dissolved in lactic acid in 48 hours, and in synovial ...


Micronutrient Availability In Alternative Foods During Agricultural Catastrophes, David C. Denkenberger, Joshua M. Pearce Oct 2018

Micronutrient Availability In Alternative Foods During Agricultural Catastrophes, David C. Denkenberger, Joshua M. Pearce

Department of Materials Science and Engineering Publications

Several catastrophes could block the sun, including asteroid/comet impact, super volcanic eruption, and nuclear war with the burning of cities (nuclear winter). Previous work has analyzed alternate food supplies (e.g., mushrooms growing on dead trees, bacteria growing on natural gas). This was shown to be technically capable of feeding everyone with macronutrients (protein, carbohydrates, and lipids) and minerals, although economics and politics remain uncertain. The present work analyzes vitamin availability in such alternative food scenarios. The vitamin content of various alternate foods is compared to the US recommended daily allowance (RDA) as well as the average requirement defined ...


The Santa Clara, 2018-10-25, Santa Clara University Oct 2018

The Santa Clara, 2018-10-25, Santa Clara University

The Santa Clara

No abstract provided.


The Santa Clara, 2018-10-18, Santa Clara University Oct 2018

The Santa Clara, 2018-10-18, Santa Clara University

The Santa Clara

No abstract provided.


The Santa Clara, 2018-10-11, Santa Clara University Oct 2018

The Santa Clara, 2018-10-11, Santa Clara University

The Santa Clara

No abstract provided.


The Santa Clara, 2018-10-04, Santa Clara University Oct 2018

The Santa Clara, 2018-10-04, Santa Clara University

The Santa Clara

No abstract provided.


Vaccination Strategies And Herd Immunity Thresholds In Small World Models, Emily Mcclung, Sam Rivas, Emma Soriano, Caelan Thomas, Hannah Highlander Oct 2018

Vaccination Strategies And Herd Immunity Thresholds In Small World Models, Emily Mcclung, Sam Rivas, Emma Soriano, Caelan Thomas, Hannah Highlander

Mathematics Undergraduate Publications, Presentations and Projects

Infectious diseases pose a serious threat to humans, plants, and animals. Though vaccines can help control outbreaks of infectious diseases, there is typically not enough vaccine available for the entire population. In this case, certain vaccination strategies can be employed to maximize the benefits for the entire population. Using results from graph theory and the simulation tool lONTW (Infections On NeTWorks), we investigated various vaccination strategies on certain types of so-called contact networks that model the patterns of interactions within a population. In particular, we focused on a certain class of contact networks known as small world models, where individuals ...


Consistent And Reproducible Cultures Of Large-Scale 3d Mammary Epithelial Structures Using An Accessible Bioprinting Platform, John A. Reid, Peter M. Mollica, Robert D. Bruno, Patrick C. Sachs Oct 2018

Consistent And Reproducible Cultures Of Large-Scale 3d Mammary Epithelial Structures Using An Accessible Bioprinting Platform, John A. Reid, Peter M. Mollica, Robert D. Bruno, Patrick C. Sachs

Medical Diagnostics & Translational Sciences Faculty Publications

Background: Standard three-dimensional (3D) in vitro culture techniques, such as those used for mammary epithelial cells, rely on random distribution of cells within hydrogels. Although these systems offer advantages over traditional 2D models, limitations persist owing to the lack of control over cellular placement within the hydrogel. This results in experimental inconsistencies and random organoid morphology. Robust, high-throughput experimentation requires greater standardization of 3D epithelial culture techniques.

Methods: Here, we detail the use of a 3D bioprinting platform as an investigative tool to control the 3D formation of organoids through the "self-assembly" of human mammary epithelial cells. Experimental bioprinting procedures ...


The Santa Clara, 2018-09-27, Santa Clara University Sep 2018

The Santa Clara, 2018-09-27, Santa Clara University

The Santa Clara

No abstract provided.


Optical Temperature Sensing With Infrared Excited Upconversion Nanoparticles, Kory Green, Kai Huang, Hai Pan, Gang Han, Shuang Fang Lim Sep 2018

Optical Temperature Sensing With Infrared Excited Upconversion Nanoparticles, Kory Green, Kai Huang, Hai Pan, Gang Han, Shuang Fang Lim

Open Access Articles

Upconversion Nanoparticles (UCNPs) enable direct measurement of the local temperature with high temporal and thermal resolution and sensitivity. Current studies focusing on small animals and cellular systems, based on continuous wave (CW) infrared excitation sources, typically lead to localized thermal heating. However, the effects of upconversion bioimaging at the molecular scale, where higher infrared intensities under a tightly focused excitation beam, coupled with pulsed excitation to provide higher peak powers, is not well understood. We report on the feasibility of 800 and 980 nm excited UCNPs in thermal sensing under pulsed excitation. The UCNPs report temperature ratiometrically with sensitivities in ...


The Santa Clara, 2018-09-20, Santa Clara University Sep 2018

The Santa Clara, 2018-09-20, Santa Clara University

The Santa Clara

No abstract provided.


Moderate Heat Application Enhances The Efficacy Of Nanosecond Pulse Stimulation For The Treatment Of Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Chelsea M. Edelblute, Sigi Guo, Embo Yang, Chunqi Jiang, Karl Schoenbach, Richard Heller Sep 2018

Moderate Heat Application Enhances The Efficacy Of Nanosecond Pulse Stimulation For The Treatment Of Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Chelsea M. Edelblute, Sigi Guo, Embo Yang, Chunqi Jiang, Karl Schoenbach, Richard Heller

Bioelectrics Publications

Nanosecond pulse stimulation as a tumor ablation therapy has been studied for the treatment of various carcinomas in animal models and has shown a significant survival benefit. In the current study, we found that moderate heating at 43°C for 2 minutes significantly enhanced in vitro nanosecond pulse stimulation-induced cell death of KLN205 murine squamous cell carcinoma cells by 2.43-fold at 600 V and by 2.32-fold at 900 V, as evidenced by propidium iodide uptake. Furthermore, the ablation zone in KLN205 cells placed in a 3-dimensional cell-culture model and pulsed at a voltage of 900 V at 43 ...


Modulating Viscoelasticity, Stiffness, And Degradation Of Synthetic Cellular Niches Via Stoichiometric Tuning Of Covalent Versus Dynamic Noncovalent Cross-Linking, Yu Tan, Henry Huang, David C. Ayers, Jie Song Aug 2018

Modulating Viscoelasticity, Stiffness, And Degradation Of Synthetic Cellular Niches Via Stoichiometric Tuning Of Covalent Versus Dynamic Noncovalent Cross-Linking, Yu Tan, Henry Huang, David C. Ayers, Jie Song

Open Access Articles

Viscoelasticity, stiffness, and degradation of tissue matrices regulate cell behavior, yet predictive synergistic tuning of these properties in synthetic cellular niches remains elusive. We hypothesize that reversible physical cross-linking can be quantitatively introduced to synthetic hydrogels to accelerate stress relaxation and enhance network stiffness, while strategic placement of isolated labile linkages near cross-linking sites can predict hydrogel degradation, both of which are essential for creating adaptive cellular niches. To test these hypotheses, chondrocytes were encapsulated in hydrogels formed by biorthogonal covalent and noncovalent physical cross-linking of a pair of hydrophilic building blocks. The stiffer and more viscoelastic hydrogels with DBCO-DBCO ...


Social Issues In Nonmetropolitan Nebraska: Perceptions Of Social Stigma And Drug And Alcohol Abuse: 2018 Nebraska Rural Poll Results, Rebecca J. Vogt, Cheryl A. Burkhart-Kriesel, Randolph L. Cantrell, Bradley Lubben, L. J. Mcelravy, Timothy L. Meyer Aug 2018

Social Issues In Nonmetropolitan Nebraska: Perceptions Of Social Stigma And Drug And Alcohol Abuse: 2018 Nebraska Rural Poll Results, Rebecca J. Vogt, Cheryl A. Burkhart-Kriesel, Randolph L. Cantrell, Bradley Lubben, L. J. Mcelravy, Timothy L. Meyer

Publications of the Rural Futures Institute

Conclusion

Many rural Nebraskans think it brings shame upon a person to do the following: file personal bankruptcy, apply for food stamps and apply for income assistance. Most rural Nebraskans disagree that the following items bring shame to a person: go to Alcoholics Anonymous or other alcohol treatment, seek mental health care, and go to drug treatment. In general, rural Nebraskans say that residents of their community are more likely than they personally are to think doing the items brings shame upon a person.

At least one-third of rural Nebraskans think the following are a very serious problem or a ...