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Full-Text Articles in Engineering

Amplification Of Earthquake Ground Motions In Washington, Dc, And Implications For Hazard Assessments In Central And Eastern North America, Thomas L. Pratt, J. Wright Horton Jr., Jessica Munoz, Susan E. Hough, Martin C. Chapman, C. Guney Olgun Dec 2018

Amplification Of Earthquake Ground Motions In Washington, Dc, And Implications For Hazard Assessments In Central And Eastern North America, Thomas L. Pratt, J. Wright Horton Jr., Jessica Munoz, Susan E. Hough, Martin C. Chapman, C. Guney Olgun

C. Guney Olgun

The extent of damage in Washington, DC, from the 2011 MW 5.8 Mineral, VA, earthquake was surprising for an epicenter 130 km away; U.S. Geological Survey “Did-You-Feel-It” reports suggest that Atlantic Coastal Plain and other unconsolidated sediments amplified ground motions in the city. We measure this amplification relative to bedrock sites using earthquake signals recorded on a temporary seismometer array. The spectral ratios show strong amplification in the 0.7 to 4 Hz frequency range for sites on sediments. This range overlaps with resonant frequencies of buildings in the city as inferred from their heights, suggesting amplification ...


Evaluation Of A Centrifuge Consolidation Technique To Determine The Effects Of Temperature And Time On Kaolinite Properties, Esteban Miranda Pinzon Dec 2018

Evaluation Of A Centrifuge Consolidation Technique To Determine The Effects Of Temperature And Time On Kaolinite Properties, Esteban Miranda Pinzon

Civil Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

Abstract

The effects of time and temperature on the moisture content and unit weight profiles, as developed during a centrifuge consolidation process, were observed during the research program that is described herein. Specifically, a Beckman-Coulter Model J6-MI centrifuge with a six-place JS-4.2A swinging bucket rotor was utilized to consolidate kaolinite slurry samples. The consolidation procedure utilized specially designed slurry consolidometers, made from acrylic tubes with inside diameters of 2.63 inches (6.67 cm) and heights of 5.13 inches (13.04 cm). The tested kaolinite slurry samples were created by mixing 400 grams of dry kaolinite clay powder ...


Young’S Modulus As A Measurement To Estimate Damage Related With Alkali-Silica Reaction In Concrete., Anazaria J. Ortega Gonzalez Dec 2018

Young’S Modulus As A Measurement To Estimate Damage Related With Alkali-Silica Reaction In Concrete., Anazaria J. Ortega Gonzalez

Civil Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

The main purpose of this research is to compare two nondestructive methods to assess Alkali-Silica reaction (ASR) in concrete. Fifteen concrete prisms were cast using aggregates with different Alkali-Silica reactivity such as Jobe sand and Van Buren sand. The change in strain, shear wave velocity and Young’s modulus were determined according to ASTM C129 and ASTM C215, respectively. This data was collected by Dillon K Self, who determined that the shear wave velocity and strain are inversely proportional. However, when single cracking in the concrete specimen transition to map cracking, the shear wave velocity dropped significantly, whereas the strain ...


Evaluation Of Synthetic Cpt And Soil Boring Data By Various Spatial Interpolation Techniques, Md Habibur Rahman Oct 2018

Evaluation Of Synthetic Cpt And Soil Boring Data By Various Spatial Interpolation Techniques, Md Habibur Rahman

LSU Master's Theses

In order to incorporate the influence of collected in-situ data, the spatial correlation between the data and the foundation needs to be explored. However, risk and uncertainty are the characteristics of the soil that cannot be eliminated. Statistical information of the soil property can be estimated from available field data obtained from testing at discrete locations across the site. In this research, several well-established spatial interpolation methods like ordinary kriging (OK), simple kriging (SK), inverse distance weight (IDW), spline, natural neighbor (NaN) and universal kriging (UK) were incorporated to evaluate the best method. Six CPT (Cone penetration test) (Tip Resistance ...


Development Of Environmentally-Friendly Stabilization Methods For Transportation Infrastructure Based On Geopolymers, Miladin Radovic, Anand Puppala Oct 2018

Development Of Environmentally-Friendly Stabilization Methods For Transportation Infrastructure Based On Geopolymers, Miladin Radovic, Anand Puppala

Publications

Geopolymers (GPs) have received much attention as an eco-friendly and sustainable alternative to conventional chemical additives, since they can be processed at room temperatures from aqueous solutions by utilizing waste materials (e.g. fly ash) or abundant natural sources (e.g. clay). A collaborative research study is carried out by teams from Texas A&M University (TAMU) and University of Texas at Arlington (UTA) to investigate the effectiveness of GPs for stabilizing base and subgrade materials by considering the strength and shrink-swell characteristics. Two types of clay, obtained from the North Dallas area, were mixed with a potassium-based GP synthesized ...


Prediction And Rehabilitation Of Highway Embankment Slope Failures In Changing Climate, Navid Jafari, Anand Puppala Oct 2018

Prediction And Rehabilitation Of Highway Embankment Slope Failures In Changing Climate, Navid Jafari, Anand Puppala

Publications

Highway slopes constructed with clayey soil are prone to desiccation cracks due to wetting and drying weather cycle, which allows greater moisture infiltration into the embankment from precipitation. Fissures formed due to extended wetting and drying cycles allow water to seep deeper into the soil than surficial wetting and increase the water content. This increases the moisture content in the soil and results in reduction in shear strength to the fully softened strength. On the other hand, development of desiccation cracks and reduction of the soil matric suction ultimately result in higher hydraulic conductivity value which causes development of higher ...


Field Instrumentations And Numerical Analysis Of Geosynthetic Reinforced Soil – Integrated Bridge System (Grs-Ibs), Allam Ardah Sep 2018

Field Instrumentations And Numerical Analysis Of Geosynthetic Reinforced Soil – Integrated Bridge System (Grs-Ibs), Allam Ardah

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

Geosynthetic reinforced soil (GRS) is a special soil with geosynthetic fabric closely stacked in layers as soil stabilization and considered an alternative design method to the conventional bridge support technology. In this research study, a field case study of Maree Michel bridge, which is located in Route LA 91 Vermilion Parish in Louisiana, was instrumented with six different types of instrumentations to monitor the performance of GRS-IBS bridge abutment and to develop 2D and 3D finite element models. The instrumentations include Shape Acceleration Array (SAA), earth pressure cells, strain gauges, piezometers, and thermocouples. Additionally, surveying was conducted at the bridge ...


Physical Modeling Of Flow Nets In Groundwater And Determination Of Hydraulic Conductivity, Hannah Nicholas, Moses Karakouzian Sep 2018

Physical Modeling Of Flow Nets In Groundwater And Determination Of Hydraulic Conductivity, Hannah Nicholas, Moses Karakouzian

AANAPISI Poster Presentations

The goal of this study is to physically model the paths that water particles take through soil, and estimate hydraulic conductivity for several soil configurations. Water paths, or flow lines, are shown by injecting dye into sand contained in a rectangular acrylic glass tank with a vertical barrier in the center; water is poured on one side of the tank and a pump is used to maintain constant head loss. If flow lines are formed, a flow net is to be drawn using photos of the tank and hydraulic conductivity is to be calculated.

This project consists of four phases ...


Coir Fiber Reinforced Concrete, Jose De La Serna, Moses Karakouzian Sep 2018

Coir Fiber Reinforced Concrete, Jose De La Serna, Moses Karakouzian

AANAPISI Poster Presentations

This poster exhibits the testing and research done on general Portland Cement Concrete with the addition of coir (coconut) fibers as reinforcement. Using the fundamental constituents of cement (water, cement, fine and coarse aggregate) and processed coir fiber, concrete specimens were batched to test for compressive and flexural strengths (per appropriate ASTM standards). Cylindrical and rectangular beam specimens were subjected to loadings until failure occurred. The capacity and modes of failures of the specimens were observed. It was determined that:

• The addition of processed coir fibers decreases the overall strength of general Portland Cement Concrete. • The tested concrete’s mode ...


Evaluation Of Undrained Shear Strength And Soil Classification From Cone Penetration Test, Md Imran Hossain Aug 2018

Evaluation Of Undrained Shear Strength And Soil Classification From Cone Penetration Test, Md Imran Hossain

LSU Master's Theses

The in-situ cone and piezocone penetration tests (CPT, PCPT) has been widely used by the geotechnical engineering community for subsurface soil characterization and classification, and for the evaluation of many engineering soil properties, such as undrained shear strength (su), unit weight (γ), constrained modulus (M), coefficient of consolidation (cv), and stress history (OCR). The objective of this research study was to estimate the undrained shear strength of clayey soil using CPT/PCPT data in addition to some soil boring log data. At the same time, soil classification charts/methods based on CPT/PCPT were investigated and modified. For ...


Evaluation Of Site Variability And Its Application In Design, Abu Hakim Muhammad Hasan Faisal Aug 2018

Evaluation Of Site Variability And Its Application In Design, Abu Hakim Muhammad Hasan Faisal

LSU Master's Theses

Geotechnical characterization has an important role in engineering geology as well as in implementation of any project. There are several variables and uncertainties involved in characterizing a project site. Four different sources of uncertainties represent the characterization of geotechnical variability, which include spatial variability, measurement error, statistical error and model bias. Spatial variability is expressed in terms of the mean, variance, and scale of fluctuation. Several statistical techniques such as the Gauge R & R, which includes X-Bar/R and ANOVA, and the Second Moment can be applied to compute site variability in terms of the coefficient of variations. Measurement error ...


Seismic Response Of Columnar Reinforced Ground, C. Guney Olgun Aug 2018

Seismic Response Of Columnar Reinforced Ground, C. Guney Olgun

C. Guney Olgun

Ground improvement using stiff columnar reinforcement, such as stone, jet-grout and soil-mix columns, is commonly used for mitigation of seismic damage in weak ground. Seismic shear stress reduction in the reinforced soil mass is often counted on for reducing liquefaction potential. Current design methods assume composite behavior of the reinforced soil, where the shear stress reduction is based on the ratio of the columnar stiffness relative to the soil as well as the area replacement ratio. This implicitly assumes that the stiff columns will deform in pure shear along with the surrounding soft soil. Three dimensional dynamic finite element analyses ...


Field Evidence And Laboratory Testing Of The Cyclic Vulnerability Of Fine-Grained Soils During The 1999 Kocaeli Earthquake, C. Guney Olgun, James R. Martin Ii, Atila Sezen Aug 2018

Field Evidence And Laboratory Testing Of The Cyclic Vulnerability Of Fine-Grained Soils During The 1999 Kocaeli Earthquake, C. Guney Olgun, James R. Martin Ii, Atila Sezen

C. Guney Olgun

Significant earthquake-induced settlements occurred in saturated fine-grained soils at the Carrefour Shopping Center in Turkey during the 1999 Kocaeli Earthquake (M=7.4). Most of the settlement was due to the undrained cyclic failure of silt/clay (ML/CL) and highplasticity clay (CH) strata within the subsoil profile. Each suffered about 1% vertical strain. Extensive laboratory testing on undisturbed samples from these silty and clayey strata has been performed to investigate this behavior. The laboratory testing included monotonic and cyclic simple shear tests, triaxial tests and conventional 1-D consolidation tests. Considerable pore pressure increases have been measured during cyclic simple ...


Seismic Response Of Columnar Reinforced Ground, C. Guney Olgun Aug 2018

Seismic Response Of Columnar Reinforced Ground, C. Guney Olgun

C. Guney Olgun

Ground improvement using stiff columnar reinforcement, such as stone, jet-grout and soil-mix columns, is commonly used for mitigation of seismic damage in weak ground. Seismic shear stress reduction in the reinforced soil mass is often counted on for reducing liquefaction potential. Current design methods assume composite behavior of the reinforced soil, where the shear stress reduction is based on the ratio of the columnar stiffness relative to the soil as well as the area replacement ratio. This implicitly assumes that the stiff columns will deform in pure shear along with the surrounding soft soil. Three dimensional dynamic finite element analyses ...


Seismic Performance Of Soil-Mix Panel Reinforced Ground, C. Guney Olgun, James R. Martin Ii Aug 2018

Seismic Performance Of Soil-Mix Panel Reinforced Ground, C. Guney Olgun, James R. Martin Ii

C. Guney Olgun

Ground reinforcement methods such as stone columns, jet grouting, and soil mixing are commonly used to improve subsoil conditions for seismic mitigation. In most cases, the purpose of this improvement is for foundation support and/or liquefaction mitigation. Additional benefits of the improvement, such as possible reduction in seismic ground motions, are not explicitly considered in NEHRP/IBC code provisions for establishing site classification and seismic design motions. Such reductions, if present, can have significant payoff. Reduced seismic loads on the super structure result in lower seismic design levels and reduced construction costs. It is conceivable that the cost of ...


Numerical Modeling Of Columnar Reinforced Ground 1999 Kocaeli Earthquake Case History, C. Guney Olgun, James R. Martin Ii Aug 2018

Numerical Modeling Of Columnar Reinforced Ground 1999 Kocaeli Earthquake Case History, C. Guney Olgun, James R. Martin Ii

C. Guney Olgun

The Kocaeli Earthquake (M=7.4) struck Turkey on August 17, 1999 and caused significant damage along Izmit Bay. Following the earthquake, the authors investigated the field performance at improved soil sites. Of particular interest was the Carrefour Shopping Center that was under construction during the earthquake. The reclaimed site is underlain by strata of saturated soft clays, silts, and liquefiable loose sands. Small-diameter jet-grout columns had been installed at close spacings to reduce settlements and prevent liquefaction-related damage beneath footings and mats. Nonlinear dynamic three-dimensional finite element analyses were conducted to model the reinforced ground at Carrefour. The results ...


Liquefaction Potential Of Railway Embankments, Miguel A. Pando, C. Guney Olgun, James R. Martin Ii Aug 2018

Liquefaction Potential Of Railway Embankments, Miguel A. Pando, C. Guney Olgun, James R. Martin Ii

C. Guney Olgun

This paper presents an overview of the nature of train-induced vibrations and discusses the liquefaction potential of railway embankments under such low-level vibrations. The paper also presents the results of static and dynamic finite difference numerical analyses performed for a simple railway embankment geometry. The liquefaction potential for the railway embankment foundation was estimated using the results corn FLAC numerical analyses, as well as a cyclic shear stress liquefaction resistance approach using a modified cyclic resistance ratio curve. Liquefaction of railway embankment foundations was found to be possible. However, based on the majority of reported failures the liquefaction potential remains ...


Field Evidence And Laboratory Testing Of The Cyclic Vulnerability Of Fine-Grained Soils During The 1999 Kocaeli Earthquake, C. Guney Olgun, James R. Martin Ii, Atila Sezen Aug 2018

Field Evidence And Laboratory Testing Of The Cyclic Vulnerability Of Fine-Grained Soils During The 1999 Kocaeli Earthquake, C. Guney Olgun, James R. Martin Ii, Atila Sezen

C. Guney Olgun

Significant earthquake-induced settlements occurred in saturated fine-grained soils at the Carrefour Shopping Center in Turkey during the 1999 Kocaeli Earthquake (M=7.4). Most of the settlement was due to the undrained cyclic failure of silt/clay (ML/CL) and highplasticity clay (CH) strata within the subsoil profile. Each suffered about 1% vertical strain. Extensive laboratory testing on undisturbed samples from these silty and clayey strata has been performed to investigate this behavior. The laboratory testing included monotonic and cyclic simple shear tests, triaxial tests and conventional 1-D consolidation tests. Considerable pore pressure increases have been measured during cyclic simple ...


My Catalyst, Gabrielle Gambino Lyon Jul 2018

My Catalyst, Gabrielle Gambino Lyon

Celebration of Learning

Over the course of my internship and shadow program with Pepper Lawson Construction and Ziegler Cooper Architects, I was able to explore the various career paths involved in the design, construction, and civil engineering fields. My work on the construction site of a high-rise apartment building located in the heart of Houston, TX allowed me first-hand experience working and learning alongside project engineers, contractors, building developers, and the construction team.

This project was the perfect confluence of my main areas of interest: structural, mechanical, civil, and environmental engineering, as well as architecture. My daily work consisted of on-site walk throughs ...


Lateral Behavior Comparison Of Driven And Screw Piles In Stiff Clay, Sophie Moore Jun 2018

Lateral Behavior Comparison Of Driven And Screw Piles In Stiff Clay, Sophie Moore

Architectural Engineering

This study is concerned with the comparison of driven and screw piles when exposed to lateral forces and the effects of gapping on stiffness and displacement. Stiffness contributions were determined from force-displacement profiles, gap depth formation curves, strain profiles, bending moment profiles, and P-Y curves. Driven piles were found to be about twice as stiff as screw piles at lower displacements. At larger displacements, the stiffness of the two pile types start to converge. When the piles are in full contact with the soil, stiffness contribution is derived from both the soil and the pile. When gapping is exhibited, the ...


New Mixture Additives For Sustainable Bituminous Pavements, Gabriel Nsengiyumva, Kommidi Santosh, Yong-Rak Kim, Helan Xu, Yiqi Yang Phd May 2018

New Mixture Additives For Sustainable Bituminous Pavements, Gabriel Nsengiyumva, Kommidi Santosh, Yong-Rak Kim, Helan Xu, Yiqi Yang Phd

Gabriel Nsengiyumva

In an effort to improve mechanical properties of asphalt concrete, an exploratory research using mixture additives
was attempted. Two different types of additives on two material scales were used: asphalt concrete (AC) level and
binder level. At the start of this study, the effect of natural cornhusk fibers on the resistance of two types of AC
mixtures on cracking were tested for hot-mix asphalt (HMA) and cold-mix asphalt (CMA). The results showed slight improvements in cracking resistance in cornhusk reinforced HMA, and in the case of the CMA, marshal flow. Overall, based on the test results, cornhusk-reinforced HMA and CMA ...


A Study On Chemical Grouting Of Quartz Sand, Bingfeng Xue May 2018

A Study On Chemical Grouting Of Quartz Sand, Bingfeng Xue

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Chemical grouting has been used in engineering projects for decades. The primary objectives of chemical grouting in geotechnical engineering projects are to increase the soil strength, to decrease the soil permeability, and to control deformations of in-situ soil. In the design and applications of chemical grouting, laboratory testing of chemical grouted samples is an important step for the feasibility assessment.

The advantages of sodium silicate grout include high penetrability, flexible set times, and environmentally friendly, which makes it one of the most employed grouts in applications. Recently, an innovative sodium silicate, which has the silica to alkali ratio of 4 ...


Development Of A Hydraulic Conductivity Placement Window Using Centrifuge Techniques, Greg Thomas May 2018

Development Of A Hydraulic Conductivity Placement Window Using Centrifuge Techniques, Greg Thomas

Civil Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

A centrifuge soil testing device, currently operated by researchers at the University of Arkansas, was used to develop a technique to determine a hydraulic conductivity placement window. The purpose of this research was to develop a placement window by means of a centrifuge instead of by means of a panel board. Soil specimens were created at standard PRcotor energy and at 50 percent of Standard Proctor energy at -3 percent of optimum, -1.5 percent of optimum, two specimens at optimum, +1.5 percent of optimum, and +3 percent of optimum water content. Values of hydraulic conductivity for the respective ...


The Intrinsic Properties Of Reconstituted Soils, Nabeel Shaker Mahmood May 2018

The Intrinsic Properties Of Reconstituted Soils, Nabeel Shaker Mahmood

Theses and Dissertations

Reconstituted specimens are often utilized to characterize engineering properties of cohesive soils. A series of undrained triaxial tests were conducted on reconstituted soil specimens to evaluate 1) the influence of stress path, 2) the intrinsic shear strength behavior, and 3) the small-strain characteristics. The stress path tests were conducted on kaolinite specimens reconstituted from slurries with water content values of one and one-half times the liquid limit of the soil (1.5LL). To evaluate the intrinsic undrained shear strength and the intrinsic small-strain properties, the triaxial tests were performed on kaolinite and illite specimens that were reconstituted at two levels ...


Liquefaction-Induced Dragload And/Or Downdrag On Deep Foundations Within The New Madrid Seismic Zone, Ishimwe Elvis May 2018

Liquefaction-Induced Dragload And/Or Downdrag On Deep Foundations Within The New Madrid Seismic Zone, Ishimwe Elvis

Theses and Dissertations

Deep foundation elements are typically used to transfer structural loads for multi-story buildings and large-span bridges to a competent soil layer when 1) the soil close to the ground surface has no sufficient bearing capacity, and when 2) liquefiable soils are encountered. The majority of the bridges constructed within seismic zones rely upon the stability of earthen embankments and deep foundation that are installed above or within liquefiable soil deposits. Despite large factor of safety values or different load and resistance factors being used to adequately design deep foundations within seismic areas, soil liquefaction may cause extensive damage to the ...


Introduction To Infrastructure - The Influence Of Natural Disasters On Infrastructure, Tri Tam Nguyen, Sean M. Raday, Daniel Leverick Apr 2018

Introduction To Infrastructure - The Influence Of Natural Disasters On Infrastructure, Tri Tam Nguyen, Sean M. Raday, Daniel Leverick

Student Research Symposium Posters

In this paper, three major hurricanes in 2017 were examined to determine the damage these hurricanes have done to the infrastructure. Infrastructure has an important role in the nation’s sustained economic development. Infrastructure consists of two main types which are “hard” infrastructure and “soft” infrastructure. Hard infrastructure is the physical networks which include transportation, power, etc. while soft infrastructure is institutions and human capital. Inadequate and inefficient performance of “hard” or “soft” infrastructure would prevent economy from achieving full growth. In the past decades, a significant increase in the number of natural disasters has had great impact on infrastructure ...


Hawai'i Wildlife Fund V. County Of Maui, Lowell J. Chandler Apr 2018

Hawai'i Wildlife Fund V. County Of Maui, Lowell J. Chandler

Public Land & Resources Law Review

In Hawai’i Wildlife Fund v. County of Maui, the Ninth Circuit held that the plain language of the Clean Water Act provides jurisdiction over indirect discharges of pollutants from a point source into groundwater that is shown to be connected to navigable waters. The court found that studies confirmed pollutants entering the Pacific Ocean were fairly traceable to the County of Maui’s sewage disposal wells. In affirming the district court’s ruling, the Ninth Circuit held that Maui County violated the Clean Water Act by discharging pollutants into a navigable water without the required permit. The court also ...


Practical Overview Of Revised Section 918, Geosynthetics_Piccoli, Santino Piccoli Mar 2018

Practical Overview Of Revised Section 918, Geosynthetics_Piccoli, Santino Piccoli

Purdue Road School

INDOT Standard Specifications Section 918, Geosynthetics, has been revised and updated, broadening the tools available to designers and contractors challenged with variable soil types and site conditions. The revision effort included harmonizing Section 200, 600, and 900 language relative to the design and use of geosynthetics. Section 918 broadly pertains to geosynthetics, which includes geotextiles, geogrids, geocells, geomembranes, and geocomposites. This session includes a practical discussion about specific changes to geotextile specifications and the addition of geotextile types.


Spot-R By Triax, Purdue Ect Team Jan 2018

Spot-R By Triax, Purdue Ect Team

ECT Fact Sheets

Triax’s Spot-r system was developed to tackle the construction industry’s unique safety and productivity challenges, stemming from a demonstrated lack of total jobsite visibility and automatically collected, easily accessible field data. Spot-r by Triax combines a proprietary mesh network with sensor technology to record and transmit previously unattainable workforce and equipment location, activity and safety data within a defined area – all in real-time.

The Spot-r network is installed around the site and operates in a 900 MHz network, with a subset using a cellular connection to forward Spot-r sensor data to Triax’s custom, cloud dashboard. In the ...


Mdp (Machine Drive Power) Intelligent Compaction Technology, Purdue Ect Team Jan 2018

Mdp (Machine Drive Power) Intelligent Compaction Technology, Purdue Ect Team

ECT Fact Sheets

Caterpillar developed MDP (Machine Drive Power) technology to fill this gap. Rather than an accelerometer and vibratory drum, it uses the principle of rolling resistance to provide indications of soil stiffness. This allows it to perform more reliably on cohesive and granular soils with less variability than accelerometer systems. It also means that the technology can be used on both vibratory and static drum compactors, which are often used on larger sites. While the technology is quite useful on its own, it is even better as a complementary technology to the existing accelerometer-based systems. Contractors who use vibratory soil compactors ...