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Full-Text Articles in Engineering

Camera Placement Meeting Restrictions Of Computer Vision, Sara Aghajanzadeh, Roopasree Naidu, Shuo-Han Chen, Caleb Tung, Abhinav Goel, Yung-Hsiang Lu, George K. Thiruvathukal Oct 2020

Camera Placement Meeting Restrictions Of Computer Vision, Sara Aghajanzadeh, Roopasree Naidu, Shuo-Han Chen, Caleb Tung, Abhinav Goel, Yung-Hsiang Lu, George K. Thiruvathukal

Computer Science: Faculty Publications and Other Works

In the blooming era of smart edge devices, surveillance cam- eras have been deployed in many locations. Surveillance cam- eras are most useful when they are spaced out to maximize coverage of an area. However, deciding where to place cam- eras is an NP-hard problem and researchers have proposed heuristic solutions. Existing work does not consider a signifi- cant restriction of computer vision: in order to track a moving object, the object must occupy enough pixels. The number of pixels depends on many factors (how far away is the object? What is the camera resolution? What is the focal length ...


A Real-Time Feature Indexing System On Live Video Streams, Aditya Chakraborty, Akshay Pawar, Hojoung Jang, Shunqiao Huang, Sripath Mishra, Shuo-Han Chen, Yuan-Hao Chang, George K. Thiruvathukal, Yung-Hsiang Lu Jul 2020

A Real-Time Feature Indexing System On Live Video Streams, Aditya Chakraborty, Akshay Pawar, Hojoung Jang, Shunqiao Huang, Sripath Mishra, Shuo-Han Chen, Yuan-Hao Chang, George K. Thiruvathukal, Yung-Hsiang Lu

Computer Science: Faculty Publications and Other Works

Most of the existing video storage systems rely on offline processing to support the feature-based indexing on video streams. The feature-based indexing technique provides an effec- tive way for users to search video content through visual features, such as object categories (e.g., cars and persons). However, due to the reliance on offline processing, video streams along with their captured features cannot be searchable immediately after video streams are recorded. According to our investigation, buffering and storing live video steams are more time-consuming than the YOLO v3 object detector. Such observation motivates us to propose a real-time feature indexing (RTFI ...


Exploring Usage Of Web Resources Though A Model Of Api Learning, Finn Voichick May 2020

Exploring Usage Of Web Resources Though A Model Of Api Learning, Finn Voichick

Engineering and Applied Science Theses & Dissertations

Application programming interfaces (APIs) are essential to modern software development, and new APIs are frequently being produced. Consequently, software developers must regularly learn new APIs, which they typically do on the job from online resources rather than in a formal educational context. The Kelleher–Ichinco COIL model, an acronym for “Collection and Organization of Information for Learning,” was recently developed to model the entire API learning process, drawing from information foraging theory, cognitive load theory, and external memory research. We ran an exploratory empirical user study in which participants performed a programming task using the React API with the goal ...


Exploring Attacks And Defenses In Additive Manufacturing Processes: Implications In Cyber-Physical Security, Nicholas Deily May 2020

Exploring Attacks And Defenses In Additive Manufacturing Processes: Implications In Cyber-Physical Security, Nicholas Deily

Engineering and Applied Science Theses & Dissertations

Many industries are rapidly adopting additive manufacturing (AM) because of the added versatility this technology offers over traditional manufacturing techniques. But with AM, there comes a unique set of security challenges that must be addressed. In particular, the issue of part verification is critically important given the growing reliance of safety-critical systems on 3D printed parts.

In this thesis, the current state of part verification technologies will be examined in the con- text of AM-specific geometric-modification attacks, and an automated tool for 3D printed part verification will be presented. This work will cover: 1) the impacts of malicious attacks on ...


Elicitation And Aggregation Of Data In Knowledge Intensive Crowdsourcing, Dohoon Kim May 2020

Elicitation And Aggregation Of Data In Knowledge Intensive Crowdsourcing, Dohoon Kim

All Computer Science and Engineering Research

With the significant advance of internet and connectivity, crowdsourcing gained more popularity and various crowdsourcing platforms emerged. This project focuses on knowledge-intensive crowdsourcing, in which agents are presented with the tasks that require certain knowledge in domain. Knowledge-intensive crowdsourcing requires agents to have experiences on the specific domain. With the constraint of resources and its trait as sourcing from crowd, platform is likely to draw agents with different levels of expertise and knowledge and asking same task can result in bad performance. Some agents can give better information when they are asked with more general question or more knowledge-specific task ...


Centrality Of Blockchain, Zixuan Li May 2020

Centrality Of Blockchain, Zixuan Li

All Computer Science and Engineering Research

Decentralization is widely recognized as the property and one of most important advantage of blockchain over legacy systems. However, decentralization is often discussed on the consensus layer and recent research shows the trend of centralization on several subsystem of blockchain. In this project, we measured centralization of Bitcoin and Ethereum on source code, development eco-system, and network node levels. We found that the programming language of project is highly centralized, code clone is very common inside Bitcoin and Ethereum community, and developer contribution distribution is highly centralized. We further discuss how could these centralizations lead to security issues in blockchain ...


Understanding Eye Gaze Patterns In Code Comprehension, Jonathan Saddler May 2020

Understanding Eye Gaze Patterns In Code Comprehension, Jonathan Saddler

Computer Science and Engineering: Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research

Program comprehension is a sub-field of software engineering that seeks to understand how developers understand programs. Comprehension acts as a starting point for many software engineering tasks such as bug fixing, refactoring, and feature creation. The dissertation presents a series of empirical studies to understand how developers comprehend software in realistic settings. The unique aspect of this work is the use of eye tracking equipment to gather fine-grained detailed information of what developers look at in software artifacts while they perform realistic tasks in an environment familiar to them, namely a context including both the Integrated Development Environment (Eclipse or ...


Predicting Disease Progression Using Deep Recurrent Neural Networks And Longitudinal Electronic Health Record Data, Seunghwan Kim May 2020

Predicting Disease Progression Using Deep Recurrent Neural Networks And Longitudinal Electronic Health Record Data, Seunghwan Kim

Engineering and Applied Science Theses & Dissertations

Electronic Health Records (EHR) are widely adopted and used throughout healthcare systems and are able to collect and store longitudinal information data that can be used to describe patient phenotypes. From the underlying data structures used in the EHR, discrete data can be extracted and analyzed to improve patient care and outcomes via tasks such as risk stratification and prospective disease management. Temporality in EHR is innately present given the nature of these data, however, and traditional classification models are limited in this context by the cross- sectional nature of training and prediction processes. Finding temporal patterns in EHR is ...


Gait Characterization Using Computer Vision Video Analysis, Martha T. Gizaw May 2020

Gait Characterization Using Computer Vision Video Analysis, Martha T. Gizaw

Undergraduate Honors Theses

The World Health Organization reports that falls are the second-leading cause of accidental death among senior adults around the world. Currently, a research team at William & Mary’s Department of Kinesiology & Health Sciences attempts to recognize and correct aging-related factors that can result in falling. To meet this goal, the members of that team videotape walking tests to examine individual gait parameters of older subjects. However, they undergo a slow, laborious process of analyzing video frame by video frame to obtain such parameters. This project uses computer vision software to reconstruct walking models from residents of an independent living retirement ...


A Capacitive Sensing Gym Mat For Exercise Classification & Tracking, Adam Goertz May 2020

A Capacitive Sensing Gym Mat For Exercise Classification & Tracking, Adam Goertz

Computer Science and Computer Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

Effective monitoring of adherence to at-home exercise programs as prescribed by physiotherapy protocols is essential to promoting effective rehabilitation and therapeutic interventions. Currently physical therapists and other health professionals have no reliable means of tracking patients' progress in or adherence to a prescribed regimen. This project aims to develop a low-cost, privacy-conserving means of monitoring at-home exercise activity using a gym mat equipped with an array of capacitive sensors. The ability of the mat to classify different types of exercises was evaluated using several machine learning models trained on an existing dataset of physiotherapy exercises.


Early Warning Solar Storm Prediction, Ian D. Lumsden, Marvin Joshi, Matthew Smalley, Aiden Rutter, Ben Klein May 2020

Early Warning Solar Storm Prediction, Ian D. Lumsden, Marvin Joshi, Matthew Smalley, Aiden Rutter, Ben Klein

Chancellor’s Honors Program Projects

No abstract provided.


Learning & Planning For Self-Driving Ride-Hailing Fleets, Jack Morris May 2020

Learning & Planning For Self-Driving Ride-Hailing Fleets, Jack Morris

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Through simulation, we demonstrate that incorporation of self-driving vehicles into ride-hailing fleets can greatly improve urban mobility. After modeling existing driver-rider matching algorithms including Uber’s Batched Matching and Didi Chuxing’s Learning and Planning approach, we develop a novel algorithm adapting the latter to a fleet of Autos – self-driving ride-hailing vehicles – and Garages – specialized hubs for storage and refueling. By compiling driver-rider matching, idling, storage, refueling, and redistribution decisions in one unifying framework, we enable a system-wide optimization approach for self-driving ride-hailing previously unseen in the literature. In contrast with existing literature that labeled driverless taxis as economically infeasible ...


Using Taint Analysis And Reinforcement Learning (Tarl) To Repair Autonomous Robot Software, Damian Lyons, Saba Zahra May 2020

Using Taint Analysis And Reinforcement Learning (Tarl) To Repair Autonomous Robot Software, Damian Lyons, Saba Zahra

Faculty Publications

It is important to be able to establish formal performance bounds for autonomous systems. However, formal verification techniques require a model of the environment in which the system operates; a challenge for autonomous systems, especially those expected to operate over longer timescales. This paper describes work in progress to automate the monitor and repair of ROS-based autonomous robot software written for an a-priori partially known and possibly incorrect environment model. A taint analysis method is used to automatically extract the data-flow sequence from input topic to publish topic, and instrument that code. A unique reinforcement learning approximation of MDP utility ...


Emotional Awareness During Bug Fixes – A Pilot Study, Jada O. Loro, Abigail L. Schneff, Sarah J. Oran, Bonita Sharif Ph.D. Apr 2020

Emotional Awareness During Bug Fixes – A Pilot Study, Jada O. Loro, Abigail L. Schneff, Sarah J. Oran, Bonita Sharif Ph.D.

Computer Science and Engineering: Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research

This study examines the effects of a programmer's emotional awareness on progress while fixing bugs. The goal of the study is to capitalize on emotional awareness to ultimately increase progress made during software development. This process could result in improved software maintenance.


An Eye Tracking Replication Study Of A Randomized Controlled Trial On The Effects Of Embedded Computer Language Switching, Cole Peterson Apr 2020

An Eye Tracking Replication Study Of A Randomized Controlled Trial On The Effects Of Embedded Computer Language Switching, Cole Peterson

Computer Science and Engineering: Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research

The use of multiple programming languages (polyglot programming) during software development is common practice in modern software development. However, not much is known about how the use of these different languages affects developer productivity. The study presented in this thesis replicates a randomized controlled trial that investigates the use of multiple languages in the context of database programming tasks. Participants in our study were given coding tasks written in Java and one of three SQL-like embedded languages: plain SQL in strings, Java methods only, a hybrid embedded language that was more similar to Java. In addition to recording the online ...


A Memory Usage Comparison Between Jitana And Soot, Yuanjiu Hu Apr 2020

A Memory Usage Comparison Between Jitana And Soot, Yuanjiu Hu

Computer Science and Engineering: Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research

There are several factors that make analyzing Android apps to address dependability and security concerns challenging. These factors include (i) resource efficiency as analysts need to be able to analyze large code-bases to look for issues that can exist in the application code and underlying platform code; (ii) scalability as today’s cybercriminals deploy attacks that may involve many participating apps; and (iii) in many cases, security analysts often rely on dynamic or hybrid analysis techniques to detect and identify the sources of issues.

The underlying principle governing the design of existing program analysis engines is the main cause that ...


An Algorithm For Building Language Superfamilies Using Swadesh Lists, Bill Mutabazi Apr 2020

An Algorithm For Building Language Superfamilies Using Swadesh Lists, Bill Mutabazi

Computer Science and Engineering: Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research

The main contributions of this thesis are the following: i. Developing an algorithm to generate language families and superfamilies given for each input language a Swadesh list represented using the international phonetic alphabet (IPA) notation. ii. The algorithm is novel in using the Levenshtein distance metric on the IPA representation and in the way it measures overall distance between pairs of Swadesh lists. iii. Building a Swadesh list for the author's native Kinyarwanda language because a Swadesh list could not be found even after an extensive search for it.

Adviser: Peter Revesz


Advanced Techniques To Detect Complex Android Malware, Zhiqiang Li Apr 2020

Advanced Techniques To Detect Complex Android Malware, Zhiqiang Li

Computer Science and Engineering: Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research

Android is currently the most popular operating system for mobile devices in the world. However, its openness is the main reason for the majority of malware to be targeting Android devices. Various approaches have been developed to detect malware.

Unfortunately, new breeds of malware utilize sophisticated techniques to defeat malware detectors. For example, to defeat signature-based detectors, malware authors change the malware’s signatures to avoid detection. As such, a more effective approach to detect malware is by leveraging malware’s behavioral characteristics. However, if a behavior-based detector is based on static analysis, its reported results may contain a large ...


Open Dynamic Interaction Network: A Cell-Phone Based Platform For Responsive Ema, Gisela Font Sayeras Apr 2020

Open Dynamic Interaction Network: A Cell-Phone Based Platform For Responsive Ema, Gisela Font Sayeras

Computer Science and Engineering: Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research

The study of social networks is central to advancing our understanding of a wide range of phenomena in human societies. Social networks co-evolve concurrently alongside the individuals within them. Selection processes cause network structure to change in response to emerging similarities/differences between individuals. At the same time, diffusion processes occur as individuals influence one another when they interact across network links. Indeed, each network link is a logical abstraction that aggregates many short-lived pairwise interactions of interest that are being studied. Traditionally, network co-evolution is studied by periodically taking static snapshots of social networks using surveys. Unfortunately, participation incentives ...


Case Study: Verifying The Safety Of An Autonomous Racing Car With A Neural Network Controller, Radoslav Ivanov, Taylor J. Carpenter, James Weimer, Rajeev Alur, George Pappas, Insup Lee Apr 2020

Case Study: Verifying The Safety Of An Autonomous Racing Car With A Neural Network Controller, Radoslav Ivanov, Taylor J. Carpenter, James Weimer, Rajeev Alur, George Pappas, Insup Lee

Departmental Papers (CIS)

This paper describes a verification case study on an autonomous racing car with a neural network (NN) controller. Although several verification approaches have been recently proposed, they have only been evaluated on low-dimensional systems or systems with constrained environments. To explore the limits of existing approaches, we present a challenging benchmark in which the NN takes raw LiDAR measurements as input and outputs steering for the car. We train a dozen NNs using reinforcement learning (RL) and show that the state of the art in verification can handle systems with around 40 LiDAR rays. Furthermore, we perform real experiments to ...


An Anns Based Failure Detection Method For Onos Sdon Controller, Shideh Yavary Mehr Apr 2020

An Anns Based Failure Detection Method For Onos Sdon Controller, Shideh Yavary Mehr

Computer Science and Engineering: Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research

Network reachability is an important factor of an optical telecommunication network. In a wavelength-division-muliplexing (WDM) optical network, any failure can cause a large amount of loss and disruptions in network. Failures can occur in network elements, link, and component inside a node or etc. Since major network disruptions can caused network performance degradations, it is necessary that operators have solutions to prevent such those failures. This work examines a prediction model in optical networks and propose a protection plan using a Machine Learning (ML) algorithm called Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) using Mininet emulator. ANN is one of the best method ...


Lablineup: An Intuitive Web Application For Queueing Help Requests In Academic Labs, Graham Mcdonald Apr 2020

Lablineup: An Intuitive Web Application For Queueing Help Requests In Academic Labs, Graham Mcdonald

Senior Theses

LabLineup is a start-up project designed to address the needs of large, lab-based classes, where teaching assistants (TAs) struggle to assist students in the order in which they request help. LabLineup is a lightweight web application that allows TAs and professors to accept requests for help in order. LabLineup allows professors to view the requests for a lab and see frequently asked questions that can be addressed en masse rather than individually. LabLineup also allows students to provide TA feedback. LabLineup addresses issues arising from requesting help in large, lab-based classes in the most efficient manner possible.


Developing A Serious Game To Explore Joint All Domain Command And Control, Nathaniel W. Flack Mar 2020

Developing A Serious Game To Explore Joint All Domain Command And Control, Nathaniel W. Flack

Theses and Dissertations

Changes in the geopolitical landscape and increasing technological complexity have prompted the U.S. Military to coin Multi-Domain Operations (MDO) and Joint All-Domain Command and Control as terms to describe an over-arching strategy that frames the complexity of warfare across both traditional and emerging warfighting domains. Teaching new and advanced concepts associated with these terms requires both innovation as well as distinct education and training tools in order to realize the cultural change advocated by senior military leaders. BSN, a Collectible Card Game, was developed to teach concepts integral to MDO and initiate discussion on military strategy.


Object Detection With Deep Learning To Accelerate Pose Estimation For Automated Aerial Refueling, Andrew T. Lee Mar 2020

Object Detection With Deep Learning To Accelerate Pose Estimation For Automated Aerial Refueling, Andrew T. Lee

Theses and Dissertations

Remotely piloted aircraft (RPAs) cannot currently refuel during flight because the latency between the pilot and the aircraft is too great to safely perform aerial refueling maneuvers. However, an AAR system removes this limitation by allowing the tanker to directly control the RP A. The tanker quickly finding the relative position and orientation (pose) of the approaching aircraft is the first step to create an AAR system. Previous work at AFIT demonstrates that stereo camera systems provide robust pose estimation capability. This thesis first extends that work by examining the effects of the cameras' resolution on the quality of pose ...


Sliver: Simulation-Based Logic Bomb Identification/Verification For Unmanned Aerial Vehicles, Jake M. Magness Mar 2020

Sliver: Simulation-Based Logic Bomb Identification/Verification For Unmanned Aerial Vehicles, Jake M. Magness

Theses and Dissertations

This research introduces SLIVer, a Simulation-based Logic Bomb Identification/Verification methodology, for finding logic bombs hidden within Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) autopilot code without having access to the device source code. Effectiveness is demonstrated by executing a series of test missions within a high-fidelity software-in-the-loop (SITL) simulator. In the event that a logic bomb is not detected, this methodology defines safe operating areas for UAVs to ensure to a high degree of confidence the UAV operates normally on the defined flight plan. SLIVer uses preplanned flight paths as the baseline input space, greatly reducing the input space that must be ...


Comparison Of Visual Simultaneous Localization And Mapping Methods For Fixed-Wing Aircraft Using Slambench2, Patrick R. Latcham Mar 2020

Comparison Of Visual Simultaneous Localization And Mapping Methods For Fixed-Wing Aircraft Using Slambench2, Patrick R. Latcham

Theses and Dissertations

Visual Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (VSLAM) algorithms have evolved rapidly in the last few years, however there has been little research evaluating current algorithm's effectiveness and limitations when applied to tracking the position of a fixed-wing aerial vehicle. This research looks to evaluate current monocular VSLAM algorithms' performance on aerial vehicle datasets using the SLAMBench2 benchmarking suite. The algorithms tested are MonoSLAM, PTAM, OKVIS, LSDSLAM, ORB-SLAM2, and SVO, all of which are built into the SLAMBench2 software. The algorithms' performance is evaluated using simulated datasets generated in the AftrBurner Engine. The datasets were designed to test the quality of ...


Relational Database Design And Multi-Objective Database Queries For Position Navigation And Timing Data, Sean A. Mochocki Mar 2020

Relational Database Design And Multi-Objective Database Queries For Position Navigation And Timing Data, Sean A. Mochocki

Theses and Dissertations

Performing flight tests is a natural part of researching cutting edge sensors and filters for sensor integration. Unfortunately, tests are expensive, and typically take many months of planning. A sensible goal would be to make previously collected data readily available to researchers for future development. The Air Force Institute of Technology (AFIT) has hundreds of data logs potentially available to aid in facilitating further research in the area of navigation. A database would provide a common location where older and newer data sets are available. Such a database must be able to store the sensor data, metadata about the sensors ...


Use Of Lidar In Automated Aerial Refueling To Improve Stereo Vision Systems, Michael R. Crowl Mar 2020

Use Of Lidar In Automated Aerial Refueling To Improve Stereo Vision Systems, Michael R. Crowl

Theses and Dissertations

The United States Air Force (USAF) executes five Core Missions, four of which depend on increased aircraft range. To better achieve global strike and reconnaissance, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) require aerial refueling for extended missions. However, current aerial refueling capabilities are limited to manned aircraft due to technical difficulties to refuel UAVs mid-flight. The latency between a UAV operator and the UAV is too large to adequately respond for such an operation. To overcome this limitation, the USAF wants to create a capability to guide the refueling boom into the refueling receptacle. This research explores the use of light detection ...


Near Real-Time Zigbee Device Discrimination Using Cb-Dna Features, Yousuke Z. Matsui Mar 2020

Near Real-Time Zigbee Device Discrimination Using Cb-Dna Features, Yousuke Z. Matsui

Theses and Dissertations

Currently, Low-Rate Wireless Personal Area Networks (LR-WPAN) based on the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 802.15.4 standard are at risk due to open-source tools which allow bad actors to exploit unauthorized network access through various cyberattacks by falsifying bit-level credentials. This research investigates implementing a Radio Frequency (RF) air monitor to perform Near RealTime (NRT) discrimination of Zigbee devices using the IEEE 802.15.4 standard. The air monitor employed a Multiple Discriminant Analysis/Euclidean Distance classifier to discriminate Zigbee devices based upon Constellation-Based Distinct Native Attribute (CB-DNA) fingerprints. Through the use of CB-DNA fingerprints, Physical ...


Extracting Range Data From Images Using Focus Error, Erik M. Madden Mar 2020

Extracting Range Data From Images Using Focus Error, Erik M. Madden

Theses and Dissertations

Air-to-air refueling (AAR) has become a staple when performing long missions with aircraft. With modern technology, however, people have begun to research how to perform this task autonomously. Automated air-to-air refueling (A3R) is this exact concept. Combining many different systems, the idea is to allow computers on the aircraft to link up via the refueling boom, refuel, and detach before resuming pilot control. This document lays out one of the systems that is needed to perform A3R, namely, the system that extracts range data. While stereo cameras perform such tasks, there is interest in finding other ways of accomplishing the ...