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Full-Text Articles in Engineering

Jual Obat Aborsi Di Ambon 0821-4917-6664 Obat Aborsi Cytotc Asli Ambon Sulawesi, Obat Aborsi Sulawesi Mar 2109

Jual Obat Aborsi Di Ambon 0821-4917-6664 Obat Aborsi Cytotc Asli Ambon Sulawesi, Obat Aborsi Sulawesi

Obat Aborsi Sulawesi

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Design Of Microwave Lowpass Filters Based On Metamaterial Components, Mushtaq Ahmed Dec 2103

Design Of Microwave Lowpass Filters Based On Metamaterial Components, Mushtaq Ahmed

Mushtaq A. Alqaisy

No abstract provided.


The Need For Energy Storage On Renewable Energy Generator Outputs To Lessen The Geeth Effect, I.E. Short-Term Variations Mainly Associated With Wind Turbine Active Power Output, Tony Kealy Dec 2023

The Need For Energy Storage On Renewable Energy Generator Outputs To Lessen The Geeth Effect, I.E. Short-Term Variations Mainly Associated With Wind Turbine Active Power Output, Tony Kealy

Articles

Many studies investigating the short-term variations associated with the power output from wind turbine generators utilise simulated or modelled data in the analysis. This current study uses short-term empirical data downloaded directly from operational wind turbines via electrical power quality meters. The empirical data shows that the short-term variations (one-second or sub-one-second timeframe) occur continuously over most of the power output range. A novel name is proposed, the Geeth Effect, for this variability phenomenon. The Geeth Effect is measured using the coefficient of variation mathematical expression and is likely contributing to (i) lower-than-expected financial and environmental benefits associated with …


Combined Behavioral And Engineering Approach To Preventing Highway Fatalities, Benjamin Blandford, Reginald Souleyrette, Caitlin N. Pope, Tony Fields, Erin Lammers-Staats Aug 2023

Combined Behavioral And Engineering Approach To Preventing Highway Fatalities, Benjamin Blandford, Reginald Souleyrette, Caitlin N. Pope, Tony Fields, Erin Lammers-Staats

Kentucky Transportation Center Research Report

Traditional, single-discipline highway safety approaches can be augmented through multidisciplinary approaches that consider both engineering and behavioral interventions (e.g., education, enforcement, public outreach campaigns). Leveraging a systems-based conceptual framework of roadway safety, multiple forms of statistical and geospatial analysis, and SPF modeling and network screening, this report proposes and demonstrates methods for unpacking the influence of behavioral-related factors on crash occurrences and outcomes. The primary focus is on behaviors targeted in the Strategic Highway Safety Plan — aggressive driving, distracted driving, impaired driving, and driving without proper restraint (i.e., seatbelts). Based on application of these methods, the report highlights areas …


Optimizing Wedding Venue Selection Process Using Integer Programming, Luis Rodriguez May 2023

Optimizing Wedding Venue Selection Process Using Integer Programming, Luis Rodriguez

Theses/Capstones/Creative Projects

Choosing the right wedding venue can be extremely difficult for the unsuspecting engaged couple. There is a myriad of variables that must be taken into account prior to the illustrious wedding date; these variables include the option for a reception, the location, and food requirements, to name a few. Consequently, the typical couple seems to spend multiple months researching and visiting many wedding spaces. However, even though months go into planning, it still is not a guarantee that all variables are accounted for. Furthermore, without a wedding planner, these couples may second-guess their chosen site due to seemingly arduous issues …


Comparing 1d, 2d, And 3d Hydraulic Models In Urban Flooding Applications, Taylor Kesler May 2023

Comparing 1d, 2d, And 3d Hydraulic Models In Urban Flooding Applications, Taylor Kesler

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Floods have been a hazard to people since people first started building near rivers. Predicting floods can be very beneficial to save lives and property. Computers have made it possible to solve fluid dynamics equations in a fast and efficient manner. Computer programs have been designed to solve these equations and create digital models of floods.

This study compares three different methods of computer modeling and explores their advantages and disadvantages. One-dimensional models solve fluid equations by setting up a series of cross sections. Two-dimensional models use a grid-like mesh to solve fluid equations from one cell to the next. …


Waste Biomass-Derived Ultraporous Functionalized Superactivated Hydrochars For Hydrogen Storage And Carbon Capture, Al Ibtida Sultana May 2023

Waste Biomass-Derived Ultraporous Functionalized Superactivated Hydrochars For Hydrogen Storage And Carbon Capture, Al Ibtida Sultana

Theses and Dissertations

Accelerating world population and simultaneous growth in economic race has resulted in parallel rise of waste generation where the necessity of mitigating the climate change, via transitioning towards a clean energy economy and minimization of greenhouse gas from atmosphere, is in urgent need of attention. Hence, the objectives of this dissertation comprised of firstly upcycling waste biomass into low-cost and effective adsorbent material such that, secondly, its surface could be tailored by modulating its synthesis conditions (hydrothermal carbonization and chemical activation) to be developed into ultraporous and functionalized adsorption medium in order to, thirdly, assess its application as adsorbents for …


Development Of A Unified Personal And Commercial Residential Hurricane Vulnerability Model Including Sensitivity And Uncertainty Studies, Roberto Vicente Silva De Abreu May 2023

Development Of A Unified Personal And Commercial Residential Hurricane Vulnerability Model Including Sensitivity And Uncertainty Studies, Roberto Vicente Silva De Abreu

Theses and Dissertations

As the population and properties in the state of Florida increase, there is an increase in hurricane losses. Hurricane winds and debris can impact the exterior components of a building envelope. The envelope breaches and defects of these components provide a pathway to hurricane wind-driven rain into the building, which causes interior and contents damage. Loss models, such as the Florida Public Hurricane Loss Model (FPHLM), estimate hurricane insured losses for portfolios of buildings. The vulnerability component of the FPHLM has a personal residential module (PR), for single family homes, and a commercial residential module (CR-LR), for apartment buildings. They …


Approach To Problem Solving And Use Of Intuition By Engineering Technology Students, Meher R. Taleyarkhan, Anne M. Lucietto, Natalie L. F. Hobson, Therese M. Azevedo Mar 2023

Approach To Problem Solving And Use Of Intuition By Engineering Technology Students, Meher R. Taleyarkhan, Anne M. Lucietto, Natalie L. F. Hobson, Therese M. Azevedo

Journal of Global Education and Research

Engineering technology students often forgo a methodical approach of solving or answering questions on assignments or exams in favor of an intuition-based approach, emphasizing educated guessing (Broberg et al., 2008). Faculty observations have noted these student solutions often provide explanations, usually sans calculations, to support answers the students believe to be reasonable when in reality deviated from the correct answer. An extensive study was developed to assess several distinctions between student intuition and use of cognition in problem solving, as related to a generalized student population. The study was comprised of a survey and interview. The survey utilized two instruments, …


2d Respiratory Sound Analysis To Detect Lung Abnormalities, Rafia Sharmin Alice, Kc Santosh Feb 2023

2d Respiratory Sound Analysis To Detect Lung Abnormalities, Rafia Sharmin Alice, Kc Santosh

SDSU Data Science Symposium

Abstract. In this paper, we analyze deep visual features from 2D data representation(s) of the respiratory sound to detect evidence of lung abnormalities. The primary motivation behind this is that visual cues are more important in decision-making than raw data (lung sound). Early detection and prompt treatments are essential for any future possible respiratory disorders, and respiratory sound is proven to be one of the biomarkers. In contrast to state-of-the-art approaches, we aim at understanding/analyzing visual features using our Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) tailored Deep Learning Models, where we consider all possible 2D data such as Spectrogram, Mel-frequency Cepstral Coefficients …


Spatial Data Analysis For The Development Of Expected Adverse Weather Charts For Transportation Construction Projects, S M Rahat Rashedi, Akosua Ofosua Okyere-Addo Feb 2023

Spatial Data Analysis For The Development Of Expected Adverse Weather Charts For Transportation Construction Projects, S M Rahat Rashedi, Akosua Ofosua Okyere-Addo

SDSU Data Science Symposium

Problem - Seasonal and daily weather events impact construction projects across the various climate regions of South Dakota in differing fashions. Additionally, the impacts for similar weather events can impact grading, surfacing, and structural construction activities in various ways. Adverse weather conditions can cause major delays which may lead to time extensions and increase project cost.

Purpose – To address these issues, South Dakota Department of Transportation (SDDOT) developed Working Day Weather Charts in 1998. However, advances in construction practices and weather prediction as well as climatic changes have occurred over the interim 25 years. This study is focused on …


Spatial Data Analysis For Traffic Safety Network Screening, Akosua Okyere-Addo, S. M. Rahat Rashedi Feb 2023

Spatial Data Analysis For Traffic Safety Network Screening, Akosua Okyere-Addo, S. M. Rahat Rashedi

SDSU Data Science Symposium

Problem - The roadway system represents a major investment, both public and private, and a valuable resource that enables mobility and accessibility to users. Due to degradation of aging infrastructure and increasing traffic, transportation agencies are seeking to effectively update or improve the system. With rising costs, tight budgets, and limited land resources, agencies are seeking effective techniques for identifying critical mobility and safety concerns. Historically, assignment of crashes to portions of the network, whether segments or intersections, has been the primary manner to link crash and road elements.

Purpose – The primary goal is to explore a potentially more …


Resource Management In Mobile Edge Computing For Compute-Intensive Application, Xiaojie Zhang Feb 2023

Resource Management In Mobile Edge Computing For Compute-Intensive Application, Xiaojie Zhang

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

With current and future mobile applications (e.g., healthcare, connected vehicles, and smart grids) becoming increasingly compute-intensive for many mission-critical use cases, the energy and computing capacities of embedded mobile devices are proving to be insufficient to handle all in-device computation. To address the energy and computing shortages of mobile devices, mobile edge computing (MEC) has emerged as a major distributed computing paradigm. Compared to traditional cloud-based computing, MEC integrates network control, distributed computing, and storage to customizable, fast, reliable, and secure edge services that are closer to the user and data sites. However, the diversity of applications and a variety …


Launching A 3d Printing Program For Students: Recommendations And Best Practices For Libraries, Wilhelmina Randtke, Lee Bareford Feb 2023

Launching A 3d Printing Program For Students: Recommendations And Best Practices For Libraries, Wilhelmina Randtke, Lee Bareford

Georgia Library Quarterly

The Georgia Southern University Libraries launched a 3D printing program for students in July 2022. Prior to launch, library employees at two of Georgia Southern University’s campuses investigated options for implementing safe, affordable, and sustainable 3D printing in existing academic libraries without retrofitting costly ventilation systems into existing facilities. This article describes the reasons why the Georgia Southern University Libraries thought that a 3D printing program could fulfill a service need for students across university colleges and departments and outlines some of the challenges, best practices, and unique innovations that the library’s employees experienced throughout the program launch process. The …


An Attention Residual U-Net With Differential Preprocessing And Geometric Postprocessing: Learning How To Segment Vasculature Including Intracranial Aneurysms, Nan Mu, Zonghan Lyu, Mostafa Rezaeitaleshmahalleh, Jinshan Tang, Jingfeng Jiang Feb 2023

An Attention Residual U-Net With Differential Preprocessing And Geometric Postprocessing: Learning How To Segment Vasculature Including Intracranial Aneurysms, Nan Mu, Zonghan Lyu, Mostafa Rezaeitaleshmahalleh, Jinshan Tang, Jingfeng Jiang

Michigan Tech Publications

Objective

Intracranial aneurysms (IA) are lethal, with high morbidity and mortality rates. Reliable, rapid, and accurate segmentation of IAs and their adjacent vasculature from medical imaging data is important to improve the clinical management of patients with IAs. However, due to the blurred boundaries and complex structure of IAs and overlapping with brain tissue or other cerebral arteries, image segmentation of IAs remains challenging. This study aimed to develop an attention residual U-Net (ARU-Net) architecture with differential preprocessing and geometric postprocessing for automatic segmentation of IAs and their adjacent arteries in conjunction with 3D rotational angiography (3DRA) images.

Methods

The …


Proposal For And Validation Of Novel Risk-Based Process To Reduce The Risk Of Construction Site Fatalities (Major Accident Prevention (Map) Program), Roberta Selleck, Marcus Cattani, Maureen Hassall Feb 2023

Proposal For And Validation Of Novel Risk-Based Process To Reduce The Risk Of Construction Site Fatalities (Major Accident Prevention (Map) Program), Roberta Selleck, Marcus Cattani, Maureen Hassall

Research outputs 2022 to 2026

Despite developments in the prevention of fatalities in the construction industry, fatalities resulting from well-known hazards continue at an unacceptable rate. Construction fatality prevention literature describes risk management techniques to provide ‘early warning’ of potential events. In dynamic construction project environments, these ‘early warnings’ are missed resulting in serious and fatal events. Critical Control Risk Management (CCRM) provides an alternative strategy to prevent fatal events in the construction industry. However, no research exists that explores the application of CCRM to actual construction projects. This study aims to design, develop, and validate a construction fatality prevention program using CCRM principles through …


An Artificial Intelligence Framework To Contractor Financial Prequalification, Salah Elgamal Jan 2023

An Artificial Intelligence Framework To Contractor Financial Prequalification, Salah Elgamal

Theses and Dissertations

Financial distress in the construction industry always causes major disruptions that

usually result in a rippling effect on the economy. Avoiding such defaults is a top priority for employers to meet their demands. Artificial Intelligence (AI) models have provided increased accuracy in predicting financial distress compared to statistical, fuzzy and logistic regression models, and other classification models. The main objective of this work is to support project employers in pre-qualifying contractors by predicting the status of construction contractors during a bid analysis to disqualify contractors with a high probability of experiencing financial distress during the project duration. Eight financial indicators …


Polyethersulfone Thin-Film Nanocomposite Membrane Embedded With Amine-Functionalized Graphene Oxide For Desalination Applications, Ahmed Bahaeldin Jan 2023

Polyethersulfone Thin-Film Nanocomposite Membrane Embedded With Amine-Functionalized Graphene Oxide For Desalination Applications, Ahmed Bahaeldin

Theses and Dissertations

Thin-film nanocomposite (TFN) desalination membranes were prepared based on a polyethersulfone (PES) support, where the polyamide (PA) layer was embedded with amine-functionalized graphene oxide (GO). The effect of adding various concentrations of functionalized and un-functionalized GO on the desalination performance, hydrophilicity, and morphology of the membranes was additionally assessed throughout this work. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) measurements were used to assess the morphology of the membranes in combination with Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analysis. Contact angle measurements were used to gauge the hydrophilicity of the synthesized membranes. The membrane with the best desalination performance contained 1x10-3 wt/vol% of functionalized GO in …


Estimating Solar Energy Production In Urban Areas For Electric Vehicles, Shaimaa Ahmed Jan 2023

Estimating Solar Energy Production In Urban Areas For Electric Vehicles, Shaimaa Ahmed

Theses and Dissertations

Cities have a high potential for solar energy from PVs installed on buildings' rooftops. There is an increased demand for solar energy in cities to reduce the negative effect of climate change. The thesis investigates solar energy potential in urban areas. It tries to determine how to detect and identify available rooftop areas, how to calculate suitable ones after excluding the effects of the shade, and the estimated energy generated from PVs. Geographic Information Sciences (GIS) and Remote Sensing (RS) are used in solar city planning. The goal of this research is to assess available and suitable rooftops areas using …


The Impact Of Girl Scout Engineering Experiences On The Identity Development Of Middle Schoolers, Abigail M. Clark, Rachel Kajfez Jan 2023

The Impact Of Girl Scout Engineering Experiences On The Identity Development Of Middle Schoolers, Abigail M. Clark, Rachel Kajfez

Journal of Pre-College Engineering Education Research (J-PEER)

Despite years of recruitment efforts, women remain significantly underrepresented throughout engineering. While research into precollege engineering education has expanded, it has primarily focused on formal learning settings, even though students spend significantly more time outside of the classroom. The COVID-19 pandemic changed everything, including the time spent outside of the classroom in informal environments. Specifically, programs had to evolve to provide online content and at-home activities. Some programs even shut down completely. Within this context, our study sought to understand the impact of one informal engineering learning experience, a Girl Scout engineering badge, which also shifted online due to the …


How Modern Agronomy Is Changing With Ai And Iot Post Covid-19 Pandemic: A Qualitative Study, Balavardhan Reddy Jan 2023

How Modern Agronomy Is Changing With Ai And Iot Post Covid-19 Pandemic: A Qualitative Study, Balavardhan Reddy

International Journal of Smart Sensor and Adhoc Network

AI and IoT are changing our day-to-day lives in every aspect, including but not limited to banking, retail, and agriculture. Dreadful obstacles confronted by agrarian and food associations involve ecological deprivation and biodiversity deficit, enduring hardship, an increasing overweightness epidemic, nutrition uncertainty, and the use of ergonomics. However, managers and decision-makers frequently let down to admit how "awful" these matters are. Wicked difficulties want united act from the social order assemblies with profoundly apprehended, contrasting opinions and principles because their connectedness associations are stiff or incredible to detect, they cannot be expressed or resolved, deprived of detonating arguments amongst investors, …


Effect Of Cyber Vulnerabilities On The Adoption Of Self-Driving Vehicles – A Review, Vidhi Shah Jan 2023

Effect Of Cyber Vulnerabilities On The Adoption Of Self-Driving Vehicles – A Review, Vidhi Shah

International Journal of Smart Sensor and Adhoc Network

One of the leading disruptive technologies in the upcoming technological revolution is Self-Driving vehicles. However, the absence of security is the greatest obstacle to adoption. This study looks at how cybersecurity impacts the adoption of driverless cars. The purpose of this paper is to perform a literature review supporting the in-depth analysis of cybersecurity and its impacts on the slower adoption rate of Self-Driving Vehicles. The study's primary goal is to determine the connection between worries about cybersecurity and the rate of adoption of self-driving vehicles. Driverless vehicles are the most effective and cutting-edge technology in the transportation sector, yet …


A Novel Insect And Pest Identification Model Based On A Weighted Multipath Convolutional Neural Network And Generative Adversarial Network, Vinita Abhishek Gupta, M.V. Padmavati, Ravi R. Saxena, Raunak Kumar Tamrakar Jan 2023

A Novel Insect And Pest Identification Model Based On A Weighted Multipath Convolutional Neural Network And Generative Adversarial Network, Vinita Abhishek Gupta, M.V. Padmavati, Ravi R. Saxena, Raunak Kumar Tamrakar

Karbala International Journal of Modern Science

Timely identification of insects and their management play a significant role in sustainable agriculture development. The proposed hybrid model integrates a weighted multipath convolutional neural network and generative adversarial network to identify insects efficiently. To address the shortcomings of single-path networks, this novel model takes input from numerous iterations of the same image to learn more specific features. To avoid redundancy produced due to multipath, weights have been assigned to each path. For Xie2 dataset, the model shows 3.75%, 2.74%, 1.54%, 1.76%, 1.76%, 2.74 %, and 2.14% performance improvement from AlexNet, ResNet50, ResNet101, GoogleNet, VGG-16, VGG-19, and simple CNN respectively. …


Air Carrier Pilot Training, Supply & Recruitment Challenges, Paul Ryder, Todd Lisak Jan 2023

Air Carrier Pilot Training, Supply & Recruitment Challenges, Paul Ryder, Todd Lisak

National Training Aircraft Symposium (NTAS)

The route to airline recovery following the global COVID-19 pandemic is flush with opportunity for airlines, unions, and regulators to work together within current regulatory structures to recruit the next generation of aviation professionals, while continuing to ensure they are properly trained, qualified and mentored for safe flight operations. As an industry we have raised interest in pursuing aviation, but more still should be done.

The pace of the recovery from the pandemic induced reductions in air travel is testing United States pilot training and recruitment systems.

The reductions in air travel at the beginning of the pandemic led to …


Advanced Air Mobility Human Factors Considerations For Current Evtol Pilot Interfaces, Bhoomin B. Chauhan, Maria Chaparro Osman, Kendall Carmody, Meredith Carroll Jan 2023

Advanced Air Mobility Human Factors Considerations For Current Evtol Pilot Interfaces, Bhoomin B. Chauhan, Maria Chaparro Osman, Kendall Carmody, Meredith Carroll

National Training Aircraft Symposium (NTAS)

Advanced air mobility (AAM) is a novel transportation concept using electric vertical take-off and landing (eVTOL) aircraft to move people and cargo in urban and rural environments. The emergence of AAM has led to a range of different eVTOL vehicle designs at different stages in development, flight testing, and certification. Although these aircraft will serve similar markets, they will have different operational capabilities and pilot interfaces. These aircraft vary in whether they are (a) multi-rotor and have tilt-rotor capabilities, or (b) winged with tilt-wing capabilities, vectored thrust, fans, or propellers. The pilot interfaces in eVTOL align with the concept of …


The Value Of Strong Partnerships To Build A Successful Aviation Maintenance Career Pathway Program For Transitioning Military Service Members, Angela C. Albritton, Kenneth Witcher Ph.D., Christopher Toppin Jan 2023

The Value Of Strong Partnerships To Build A Successful Aviation Maintenance Career Pathway Program For Transitioning Military Service Members, Angela C. Albritton, Kenneth Witcher Ph.D., Christopher Toppin

National Training Aircraft Symposium (NTAS)

The aerospace industry is competing with other industries for a qualified workforce, and many of those competing industries are investing heavily in creating workforce development pipelines. Boeing (2021) forecasts that 626,000 new aviation maintenance technicians will be needed over the next 20 years. If the aerospace industry is unable to recruit the skilled workforce they require, it could have a ripple effect felt globally. Career pathway programs are emerging as essential to inspiring and recruiting the next generation of aviation professionals. How can industry, academia and government work together to find more innovative ways to address the growing need for …


Change Fatigue In Aviation Maintenance Through A Human Factors Lens, Stephanie Douglas, Bettina Mrusek Jan 2023

Change Fatigue In Aviation Maintenance Through A Human Factors Lens, Stephanie Douglas, Bettina Mrusek

National Training Aircraft Symposium (NTAS)

Aviation is a demanding and fast-paced industry and it is not uncommon for aviation professionals, including maintainers, to experience rapid disruption and organizational change. Fatigue in aviation professionals is a known risk. Fatigue risk management systems (FRMS) seek to mitigate this risk by focusing on tiredness resulting from long work hours and lack of quality sleep. Recently, change fatigue has also risen to the forefront of business and employee studies. In many of today’s industries, change is constant as firms implement changes either to address disruptions, business growth or to follow trends in the industry. Frequent changes in an organization …


Workforce Of The Future Begins With Aviation Stem, Lyndsay Digneo Jan 2023

Workforce Of The Future Begins With Aviation Stem, Lyndsay Digneo

National Training Aircraft Symposium (NTAS)

The United States has always been a world leader in aviation. This leadership position relies on the strength of the American STEM workforce and the quality of the nation’s educational, industrial, and government institutions. Therefore, it is imperative to nurture today’s students to become a well-trained STEM workforce in the future.

The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) William J. Hughes Technical Center (WJHTC) recognizes that in pursuing its mission of aviation research, engineering, development, and test and evaluation, it is in a unique position to support aviation STEM activities for schools (K-12), post-secondary institutions, and community organizations. In 2016, the Technical …


Determining The Effectiveness Of Single-Pilot Resource Management In General Aviation, Alaba Gabriel Idowu, Holly Augustine, Michael Adebola Shogbonyo Jan 2023

Determining The Effectiveness Of Single-Pilot Resource Management In General Aviation, Alaba Gabriel Idowu, Holly Augustine, Michael Adebola Shogbonyo

National Training Aircraft Symposium (NTAS)

This research aims to determine the effectiveness of single-pilot resource management (SRM) towards improved safety in general aviation (GA) as compared to its counterpart, crew resource management (CRM), in commercial aviation that has improved commercial safety drastically. GA safety has been a significant concern due to many fatalities. Despite SRM concepts to ensure safe and successful flight operations, evidence showed that GA suffers a higher fatal accident rate than scheduled airline flights and holds a lackluster safety record, accounting for 94% of civil aviation fatalities. In contrast, commercial aviation safety has improved since the implementation of CRM. The investigation examines …


Why Should Airline Workers Be Trained To Respond To Fume Events?, Judith Tl Anderson Jan 2023

Why Should Airline Workers Be Trained To Respond To Fume Events?, Judith Tl Anderson

National Training Aircraft Symposium (NTAS)

The potential for engine oil and hydraulic fluid fumes to contaminate the ventilation air supplied to the aircraft cabin and flight deck has been recognized since the 1950s as a function of the design and maintenance of the bleed air system. The presence of oil and hydraulic fluid in the bleed air matters because the fumes contain complex mixtures of chemicals, including toxic additives. Starting in the 1950s and continuing to this day, crewmembers around the world have documented ill health during and after breathing these fumes. Also, some crewmembers have reported impairment and even incapacitation inflight, resulting in investigations …