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Full-Text Articles in Engineering

A Review On Nanomaterials And Nanohybrids Based Bio-Nanocomposites For Food Packaging, Kalpani Y. Perera, Amit K. Jaiswal, Swarna Jaiswal Dec 2022

A Review On Nanomaterials And Nanohybrids Based Bio-Nanocomposites For Food Packaging, Kalpani Y. Perera, Amit K. Jaiswal, Swarna Jaiswal

Articles

With an increasing demand for a novel, eco-friendly, high-performance packaging material “bio-nanocomposites” has attracted great attention in recent years. The review article aims at to evaluating recent innovation in bio-nanocomposites for food packaging applications. The current trends and research over the last three years of the various bio-nanocomposites including inorganic, organic nanomaterials, and nanohybrids, which are suitable as food packaging materials due to their advanced properties such as high mechanical, thermal, barrier, antimicrobial, and antioxidant are described in detail. In addition, the legislation, migration studies, and SWOT analysis on bio-nanocomposite film have been discussed. It has been observed that the ...


In Situ Observations Of Fish Attraction To Light-Emitting Diodes On An Undersea Observation Deck, Makoto Tomiyasu, Yoko Tanouchi, Yasuzumi Fujimori, Minato Kaji, Takuma Hayashi, Naoto Matsubara, Hiroki Yasuma, Susumu Shimizu, Seiji Katakura May 2022

In Situ Observations Of Fish Attraction To Light-Emitting Diodes On An Undersea Observation Deck, Makoto Tomiyasu, Yoko Tanouchi, Yasuzumi Fujimori, Minato Kaji, Takuma Hayashi, Naoto Matsubara, Hiroki Yasuma, Susumu Shimizu, Seiji Katakura

Journal of Marine Science and Technology

Many fisheries employ fishing lights to manipulate the behaviors of target fish and to attract them toward the light; however, relatively few long-time observations of fish attraction have been performed in the field. Here, an underwater observation deck was used to examine the differences in the fish-attracting effect of light-emitting diode (LED) lights on the number of attracted fish and on their behavior in the field, using white-edged rockfish as the target species. A total of 604 ± 324, 307 ± 203 and 171 ± 106 white-edged rockfish individuals were attracted to the observation window when it was illuminated with blue, green, and ...


Inter-Annual Variability In Growth And Maturation Of The Swordtip Squid Uroteuthis Edulis In Yilan Bay Off Northeastern Taiwan, Jing-Yu Chen, Tzu-Yun Ching, Chih-Shin Chen May 2022

Inter-Annual Variability In Growth And Maturation Of The Swordtip Squid Uroteuthis Edulis In Yilan Bay Off Northeastern Taiwan, Jing-Yu Chen, Tzu-Yun Ching, Chih-Shin Chen

Journal of Marine Science and Technology

The swordtip squid Uroteuthis edulis, distributed in the temperate and tropical neritic waters in the Indo-Pacific region, is a crucial component of marine ecosystems and is a target species of fisheries in the Northwest Pacific. Although studies have elucidated the growth and maturation of the squid in the southern East China Sea (ECS) shelf, few have assessed the population biology of the squid in waters in the vicinity of the southern ECS. We collected samples of swordtip squid from a trawler in Yilan Bay (YLB) between January 2011 and December 2012 to examine the growth and maturation of the squid ...


Study On The Improved Radiation Boundary Conditions Based On The Quadratic B-Spline Rankine Panel Method, Ming-Chung Fang, Chun-Hsien Wu May 2022

Study On The Improved Radiation Boundary Conditions Based On The Quadratic B-Spline Rankine Panel Method, Ming-Chung Fang, Chun-Hsien Wu

Journal of Marine Science and Technology

This study presents a higher-order Rankine source method that is based on a biquadratic B-spline scheme with an improved radiation boundary condition. This method solves flow problems under all conditions, where , including the undercritical condition ( < 0.25); this condition is present when a ship undergoes slow translational motion. The proposed method is thus more flexible than the many Rankine-source models in the literature that are applicable only to the overcritical condition ( > 0.25). Specifically, the improved radiation boundary condition is derived from upstream Seto radiation boundary conditions and by incorporating the Rayleigh damping distribution over a free surface; the improved condition is explicit and efficient for solving flow problems. In evaluations, the proposed method yields accurate solutions for unsteady flows, which are produced by an oscillating, translationally moving submerged singularity. The method is also compared against ...


Sensitive Analysis Of The Static Response Of Compliant Vertical Access Risers, Fuheng Li, Haiyan Guo, Xiaomin Li, Honglu Gu May 2022

Sensitive Analysis Of The Static Response Of Compliant Vertical Access Risers, Fuheng Li, Haiyan Guo, Xiaomin Li, Honglu Gu

Journal of Marine Science and Technology

Compliant vertical access risers (CVARs) are considered as efficient and robust alternative options to achieve cost efficiency and safety. Design uncertainties emerge owing to the limited understanding of the effects of various parameters related to the structural properties and marine loads. In this paper, a reasonable three-dimensional (3D) numerical model of CVAR with internal flow is presented based on the slender rod theory. Accordingly, the finite element method combined with a Newton-Raphson scheme is employed to discretize and solve the equations. A sensitivity analysis is performed to investigate the influence of the structural and external load parameters on the static ...


Influence Of Boundary Conditions And Internal Fluid Types On Dynamic Characteristics Of A Deepwater Riser, Lei Guo, Zong-Ming Zhu, Zhong-Jian Pan, Zhi-Ming Guo May 2022

Influence Of Boundary Conditions And Internal Fluid Types On Dynamic Characteristics Of A Deepwater Riser, Lei Guo, Zong-Ming Zhu, Zhong-Jian Pan, Zhi-Ming Guo

Journal of Marine Science and Technology

Deepwater Steel Catenary Riser (DSCR) is the key structure of oil and gas production system in the ocean. To design an optimized DSCR system, the dynamic characteristics of the DSCR are analyzed by setting some different boundary condi-tions and internal fluid types. The main vibration mode of the DSCR is found orthogonal to both mass and stiffness according to the normalization condition of the main mode, and then the regular mode function and the jth order principal stiffness Kpj are obtained. Under different initial conditions, the transverse responses of DSCR represented by regular coordinates under arbitrary excitation are obtained. Then ...


Variance Of Td-Mosaic Dual-Vortex Interactions Between In-Fa And Cempaka (2021) In The North Pacific, Tsorng-Lin Chia, Guang-Yang Pan, Ji-Chyun Liu May 2022

Variance Of Td-Mosaic Dual-Vortex Interactions Between In-Fa And Cempaka (2021) In The North Pacific, Tsorng-Lin Chia, Guang-Yang Pan, Ji-Chyun Liu

Journal of Marine Science and Technology

A study of the different types of dual-vortex interactions or “Fujiwara effects” between two storms is crucial for considerably improving weather forecasts. This study combined remote sensing images, empirical formulas based on the possibility of storm interaction (Liou–Liu formula), and vector addition techniques to accurately analyze In-Fa and Cempaka typhoons and the surrounding weather patterns during the 2021 typhoon season in the North Pacific. Although the distance separating the typhoons In-Fa and Cempaka was 1,800–2,040 km, the influence of middle air flow and a tropical depression (TD) caused a "vector superposition TD-mosaic double-vortex" interaction between the ...


Optimal Deployment Of Flood Emergency Response Materials Under Stochastic Demands, Shangyao Yan, Jenn-Rong Lin, Chia-Fu Ku May 2022

Optimal Deployment Of Flood Emergency Response Materials Under Stochastic Demands, Shangyao Yan, Jenn-Rong Lin, Chia-Fu Ku

Journal of Marine Science and Technology

This study aims to develop a planning model for the deployment of flood emergency response materials under stochastic demands. For ease of modeling, a deterministic demand model is first proposed, from which the stochastic model is further extended. These models are used to determine the allocation of materials the transport truck routes and distribution of the stockpiled materials to emergency sites. The models are formulated as multiple integer network flow problems with special side constraints which are characterized as NP-hard in terms of optimization. To solve the complicated stochastic model efficiently, we also develop a solution algorithm based on a ...


Hydrodynamic Limitations To Mangrove Seedling Retention In Subtropical Estuaries, Kelly M. Kibler, Christian Pilato, Linda Walters, Melinda Donnelly, Jyotismita Taye May 2022

Hydrodynamic Limitations To Mangrove Seedling Retention In Subtropical Estuaries, Kelly M. Kibler, Christian Pilato, Linda Walters, Melinda Donnelly, Jyotismita Taye

Flow-biota Interaction and Natural Infrastructure Design

Mangrove forest sustainability hinges upon propagule recruitment and seedling retention. This study evaluates biophysical limitations to mangrove seedling persistence by measuring anchoring force of two mangrove species (Rhizophora mangle and Avicennia germinans). Anchoring force was measured in 362 seedlings via lateral pull-tests administered in mangrove forests of two subtropical estuaries and in laboratory-based experiments. Removal mechanism varied with seedling age: newly-established seedlings failed due to root pull-out while seedlings older than 3 months failed by root breakage. Anchoring force of R. mangle seedlings was consistently and significantly greater than A. germinans (GLM: p = 0.002), however force to remove A ...


Contributions Of Vibrational Spectroscopy To Virology: A Review, Iqra Chaudhary, Naomi Jackson, Denise Denning, Luke O'Neill, Hugh Byrne May 2022

Contributions Of Vibrational Spectroscopy To Virology: A Review, Iqra Chaudhary, Naomi Jackson, Denise Denning, Luke O'Neill, Hugh Byrne

Articles

Vibrational spectroscopic techniques, both infrared absorption and Raman scattering, are high precision, label free analytical techniques which have found applications in fields as diverse as analytical chemistry, pharmacology, forensics and archeometrics and, in recent times, have attracted increasing attention for biomedical applications. As analytical techniques, they have been applied to the characterisation of viruses as early as the 1970s, and, in the context of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, have been explored in response to the World Health Organisation as novel methodologies to aid in the global efforts to implement and improve rapid screening of viral infection. This review ...


Exploring The Effects Of Varied Land Use On Elemental Concentrations Within Streams, Logan Jennings May 2022

Exploring The Effects Of Varied Land Use On Elemental Concentrations Within Streams, Logan Jennings

Biological and Agricultural Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

It is well documented that human activity influences the chemistry of surrounding waters. As such, it is possible that there is a link between land use within a watershed and the chemical composition of the stream. The objectives of this study are to determine if varied land use does affect the concentrations of macronutrients and trace elements present in the streams of Northwest Arkansas, and if so, to determine what extent urban and agricultural development are responsible for these changes. Water samples were collected across 19 streams in the Northwest Arkansas region between January and March of 2022. Water samples ...


Inactivation Of Salmonella In Black Peppercorn By Fluidization With Hydrogen Peroxide Vapor, Edel Summers May 2022

Inactivation Of Salmonella In Black Peppercorn By Fluidization With Hydrogen Peroxide Vapor, Edel Summers

Biological Systems Engineering--Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

The purpose of the present study was to assess the effectiveness of hydrogen peroxide vapor (HPV) at inactivating Salmonella inoculated in whole black pepper when used as fluidizing gas media. HPV treatment was conducted at two different temperatures (45°C and 60°C) and two dwell times (30 min and 60 min). Microbial reduction and residual hydrogen peroxide were measured at three storage times: 0 h (immediately after treatment), 24 h and 48 h post-treatment. The effect of HPV on the quality of whole black peppercorn was evaluated 48 h post-treatment based on changes in piperine content, total phenolics, antioxidant ...


Development Of An Equation To Correlate Brite Tank Temperature And Pressure To Beverage Carbonation Concentration, Devyn Meyer May 2022

Development Of An Equation To Correlate Brite Tank Temperature And Pressure To Beverage Carbonation Concentration, Devyn Meyer

Biological and Agricultural Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

The Carbo Rock-It™ is an invention created to carbonate beverages at craft breweries. One of the Carbo Rock-It’s main features is that it does not add a significant volume of undissolved gas bubbles to the brite tank in which the beverage is carbonated. This may allow temperature and pressure readings from the brite tank to be used to determine the concentration of dissolved carbon dioxide in the beverage continuously in real time. This eliminates the need for manual samplings, which could save breweries time and allow for more controlled, accurate carbonation. The goal of this project was to develop ...


Characterizing The Expression Pattern And Function Of Tartan During Drosophila Development, Alaina Baggett May 2022

Characterizing The Expression Pattern And Function Of Tartan During Drosophila Development, Alaina Baggett

Biomedical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

The development of complex structures and organs by multicellular organisms relies on the ability of epithelial cells to self-organize. Epithelia are sheets of connected cells, and compartment boundaries are formed between certain epithelial cells to create distinct tissue compartments. Compartment boundaries are specialized cell-cell interfaces that are enriched for the cytoskeletal proteins actin and myosin, leading to straight cell edges under relatively high tension that act as fences keep cells from moving between compartments. In the model organism Drosophila melanogaster (fruit fly), compartment boundaries in the early embryo are established in response to the non-uniform striped expression of the cell-surface ...


Investigating The Impact Of Hypoxia On Reactive Oxygen Species Generation Within Murine Breast Cancer Cells, Jared Mcpeake May 2022

Investigating The Impact Of Hypoxia On Reactive Oxygen Species Generation Within Murine Breast Cancer Cells, Jared Mcpeake

Biomedical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

When cancer metastasizes from a primary tumor site to secondary site through the bloodstream or lymph, the cancer becomes more difficult to treat. For this reason, it is vital to study what indicates the metastatic potential of a tumor. Current research has shown that cell lines with high metastatic potential display increased levels of metabolic adaptability over their nonmetastatic counterparts after undergoing hypoxic conditions. One method of assessing this adaptability is to measure the concentration of reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by the cells while undergoing oxidative stress. In highly adaptable metastatic cells, an increase of ROS buildup within the ...


Ballasting System For An Autonomous Underwater Vehicle, Noura Rayes, Bahram Nassersharif, Zach Champney, Kyle Alessandro, Jason Mirandou May 2022

Ballasting System For An Autonomous Underwater Vehicle, Noura Rayes, Bahram Nassersharif, Zach Champney, Kyle Alessandro, Jason Mirandou

Senior Honors Projects

NOURA RAYES (Mechanical Engineering); Ballasting System for an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle Sponsor: Bahram Nassersharif (Mechanical Engineering)

Over the last year, our Mechanical Engineering Capstone team, Nautilus, has been working to design a ballasting system for various Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) sponsored by Raytheon Technologies. Common AUV systems are used for a wide range of applications from environmental monitoring, oceanic exploration, to data collection. AUVs also have many technical advantages that make underwater tasks more efficient, cost-effective, and generally safer. Raytheon Technology, specifically, is looking to improve their existing ballasting mechanism for their AUVs to use for military defense. For this ...


Gender Perceptions And Female Students' Academic Engagement And Success In Stem Fields, Rheanna Morgan May 2022

Gender Perceptions And Female Students' Academic Engagement And Success In Stem Fields, Rheanna Morgan

School of Social Work Undergraduate Honors Theses

Despite an increase of females in higher education and the workforce, fields such as science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) continue to be male-dominated. One explanation for this trend is the lack of gender representation and counterstereotypical role models to encourage female engagement in these fields at the university level. Previous research has looked at instructor gender, classroom gender composition, and involvement in extracurricular activities as possible factors influencing students' engagement and success in the classroom. However, few studies have investigated how gender perceptions influence female students in STEM fields. This study uses self-report data from a voluntary survey to ...


It’S Art About Water Treatment! An Interview With Mallory Chaput, The Artist Inspiring Future Water Leaders-One Artwork At A Time, Swati Hegde Apr 2022

It’S Art About Water Treatment! An Interview With Mallory Chaput, The Artist Inspiring Future Water Leaders-One Artwork At A Time, Swati Hegde

wH2O: The Journal of Gender and Water

This article throws a spotlight on Mallory Chaput, an artist inspiring future water leaders to take up water careers. Through her coloring pages, paintings, and comics about the water treatment, Mallory is helping children re-imagine the water sector. Originally a landscaper, Mallory developed a profound interest in water and wastewater treatment and learned about it by visiting plants, talking to professionals, and studying engineering books. This article is a transcript of an interview with Mallory, featuring her background, her imaginative creations and her future goals.


Where There Are No Sewers: The Toilet Cleaners Of Lucknow, Sharada Prasad, Isha Ray Apr 2022

Where There Are No Sewers: The Toilet Cleaners Of Lucknow, Sharada Prasad, Isha Ray

wH2O: The Journal of Gender and Water

Enormous progress has been made in the global effort to provide safe and affordable toilets for the world’s poorest citizens since World Toilet Day was first declared in 2001. Significant strides have been made in “reinventing” toilet designs for low-income, water-short, un-sewered urban zones; celebrities such as Bill Gates and Matt Damon have brought this once-taboo topic into the open; and the Prime Minister of India – the country with the highest number of people still practicing open defecation – has publicly declared that his country needs toilets over temples.

Well over 2 billion people today lack access to basic sanitation ...


El Agua Es Oro: A Human Centered Solution For The City Of Cochabamba, Bolivia, Natalia Mendoza, Camilia Olmedo Apr 2022

El Agua Es Oro: A Human Centered Solution For The City Of Cochabamba, Bolivia, Natalia Mendoza, Camilia Olmedo

wH2O: The Journal of Gender and Water

The purpose of El Agua Es Oro (The Water is Gold) is to satisfy social needs, specifically for women living in peri-urban areas, with a more advanced efficiency. El Agua Es Oro creates an added value for people’s well-being by maximizing socio-environmental context and not just focusing on for-profit economics. Nevertheless, it is noteworthy to generate economic resources to sustain the impact that the organization seeks to achieve. El Agua Es Oro is a social enterprise based on the application of social innovation with the methodology and tools of a people-centered design, focusing on teenage girls and women. The ...


Climate Change, Differential Impacts On Women And Gender Mainstreaming: A Case Study Of East Rapti Watershed, Nepal, Anupama Ray Apr 2022

Climate Change, Differential Impacts On Women And Gender Mainstreaming: A Case Study Of East Rapti Watershed, Nepal, Anupama Ray

wH2O: The Journal of Gender and Water

Women and water share a great deal of nexus in several ways. However, women have still minimal control over the management of water resources, making them more vulnerable to climate change. This paper assesses how climate change impacts differently across different women groups using an intersectionality lens, thereby exploring the situation of gender mainstreaming in water sector in three communities, namely, Karaiya, Basauli, and Dadagaun in Khairahani Municipality located in the East Rapti watershed, Nepal. In this perception- based study, we conducted three key informant interviews and household interviews with 45 women of different castes, ages, communities, education levels, and ...


Gender In The Water Industry One Man Of Transgender Experience’S Story, Ari Copeland Apr 2022

Gender In The Water Industry One Man Of Transgender Experience’S Story, Ari Copeland

wH2O: The Journal of Gender and Water

is a complex topic Most people often confuse gender and sex; Most folks don’t realize that there are at least 57 genders and gender is a spectrum Some people within our workplace and the water industry don’t identify as a man or a woman, and/or their gender is more fluid (gender-expansive. In our day-to-day interactions with others, we often assume someone’s gender based on their appearance, mannerisms, and other social cues that vary depending on the culture Additionally, assuming everyone fits into the gender binary (just men and women is often-times a barrier to being inclusive ...


Exploring Sustainable Degrowth-Based Adaptation To Climate Change-Aggravated Water Insecurity In Parts Of Rural India: A Gender Relations Approach, Nairita Roy Chaudhuri Apr 2022

Exploring Sustainable Degrowth-Based Adaptation To Climate Change-Aggravated Water Insecurity In Parts Of Rural India: A Gender Relations Approach, Nairita Roy Chaudhuri

wH2O: The Journal of Gender and Water

This article reviews the theoretical concept of ‘sustainable adaptation’ to climate change and water scarcity using a gender-relations approach by answering the following questions: i) What is a sustainable adaptation to climate change? ii) Based on a literature review, how does gender interact with climate change adaptation to water scarcity and droughts in rural India? (iii) How do the concepts of sustainable adaptation, degrowth, and gender relations interact on the ground, pertaining to water justice?

The paper argues that climate change adaptation and development goals can harmonize only if they rectify root causes of vulnerabilities. For adaptation actions to yield ...


19th Annual Symposium Of The School Of Science, Engineering And Health, Messiah University Apr 2022

19th Annual Symposium Of The School Of Science, Engineering And Health, Messiah University

School of Science, Engineering & Health (SEH) Symposium

We in the School of Science, Engineering and Health welcome you to this 19th Annual Symposium, and we are pleased to invite you to join us physically on campus in the Frey, Kline, and Jordan buildings or to join sessions virtually. Each year our students, faculty and staff present the fruits of their basic and applied research in science and health fields. The outcomes of scientific research expand intellectual understanding and have tremendous impact on quality of life, environmental health, and human flourishing. We warmly welcome you as guests for the day.

Angela Hare

Dean School of Science, Engineering and ...


2021-2022 Program And Abstracts: Celebration Of Student Scholarship, Morehead State University. Undergraduate Research Fellowship Program. Apr 2022

2021-2022 Program And Abstracts: Celebration Of Student Scholarship, Morehead State University. Undergraduate Research Fellowship Program.

2022 Celebration of Student Scholarship - Poster Presentations

The 2021-2022 Program and Abstracts for the Celebration of Student Scholarship at Morehead State University held on April 27, 2022. A Showcase of Student Research, Scholarship, Creative Work, and Performance Arts.


Students Interest And Thoughts On Stem, Chrisitine Girtain Apr 2022

Students Interest And Thoughts On Stem, Chrisitine Girtain

STEM Month

I am Juan Sebastian Bohorquez Mora, I am a sophomore student at Toms River High School North. I am interested in biofuels because I believe they are a good option to replace fossil fuels. I am also interested in duckweed because biofuels are made out of crops, and people need to eat those crops. That’s when duckweed comes in and it can be used as a feedstock for ethanol production which is a biofuel. Bioethanol is a type of biofuel and it is derived from the corn’s starch. Instead of making ethanol from the corn’s starch, we ...


Learning's In Stem, Victoria Arms Apr 2022

Learning's In Stem, Victoria Arms

STEM Month

Can you share something you have learned related to a STEM topic you feel is important?

Answer: A stem topic I feel is important is math because you can learn many equation’s.

Can you explain why that topic is important to you, their families and communities? Answer: The topic that is important to our families and community is important because you can grow smarter and can learn a lot of things.

Mrs.Arms class.


Protective Effects Of Artemisinin On The Placenta Of L-Name Induced Preeclampsia In Rat, Hanan Eissa El Shafey Hanan Apr 2022

Protective Effects Of Artemisinin On The Placenta Of L-Name Induced Preeclampsia In Rat, Hanan Eissa El Shafey Hanan

Delta University Scientific Journal

Background: Preeclampsia (PE) is a pregnancy induced hypertensive disorder and an important cause of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. It affects about 3 - 8% of all pregnancies worldwide. Placental factors that arise from placental hypoxia/ischemia set off molecular and cellular cascades, resulting in vascular endothelial dysfunction.

Objective: The aim of study was to clarify the possible protective effect of Artemisinin (ART) on the placenta of L-NAME induced PE in rats and to explore possible involved mechanisms.

Method: Thirty pregnant female Sparge Dawley rats were randomly divided into 3 groups (10 rats/each): The control group, PE-group, and ART ...


Bms 202: Human Anatomy And Physiology Laboratory Oer Curation, Chealsye Bowley Apr 2022

Bms 202: Human Anatomy And Physiology Laboratory Oer Curation, Chealsye Bowley

Curated OER Collections

This OER curation is an annotated bibliography of prospective OER for the GVSU course BMS 202: Human Anatomy and Physiology Laboratory, assembled by request from the instructor.


Let's Get Serious About It: Plastic-Free Campus Initiative, Geoffrey Kain, Camdyn Doucette, Regan Bossie Apr 2022

Let's Get Serious About It: Plastic-Free Campus Initiative, Geoffrey Kain, Camdyn Doucette, Regan Bossie

Sustainability Conference

On February 23, 2022, the UN agreed to start negotiating a world-first global treaty on plastic waste--since nearly 200 nations unanimously agreed to move toward a legally binding plastics treaty by 2024. In 2019 the UN Environmental Programme report highlighted that "our world is drowning in plastic." As with the climate change crisis (to which plastics production and disposal are also linked), the data resoundingly illustrate the imminent systemic threat that disposable plastics pose to the world's seas, freshwater sources, soils, food supply, air, and species. Nevertheless, plastics production is predicted to rise dramatically over the next 20 years ...