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Full-Text Articles in Engineering

Potential Water Treatment Residual Used For Eutrophication Prevention: Varying Bake Time And Wet-Dry Release Experiments, Noor Fahoum Jan 2022

Potential Water Treatment Residual Used For Eutrophication Prevention: Varying Bake Time And Wet-Dry Release Experiments, Noor Fahoum

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

A challenge faced today in water ways is the excessive growth of algae due to eutrophication. These harmful algal blooms create problems for the environment and safety concerns for the use of water for drinking purposes. An increase in limiting nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus are one of the factors that contribute to eutrophication. This is a concern for the Akron Water Treatment plant where preventative measures are being taken to avoid the potential formation of harmful algal blooms and the cyanotoxins they may release in the water. Through various studies, water treatment residuals (WTR) have been found to ...


Predicting The Spatiotemporal Exposure Of Aquatic Species To Intrusions Of Fire Retardant In Streams With Limited Data, Chris R. Rehmann, P. Ryan Jackson, Holly J. Puglis Aug 2021

Predicting The Spatiotemporal Exposure Of Aquatic Species To Intrusions Of Fire Retardant In Streams With Limited Data, Chris R. Rehmann, P. Ryan Jackson, Holly J. Puglis

Civil, Construction and Environmental Engineering Publications

Because fire retardant can enter streams and harm aquatic species including endangered fish, agencies such as the U.S. Forest Service (USFS) must estimate the downstream extent of toxic effects every time fire retardant enters streams (denoted as an “intrusion”). A challenge in estimating the length of stream affected by the intrusion and the exposure time of species in the affected reach is the lack of data typically available on the stream's geometry and flow characteristics. Previously, the USFS estimated the affected reach length assuming instantaneous mixing of the retardant over the reach; however, this approach neglects key river ...


Towards Smallholder Food And Water Security: Climate Variability In The Context Of Multiple Livelihood Hazards In Nicaragua, Christopher M. Bacon, William A. Sundstrom, Iris Stewart-Frey, Edwin P. Maurer, Lisa C. Kelley Jul 2021

Towards Smallholder Food And Water Security: Climate Variability In The Context Of Multiple Livelihood Hazards In Nicaragua, Christopher M. Bacon, William A. Sundstrom, Iris Stewart-Frey, Edwin P. Maurer, Lisa C. Kelley

Environmental Studies and Sciences

Climate variability and change affect both food and water security, as do other hazards, such as shifting food prices, plant pathogens, and political economic changes. Although household food and water insecurity affect billions, most studies analyze them separately. This article develops a relational approach to explaining household access to food and water in a multi-hazard context. We identify pathways linking hazards to livelihood vulnerability and assess the relative importance of climate-related hazards. Analyzing longitudinal data collected from two surveys of the same 311 smallholder households in northern Nicaragua, conducted in 2014 and again in 2017, we find that peak seasons ...


Integrated Mixing Machine For Sulfur Concrete Production, Maisa El Gamal, Khaled El-Sawy, Abdel-Mohsen O. Mohamed Jun 2021

Integrated Mixing Machine For Sulfur Concrete Production, Maisa El Gamal, Khaled El-Sawy, Abdel-Mohsen O. Mohamed

All Works

The production of sulfur concrete (SC) from its ingredient materials requires controlled heating and mixing conditions at a temperature level of 130°-150 °C. Although this process considered to be common and applicable at the industrial level, it is difficult at the laboratory/research level. This paper presents the design and manufacturing details of a relatively inexpensive laboratory machine for heating and mixing sulfur concrete. The different components of the machine are described in detail to help researchers to produce high-quality sulfur concrete. In this work, the quality of the machine is verified through experimental testing of the physical and ...


Waste To Phosphorus: A Transdisciplinary Solution To P Recovery From Wastewater Based On The Triz Approach, Anna Jama-Rodzeńska, Andrzej Białowiec, Jacek A. Koziel, Józef Sowiński Jun 2021

Waste To Phosphorus: A Transdisciplinary Solution To P Recovery From Wastewater Based On The Triz Approach, Anna Jama-Rodzeńska, Andrzej Białowiec, Jacek A. Koziel, Józef Sowiński

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Phosphorus (P) is a limited yet essential resource. P cannot be replaced, but it can be recovered from waste. We proposed the TRIZ approach (Teoria reszenija izobretatielskich zadacz - Rus., Theory of Inventive Problem Solving - Eng.) to identify a feasible solution. We aimed at minimizing the environmental impact and, by eliminating contradictions, proposed viable technical solutions. P recovery can be more sustainable based on circular economy and 4Rs (reduction, recovery, reuse, and recycling). The TRIZ approach identified sewage sludge (SS) as waste with a large potential for P recovery (up to 90%). Successful selection and application of SS management and P ...


International Analysis On The Traffic Impact Of The Covid-19 Pandemic, Fanny Margaretha Kristiansson May 2021

International Analysis On The Traffic Impact Of The Covid-19 Pandemic, Fanny Margaretha Kristiansson

PhD Dissertations and Master's Theses

The purpose of this research was to assess, compare, and contrast the impact of COVID-19 activity restrictions on road-based transportation activity in regions of the US, Sweden, and China from January 1st to December 31st, 2020. Roadway traffic volumes were used to relate the progression of reported COVID-19 cases and government directives for social separation in three countries with diverse governmental responses.

Among the contributions of this paper was the illustration of the timeline and level of public responses to closures, lockdowns, and reopening as represented through rapid traffic decreases and increases. Traffic was greatly impacted, showing that the pandemic ...


Exploration Of The Sludge Biodiesel Pathway, Zachary Christman May 2021

Exploration Of The Sludge Biodiesel Pathway, Zachary Christman

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

Wastewater sludge is an overlooked source of fat, oil, and grease (FOG) that could be converted into biodiesel. The United States produces about 8 million tons of sludge per year. The disposal cost for this amount of sludge is about 2 billion dollars. The widespread availability and low cost of sludge compared to other biodiesel raw materials make it an economical choice for a renewable fuel. Using sludge as a raw material can produce 25 to 30 mg per gram of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME); the main component of biodiesel. Sludge biodiesel has the potential of transforming a portion ...


How Structural Engineers Find Errors In Analysis And Design Results. Practice Periodical On Structural Design And Construction, James Hanson May 2021

How Structural Engineers Find Errors In Analysis And Design Results. Practice Periodical On Structural Design And Construction, James Hanson

Faculty Publications - Civil Engineering

Errors in structural analysis and design are inevitable, but finding them early in the design process saves time and money. Knowledge of the broad causes of errors and how experienced engineers identify the presence of errors can inform training for structural engineers thus empowering them to find their own errors early in the design process. Therefore, this study presents 145 pieces of information about errors in structural analysis and design compiled from structured interviews with 35 structural engineers. The strategies used to find errors have been classified into eight categories: Comparison, Rule of Thumb, Information Check, Visualization, Extreme Value, Previous ...


Application Of Flow And Ion Data To Estimate Ungaged Inflows And Losses In Urban And Agricultural Sub-Reaches Of The Logan River Observatory, Hyrum Tennant May 2021

Application Of Flow And Ion Data To Estimate Ungaged Inflows And Losses In Urban And Agricultural Sub-Reaches Of The Logan River Observatory, Hyrum Tennant

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Streams in urban and agricultural environments are often heavily diverted for irrigation and drinking water purposes. These streams can receive inflow from unmeasured sources including stormwater returns, groundwater drains, and irrigation runoff that will help sustain flow during dry periods. Due to an inability to identify the source of most of these inflows or directly measure their volumes, there is a clear need for identification and quantification methods. Streamflow data from the Logan River Observatory illustrates the importance of unidentified inflows in sections influenced by large diversions. To understand the role of unidentified inflows and possible outflows in this portion ...


Effects Of Climate Forcing Uncertainty On High-Resolution Snow Modeling And Streamflow Prediction In A Mountainous Karst Watershed, Conor Tyson May 2021

Effects Of Climate Forcing Uncertainty On High-Resolution Snow Modeling And Streamflow Prediction In A Mountainous Karst Watershed, Conor Tyson

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Snow-dominated, karst watersheds present particular challenges to accurately modeling streamflow in response to differing climate conditions. This is due to the uneven distribution of snow within a basin, the varied melting rates due to terrain and climate, and the difficulty determining flow paths through karst conduits below ground. One possible solution to these challenges is to model snow at a fine scale, but climate variables are not available at these smaller spatial scales. The choices about which climate dataset to use, and how to downscale the data to a fine scale, will likely affect the accuracy of streamflow simulations. This ...


Environmental Impacts Of Overdesign In Small Community Water Resource Recovery Facilities, Andrew Pham May 2021

Environmental Impacts Of Overdesign In Small Community Water Resource Recovery Facilities, Andrew Pham

Environmental Engineering Theses and Graduate Student Research

Although water resource recovery facilities (WRRFs) reduce environmental impacts related to water quality, their construction and operation result in negative environmental impacts in other categories. Past research into Nebraska WRRFs investigated variables determining energy intensity, opportunities and barriers for energy efficiency improvements, and environmental impacts of the construction and operation phase. This leads to the research question of what design practices can be considered to reduce the environmental impacts.

The Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology was used to evaluate and compare the inventory and environmental impacts of nine small WRRFs, most of which are serving slow growing or declining populations ...


Low Impact Development: Low-Maintenance Design To Encourage Residential Adoption Of Sustainable Systems, Haley Ellis May 2021

Low Impact Development: Low-Maintenance Design To Encourage Residential Adoption Of Sustainable Systems, Haley Ellis

Biological and Agricultural Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

Residential adoption of low-impact development (LID) technology can positively impact downstream watershed hydrology by reducing total volumetric discharge from the residential site. This reduction can provide economic, environmental, and social benefits for the residents as well as the community at large. Additionally, homeowners are often affected by stormwater related issues, like flooding or washout, that could be easily mitigated with a sustainably engineered LID structure or network. Engineering for sustainability often includes the blending of several objectives to provide greater overall benefit. This thesis compares the outflow characteristics of three low-maintenance residential LID design scenarios differing in rain garden soil ...


Improving Logistics Efficiency Through Collaborative Truck Routing, Patrick Dougherty May 2021

Improving Logistics Efficiency Through Collaborative Truck Routing, Patrick Dougherty

Industrial Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

The logistics industry is among the world’s largest and most essential. Specifically, trucking is a massive component of the modern logistics system. In 2012, truck transportation carried 68% of all freight tonnage in the U.S. However, trucking currently faces significant problems with efficiency and sustainability. Of all miles driven by trucks yearly in the U.S., 25% are driven with empty loads and 36% are driven with underutilized loads. In addition to this economic inefficiency, the industry faces social and environmental challenges. Driver turnover rates are near 100%, and trucking accounts for a significant level of greenhouse gas ...


Analysis Of Shear-Strength In Weathered Shale Strata Along A Highway Slope Failure Site In Northwest Arkansas, Olivia Overton May 2021

Analysis Of Shear-Strength In Weathered Shale Strata Along A Highway Slope Failure Site In Northwest Arkansas, Olivia Overton

Civil Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

Slope failures cost millions of dollars per year to repair and can be deadly. Accurate modeling of slope conditions, including soil parameters, water table locations, and depth to bedrock, are essential to determining the overall stability of a slope. This project is a continuation of the work completed in 2019 by a former University of Arkansas researcher, Vanessa LeBow. LeBow RocScience used Slide2 modeling software to model two highway embankment slopes in Northwest Arkansas that experienced slope movement to determine whether increased use of geophysical data could increase the accuracy of slope stability models. A parametric study of shear strengths ...


Cm Member Of Slocoe Peace Conference Center Feasibility Study, Jackson Reynolds May 2021

Cm Member Of Slocoe Peace Conference Center Feasibility Study, Jackson Reynolds

Construction Management

This paper describes the parking design and estimate portion of a whole feasibility study conducted by an interdisciplinary team. The interdisciplinary team consisted of three senior undergraduate industrial engineering students, and one senior undergraduate construction management student. This feasibility study was conducted for the San Luis Obispo County Office of Education (SLOCOE) to determine if it is feasible to construct a new, 400-person conference center on a site in San Luis Obispo, CA. The complete study includes analyses of the following topics: economic, utilities, traffic/road, approval from Chumash Tribe, social/historical, climate, geological, vegetation and wildlife, noise and pollution ...


Accounting For Critical Attributes And Uncertainty In Flow-Ecology Relationships, Elizabeth Decker Morgan May 2021

Accounting For Critical Attributes And Uncertainty In Flow-Ecology Relationships, Elizabeth Decker Morgan

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Environmental flows are used to maintain streamflow for aquatic species in rivers while also sustaining human water requirements. While there are many approaches to develop environmental flows, they all rely on a strong conceptual understanding of flow-ecology relationships, which are often uncertain. Uncertainty in flow-ecology relationships can stem from using limited data to develop or test relationships or an incomplete understanding of the attributes inherent to each relationship, such as climate and land conditions. Accounting for these attributes and uncertainty in flow-ecology relationships is critical given mounting interest to develop and implement environmental flows at large scales, often with limited ...


Application Of Computational Fluid Dynamics To Determine Gas Expansion Factors Of Differential Pressure Flow Meters, Patrick L. Campana May 2021

Application Of Computational Fluid Dynamics To Determine Gas Expansion Factors Of Differential Pressure Flow Meters, Patrick L. Campana

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this research was to investigate if computer simulations could be used to accurately predict gas expansion in differential pressure flow meters. Differential pressure flow meters are used to measure the flow rate of pressurized liquids and gases through pipes. Computer simulations of liquid and gas flows were conducted for three distinct differential pressure flow meter geometries: Classical Venturis, Stand Concentric orifice plates, and wedge meters.

Gas flows were modeled as dry air using the assumption of a perfect gas. Expansion effects were modeled using the ideal gas law. Computer simulations of Classical Venturi and Standard Concentric orifice ...


A Laboratory Study On The Geometric Effects Of Piano Key Weirs On Scour For Non-Cohesive Substrates And Simple Mitigation Techniques, Wyatt Lantz May 2021

A Laboratory Study On The Geometric Effects Of Piano Key Weirs On Scour For Non-Cohesive Substrates And Simple Mitigation Techniques, Wyatt Lantz

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Sustainable flood control infrastructure is needed as climate change continues to produce more extreme precipitation events, as our water infrastructure continues to age, and as populations continue to grow and expand. Non-linear weirs, such as labyrinth and piano key weirs, are sustainable passive flood-control structures due to their improved hydraulic performance, and low maintenance and construction costs. However, like other structures, these weirs are susceptible to local scour, which is removal of soil and rock due to hydraulic forces. The scour phenomenon is a complicated process dependent upon multiple variables. There is limited information for non-linear weirs with little directed ...


A Laboratory Study Of The Hydraulics Of Moderate-Sloped Stepped Chutes With A Labyrinth Crest, L. Kade Flake May 2021

A Laboratory Study Of The Hydraulics Of Moderate-Sloped Stepped Chutes With A Labyrinth Crest, L. Kade Flake

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Evolving methods of dam construction and rehabilitation require unique and innovative spillways. Spillways provide passage for water impounded by a dam. Stepped chute spillways offer an efficient and economical solution for dam construction and rehabilitation. Labyrinth weirs, which allow high flow discharge within a compact footprint, are often an economical solution for the spillway crest at a chute entrance. Labyrinth weirs have recently been combined with stepped chutes in several locations. However, published literature is scarce for the flow properties and key design parameters of these combined structures.

This study researched the hydraulics downstream of a labyrinth crest for two ...


Site Development Services At Mcghee Tyson Airport, Luke A. Edwards, Tyler Bomar, Scott Cole, Samuel Enders, Matthew Dearborn May 2021

Site Development Services At Mcghee Tyson Airport, Luke A. Edwards, Tyler Bomar, Scott Cole, Samuel Enders, Matthew Dearborn

Chancellor’s Honors Program Projects

No abstract provided.


Evaluating The Effects Of Seismic Loading On Concrete Reinforced Versus Precast Concrete Slab Floor Systems, Mahima Maharjan May 2021

Evaluating The Effects Of Seismic Loading On Concrete Reinforced Versus Precast Concrete Slab Floor Systems, Mahima Maharjan

Honors Theses

This thesis is part of the senior design capstone project of Ole Miss Department of Civil Engineering. The seismic loadings for the commercial buildings project located in Oxford, Mississippi are evaluated to fulfill the honor thesis requirement. This thesis follows the codes from American Concrete Institute (ACI), International Building Code (IBC), and ASCE-7/SEI (Minimum Design Loads and Associated Criteria for Buildings and Other Structures/Structural Engineering Institute) to design the gravitational loadings and seismic loadings.

Furthermore, a reinforced concrete slab flooring system is replaced with a precast slab flooring system to analyze the most seismic performance effective floor system ...


Sustainable Agricultural Development In The Western Desert Of Egypt Under Climate Change: A Case Study Of The Siwa Region, Noha Hossam Moghazy May 2021

Sustainable Agricultural Development In The Western Desert Of Egypt Under Climate Change: A Case Study Of The Siwa Region, Noha Hossam Moghazy

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The Siwa region located in the Western Desert of Egypt is a natural depression and has a large volume of groundwater from the non-renewable Nubian Sandstone Aquifer System (NSAS). Recently the government initiated a development project to reclaim 1.5 million acres where most of the lands are located in the Western Desert to use available groundwater from NSAS. The primary goal of this project is to increase agricultural areas enabling rural development. Siwa is one of the areas that will be reclaimed in the desert by about 30,000 acres consisting of good soil quality. This dissertation aims to ...


Uses And Challenges Of Collecting Lidar Data From A Growing Autonomous Vehicle Fleet: Implications For Infrastructure Planning And Inspection Practices, Md Ashikur Rahman May 2021

Uses And Challenges Of Collecting Lidar Data From A Growing Autonomous Vehicle Fleet: Implications For Infrastructure Planning And Inspection Practices, Md Ashikur Rahman

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Autonomous vehicles (AVs) that utilize LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) and other sensing technologies are becoming an inevitable part of transportation industry. Concurrently, transportation agencies are increasingly challenged with the management and tracking of large-scale highway asset inventory. LiDAR has become popular among transportation agencies for highway asset management given its advantage over traditional surveying methods. The affordability of LiDAR technology is increasing day by day. Given this, there will be substantial challenges and opportunities for the utilization of big data resulting from the growth of AVs with LiDAR. A proper understanding of the data size generated from this technology ...


Numerical Simulation Of Losses In Four-Way Pipe Junctions, Simon Barth May 2021

Numerical Simulation Of Losses In Four-Way Pipe Junctions, Simon Barth

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

To design pipelines, engineers need to know how much energy the fluid in the pipe has at different locations in the pipe network. The energy the fluid has comes in the form of pressure, velocity, and elevation. As fluid travels through a pipe, it loses energy for many different reasons. Some of those reasons include friction between the fluid and the pipe wall, shear forces within the fluid, changes in flow direction, changes in elevation, or various pipe fittings like elbows, tee’s, valves, reducers, and expanders. Many of the causes of energy loss are well researched. One cause of ...


Effects Of Flow Path Factors In The Permeability Of Natural And Man-Made Granular Soils Using The Kozeny-Carman Equation, Robert Davies May 2021

Effects Of Flow Path Factors In The Permeability Of Natural And Man-Made Granular Soils Using The Kozeny-Carman Equation, Robert Davies

All Graduate Plan B and other Reports

The research presented in this paper serves to observe how the flow path factors relate to the void ratio, the effective diameter of a soil particle, and the permeability of a given sample assuming the behavior is consistent across natural and artificial soils. The basis of the comparison is the derived Kozeny-Carman Equation for permeability with focus on the factors Cs and Cl where Cs represents the shape of the flow path and Cl represents the length of the flow path that a single water molecule must travel through a soil sample. Permeameter tests were conducted ...


A Review Of Harmful Algal Bloom Prediction Models For Lakes And Reservoirs, Jade Snyder Echard May 2021

A Review Of Harmful Algal Bloom Prediction Models For Lakes And Reservoirs, Jade Snyder Echard

All Graduate Plan B and other Reports

Anthropogenic activity has led to eutrophication in water bodies across the world. This eutrophication promotes blooms, cyanobacteria being among the most notorious bloom organisms. Cyanobacterial blooms (more commonly referred to as harmful algal blooms (HABs)) can devastate an ecosystem. Cyanobacteria are resilient microorganisms that have adapted to survive under a variety of conditions, often outcompeting other phytoplankton. Some species of cyanobacteria produce toxins that ward off predators. These toxins can negatively affect the health of the aquatic life, but also can impact animals and humans that drink or come in contact with these noxious waters. Although cyanotoxin’s effects on ...


Testing Methods Of Surficial Sinkhole Identification Using Remotely Sensed Data, Dane P. Brophy May 2021

Testing Methods Of Surficial Sinkhole Identification Using Remotely Sensed Data, Dane P. Brophy

All Graduate Plan B and other Reports

Nearly a quarter of all people rely on karst aquifers for drinking water. In the United States, the Safe Water Drinking Act requires a complete assessment of public water systems' vulnerabilities to contamination. As part of that assessment, watershed boundaries must be delineated, while recharge and supply locations identified. In the context of karst aquifers, surficial karst features, such as sinkholes, can act as a point source of direct recharge to karst aquifers and create vulnerabilities to critical drinking water sources. Historical methods of locating these features are inefficient and depend on basic field investigations, resulting in a clear need ...


Development Of Hybrid Ultra-High Performance Concrete Thermoplastic Composite Panels For Blast And Ballistic Protection, Alyssa M. Libby May 2021

Development Of Hybrid Ultra-High Performance Concrete Thermoplastic Composite Panels For Blast And Ballistic Protection, Alyssa M. Libby

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

In recent years, ultra-high performance concrete (UHPC) has become a material of interest for structures needing resistance to impact and blast loadings. These types of loadings have induced brittle flexural failure in UHPC due to punching shear from the impactor. One way to improve the impact resistance, energy absorption, and ductility of UHPC is by adding fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) skins to the front and rear faces of the concrete, resulting in a sandwich configuration. In this study, E-glass fiber-reinforced thermoplastic laminates were bonded to UHPC panels using a heated consolidation process known as stamp thermoforming. The bond between the UHPC ...


Design Of Load Bearing Wall For Low Rise Building With Partially Grouted Reinforced Masonry, Anil Bhatt May 2021

Design Of Load Bearing Wall For Low Rise Building With Partially Grouted Reinforced Masonry, Anil Bhatt

Honors Theses

The seismic and wind load acting on the 2-storeyed building of dimension 120 ft x 98 ft located in Oxford, MS, were calculated and the seismic load was considered for the design of the 120 ft long and 24 ft high load-bearing wall because it being critical. The maximum loading was computed using different load combinations. The masonry behavior and masonry specifications were considered to select the masonry unit, grout, and mortar for the load-bearing wall. The seismic design requirement for the shear and slender wall was fulfilled for the special reinforced masonry wall. The in-plane and out-of-plane loading scenarios ...


Download Bmp Trains 2020 Newest Version 4.3.2, Martin Wanielista Apr 2021

Download Bmp Trains 2020 Newest Version 4.3.2, Martin Wanielista

BMP Trains

This is version 4.3.2 BMP Trains 2020. It is a computer program used to assess the average annual removal effectiveness of nutrients. It is based on research from the State of Florida and uses design criteria in the State. It is accepted by regulatory agencies in the State. It was posted for use stating on April 30, 2021.

This version allows for greater flexibility in media selection. Noted is the choice of treatment rate to calculated service life. Treatment rate is usually decreased by 2 to incorporate a factor of safety. It also increases the reporting decimal places ...