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Full-Text Articles in Engineering

Multi-Period Liner Ship Fleet Planning With Dependent Uncertain Container Shipment Demand, Qiang Meng, Tingsong Wang, Shuaian Wang Jun 2015

Multi-Period Liner Ship Fleet Planning With Dependent Uncertain Container Shipment Demand, Qiang Meng, Tingsong Wang, Shuaian Wang

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers

This paper deals with a realistic multi-period liner ship fleet planning problem by incorporating stochastic dependency of the random and period-dependent container shipment demand. This problem is formulated as a multi-period stochastic programming model with a sequence of interrelated two-stage stochastic programming (2SSP) problems characterized ship fleet planning in each single period. A solution method integrating dual decomposition and Lagrangian relaxation method is designed for solving the developed model. Numerical experiments are carried out to assess applicability and performance of the proposed model and solution algorithm. The results further demonstrate importance of stochastic dependence of the uncertain container shipment demand.


Understanding The Methods Behind Cyber Terrorism, Maurice E. Dawson Jr., Marwan Omar, Jonathan Abramson Jan 2015

Understanding The Methods Behind Cyber Terrorism, Maurice E. Dawson Jr., Marwan Omar, Jonathan Abramson

Maurice Dawson

Cyber security has become a matter of national, international, economic, and societal importance that affects multiple nations (Walker, 2012). Since the 1990s users have exploited vulnerabilities to gain access to networks for malicious purposes. In recent years the number of attacks on U.S. networks has continued to grow at an exponential rate. This includes malicious embedded code, exploitation of backdoors, and more. These attacks can be initiated from anywhere in the world from behind a computer with a masked Internet Protocol (IP) address. This type of warfare, cyber warfare, changes the landscape of war itself (Beidleman, 2009). This type ...


A Novel Transport Based Model For Wire Media And Its Application To Scattering Problems, Ebrahim Forati Dec 2014

A Novel Transport Based Model For Wire Media And Its Application To Scattering Problems, Ebrahim Forati

Theses and Dissertations

Artificially engineered materials, known as metamaterials, have attracted the interest of researchers because of the potential for novel applications. Effective modeling of metamaterials is a crucial step for analyzing and synthesizing devices. In this thesis, we focus on wire medium (both isotropic and uniaxial) and validate a novel transport based model for them.

Scattering problems involving wire media are computationally intensive due to the spatially dispersive nature of homogenized wire media. However, it will be shown that using the new model to solve scattering problems can simplify the calculations a great deal.

For scattering problems, an integro-differential equation based on ...


Nyiso – Selected Topics, Dejan Sobajic Oct 2014

Nyiso – Selected Topics, Dejan Sobajic

Modeling, Simulation, And Optimization for the 21st Century Electric Power Grid

No abstract provided.


Injectable, Magnetic Plum Pudding Hydrogel Composites For Controlled Pulsatile Drug Release, Danielle Maitland Oct 2014

Injectable, Magnetic Plum Pudding Hydrogel Composites For Controlled Pulsatile Drug Release, Danielle Maitland

Open Access Dissertations and Theses

Injectable, in-situ gelling magnetic plum pudding hydrogel composites were fabricated by entrapping superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) and thermosensitive N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAM)-co–N-isopropylmethacrylamide (NIPMAM) microgels in a pNIPAM-hydrazide/carbohydrate-aldehyde hydrogel matrix. The resulting composites exhibited significant, repeatable pulsatile release of 4 kDa FITC-dextran upon exposure to an alternating magnetic field. The pulsatile release from the composites could be controlled by altering the volume phase transition temperatures of the microgel particles (with VPTTs over 37°C corresponding to improved pulsatile release) and changing the microgel content of the composite (with higher microgel content corresponding to higher pulsatile release). By changing the ...


Measurement And Prediction Of The Onset Of Intermittent Dryout During Blowdown Transients For Upward Annular Flow, Bradley A. Statham Oct 2014

Measurement And Prediction Of The Onset Of Intermittent Dryout During Blowdown Transients For Upward Annular Flow, Bradley A. Statham

Open Access Dissertations and Theses

The effect of pressure transients on the onset of intermittent dryout in upward annular flow was experimentally investigated in order to resolve the conflict between the observations drawn from two major data sets in the literature. A delay in time to the onset of dryout at the test section exit relative to the time predicted based on steady-state data was observed in the R-12 experiments of Celata et al (1988; 1991). Steady-state prediction methods were sufficient to predict the upstream progression of a pre-existing dryout front in the water experiments of Lyons and Swinnerton (1983). Steady state and pressure transient ...


A Multi-Well Concentration Gradient Drug Delivery Microfluidic Device For High-Content And High-Throughput Screening, Michael M. Nelson Oct 2014

A Multi-Well Concentration Gradient Drug Delivery Microfluidic Device For High-Content And High-Throughput Screening, Michael M. Nelson

Open Access Dissertations and Theses

A microfluidic device capable of drug delivery to multiple wells in a concentration gradient was designed for automated high content and high throughput screening. The design was proposed to utilize a nanoporous polycarbonate membrane to spatially and temporally control drug dosage from the microchannels below to the wells above. Microchannels were to hold to the drugs or reagents, while wells were to culture cells. An array of 16 wells was to fit in the equivalent area of a single well of a 96 well plate. Two simpler devices were created to validate electrokinetic drug delivery to a single well and ...


Planning Data Management Education Initiatives: Process, Feedback, And Future Directions, Christopher Eaker Sep 2014

Planning Data Management Education Initiatives: Process, Feedback, And Future Directions, Christopher Eaker

Journal of eScience Librarianship

Educating researchers in sound data management skills is a hot topic in today’s data intensive research world. Librarians across the country and the world are taking the lead in offering this training to their campus research communities. In Fall, 2013, the Data Curation Librarian at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville, held a one-day “Data Management Basics” Workshop geared towards graduate students in engineering and science disciplines based on the New England Collaborative Data Management Curriculum. Students were asked to complete a pre-workshop survey and a series of seven post-module surveys throughout the day. This article discusses the results of ...


Plutonium Worlds. Fast Breeders, Systems Analysis And Computer Simulation In The Age Of Hypotheticality, Sebastian Vehlken Sep 2014

Plutonium Worlds. Fast Breeders, Systems Analysis And Computer Simulation In The Age Of Hypotheticality, Sebastian Vehlken

communication +1

This article examines the media history of one of the hallmark civil nuclear energy programs in Western Germany – the development of Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) technology. Promoted as a kind of perpetuum mobile of the Atomic Age, the "German Manhattan Project" not only imported big science thinking. In its context, nuclear technology was also put forth as an avantgarde of scientific inquiry, dealing with the most complex and 'critical' technological endeavors. In the face of the risks of nuclear technology, German physicist Wolf Häfele thus announced a novel epistemology of
"hypotheticality". In a context where traditional experimental engineering ...


L2er: Low-Latency And Energy-Based Routing Protocol For Cognitive Radio Ad Hoc Networks, Rana Asif Rehman Sep 2014

L2er: Low-Latency And Energy-Based Routing Protocol For Cognitive Radio Ad Hoc Networks, Rana Asif Rehman

Rana Asif Rehman

Cognitive radio ad hoc networks (CRAHNs) are active, self-organized, and dynamic networks, in which cognitive users can communicate with each other in an ad hoc fashion. Various delay and energy-based routing protocols have been proposed for CRAHNs. However, these protocols do not consider the delay and node energy in the routing process, which can significantly affect performance. Delay and node energy are important factors in ad hoc networks in which devices have limited power. In this paper, we propose a new routing protocol, named low-latency and energy-based routing (L2ER) protocol; it considers both delay and energy for the routing decisions ...


Geospatial Analysis Of Rural Motor Vehicle Traffic Crashes In Oregon, Saad Nayef Almutairi Sep 2014

Geospatial Analysis Of Rural Motor Vehicle Traffic Crashes In Oregon, Saad Nayef Almutairi

Civil and Environmental Engineering Master's Project Reports

This research examines the spatial extent of crashes in and around city boundaries in the state of Oregon in the U.S.A. For this study, summary of fatalities data for the year 2006 obtained from NHTSA’s report (2009), crash data for the year 2012, and city boundaries were obtained from ODOT “Oregon Department of Transportation” FTP: www.odot.state.or.us. In order to differentiate between the urban and rural crashes, city boundaries were used to find the numbers of urban and rural crashes. Outside areas of this urban-rural boundary were divided into further boundaries of 2.5 ...


Emerging Role Of Photovoltaics For Sustainably Powering Underdeveloped, Emerging, And Developed Economies, Rajendra Singh, Amir A. Asif, Ganesh K. Venayagamoorthy, Akhlesh Lakhtakia, Mahmoud Abdelhamid, Githin F. Alapatt, David A. Ladner Sep 2014

Emerging Role Of Photovoltaics For Sustainably Powering Underdeveloped, Emerging, And Developed Economies, Rajendra Singh, Amir A. Asif, Ganesh K. Venayagamoorthy, Akhlesh Lakhtakia, Mahmoud Abdelhamid, Githin F. Alapatt, David A. Ladner

Publications

With the advent of low-cost solar photovoltaic (PV) panels and our ability to generate, store, and use electrical energy locally without the need for long-range transmission, the world is about to witness transformational changes in electricity infrastructures. The use of DC electricity enhances systemwide efficiency. DC microgrids and nanogrids powered by solar PV systems and gigawatt batteries for electricity storage can sustainably power the needs of all human beings equitably and empower every individual. Ultralarge-scale manufacturing of PV systems and batteries, a vertically integrated business model, and a targeted monetary policy of quantitative easing can rapidly power all human activities.


Educational Programmes For Spatial Information Sciences In The Dublin Institute Of Technology, William Prendergast, Eamonn Donnelly, Audrey A. Martin, Avril Behan Sep 2014

Educational Programmes For Spatial Information Sciences In The Dublin Institute Of Technology, William Prendergast, Eamonn Donnelly, Audrey A. Martin, Avril Behan

Conference Papers

The ever increasing spatial information needs of society, the rapid development of new surveying technologies, and the global demand for appropriately qualified surveyors, have triggered a radical re-evaluation of geomatics education worldwide. Significant enhancements have been made to the educational programmes in the spatial information science discipline in the Dublin Institute of Technology’s (DIT) during the last decade including the provision of a BSc in Geomatics and various masters’ programmes to cater for the increasingly specialised needs of the Geographic Information sector in Ireland.


Evaluation Of Natural Plant Powders With Potential Use In Antimicrobial Packaging Applications, Yujie Cheng, Changfeng Ge, Jeffrey Lodge, Ksv Santhanam, Lixing Lu Sep 2014

Evaluation Of Natural Plant Powders With Potential Use In Antimicrobial Packaging Applications, Yujie Cheng, Changfeng Ge, Jeffrey Lodge, Ksv Santhanam, Lixing Lu

Journal of Applied Packaging Research

This study investigates the antimicrobial effects of vanillin, turmeric and curcumin in the forms of Dimethyl Sulfoxide (DMSO) solution as well as polymer packaging. Five types of common pathogens and food spoilage bacteria were used in this study: Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes representing gram-positive bacteria; Shigella sonnei, Salmonella typhimurium as well as E.coli O157:H7 representing gram- negative bacteria. Turmeric is chosen as the antimicrobial agent to be incorporated into packaging materials. In order to study the antimicrobial effect as packaging application, two types of the polymer based turmeric products were produced. They are LDPE based turmeric pellets ...


Explicit Solution Of The Large Amplitude Transverse Vibrations Of A Flexible String Under Constant Tension, Ali Nikkar, Reza Taghipour, Tohid Akhlaghi Sep 2014

Explicit Solution Of The Large Amplitude Transverse Vibrations Of A Flexible String Under Constant Tension, Ali Nikkar, Reza Taghipour, Tohid Akhlaghi

Ali Nikkar

This paper presents the analytical simulation of string with large amplitudes using the Variational Iteration Method (VIM) and Hamiltonian Approach (HA). In order to verify the precision of the presented methods, current results were compared with He’s Variational Approach and Runge-Kutta 4th order. It has been found that these methods are well suited for a range of parameters and the approximate frequencies and periodic solutions show a good agreement with other techniques. The results show that both methods can be easily extended to other nonlinear oscillations and it can be predicted that both methods can be found widely applicable ...


Advances In Image Acquisition And Filtering For Mri Neuroimaging At 7 Tesla, Andrew T. Curtis Sep 2014

Advances In Image Acquisition And Filtering For Mri Neuroimaging At 7 Tesla, Andrew T. Curtis

University of Western Ontario - Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Performing magnetic resonance imaging at high magnetic field strength promises many improvements over low fields that are of direct benefit in functional neuroimaging. This includes the possibility of improved signal-to-noise levels, and increased BOLD functional contrast and spatial specificity. However, human MRI at 7T and above suffers from unique engineering challenges that limit the achievable gains. In this thesis, three technological developments are introduced, all of which address separate issues associated with functional magnetic resonance neuroimaging at very high magnetic field strengths.

First, the image homogeneity problem is addressed by investigating methods of RF shimming — modifying the excitation portion of ...


Shock Pulse Filtering Evaluation On Package Size And Cost, Matthew P. Daum Ph.D. Sep 2014

Shock Pulse Filtering Evaluation On Package Size And Cost, Matthew P. Daum Ph.D.

Journal of Applied Packaging Research

Distribution packaging design often relies on cushion curves to determine required material thickness needed for product protection during shipment. The material thickness chosen based on cushion curves establishes overall package size, a key determiner of logistics costs. Cushion curves are constructed by dropping a mass onto a cushion, and interpreting the resulting shock pulse deceleration. The reported deceleration can be highly influenced by applying a “filter” to the shock pulse, a useful standar d prac - tice that removes unwanted high frequency elements superimposed on top of the basic shock pulse shape. Standard test methods for generating cushion curves generally do ...


Structural And Catalytic Differences In The Effect Of Co And Mo As Promoters For Pt-Based Aqueous Phase Reforming Catalysts, Paul J. Dietrich, Fred G. Sollberger, M. Cem Akatay, Eric A. Stach, W.Nicholas Delgass, Jeffrey T. Miller, Fabio H. Ribeiro Sep 2014

Structural And Catalytic Differences In The Effect Of Co And Mo As Promoters For Pt-Based Aqueous Phase Reforming Catalysts, Paul J. Dietrich, Fred G. Sollberger, M. Cem Akatay, Eric A. Stach, W.Nicholas Delgass, Jeffrey T. Miller, Fabio H. Ribeiro

Birck and NCN Publications

Reaction rates (site time yields, normalized to CO chemisorption sites) and product selectivity were determined for PtCo, PtMo, and Pt supported on multi-walled carbon nanotubes for aqueous phase reforming of glycerol. The bimetallic PtCo and PtMo catalysts had 4.6x and 5.4x higher glycerol consumption rates than Pt, and 3.9x and 0.6x rates in H-2 formation compared to Pt. Hydrogen generation selectivity was similar on Pt and PtCo, but PtMo had an increase in selectivity to C-O cleavage products, which reduced H-2 yield at conversions over 60% (85-90% hydrogen yield for Pt and PtCo, 65% for PtMo ...


Failures Of Mainline Railway Sleepers And Suggested Remedies-Review Of Current Practice, Wahid Ferdous Sep 2014

Failures Of Mainline Railway Sleepers And Suggested Remedies-Review Of Current Practice, Wahid Ferdous

Wahid Ferdous

Over the last two decades, the premature failures of traditional railway sleepers have significantly increased the track maintenance costs. The primary obstacle to minimising this problem is the lack of understanding of the mechanism of sleeper degradation. This paper discusses the different deterioration mechanisms for traditional timber, concrete and steel sleepers and the potential protective measures to minimise these problems. This paper exhaustively reviews the failure mechanisms of these three commonly used sleeper materials with suggested solutions. Fungal decay, end splitting and termite attacks has been identified as the principal causes of timber sleeper failures. On the other hand, concrete ...


Implementation And Validation Of Aortic Remodeling In Hypertensive Rats, Shijia Zhao, Linxia Gu Sep 2014

Implementation And Validation Of Aortic Remodeling In Hypertensive Rats, Shijia Zhao, Linxia Gu

Mechanical & Materials Engineering Faculty Publications

A computational framework was implemented and validated to better understand the hypertensive artery remodeling in both geometric dimensions and material properties. Integrating the stress-modulated remodeling equations into commercial finite element codes allows a better control and visualization of local mechanical parameters. Both arterial thickening and stiffening effects were captured and visualized. An adaptive material remodeling strategy combined with the element birth and death techniques for the geometrical growth were implemented. The numerically predicted remodeling results in terms of the wall thickness, inner diameter, and the ratio of elastin to collagen content of the artery were compared with and fine-tuned by ...


Analysis Of Traffic Crash Data In Kentucky (2009-2013), Eric R. Green, Kenneth R. Agent, Jerry G. Pigman, Michael A. Fields Sep 2014

Analysis Of Traffic Crash Data In Kentucky (2009-2013), Eric R. Green, Kenneth R. Agent, Jerry G. Pigman, Michael A. Fields

Kentucky Transportation Center Research Reports

This report documents an analysis of traffic crash data in Kentucky for the years of 2009 through 2013. A primary objective of this study was to determine average crash statistics for Kentucky highways. Rates were calculated for various types of highways and for counties and cities. Difference criteria were used for exposure.

Average and critical numbers and rates of crashes were calculated for various types of high ways in rural and urban areas. These rates used crashes identified on highways where traffic volumes were available. Improved methods of identifying crash locations have resulted in higher rates for the last couple ...


Implications Of Rough Dielectric Surfaces On Charging-Adjusted Actuation Of Rf-Mems, Sambit Palit, Xin Xu, Arvind Raman, Muhammad Ashraful Alam Sep 2014

Implications Of Rough Dielectric Surfaces On Charging-Adjusted Actuation Of Rf-Mems, Sambit Palit, Xin Xu, Arvind Raman, Muhammad Ashraful Alam

Birck and NCN Publications

Actuation voltage shifts due to dielectric charging is a leading reliability concern in Radio-Frequency Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (RF-MEMS) capacitive switches. The inability to correlate dielectric surface roughness to charge accumulation makes predictive design difficult. We apply a sophisticated dielectric charging model on representative surfaces based on Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) data, and show that there are significant, but predictable actuation voltage shifts due to surface roughness. The results suggest that surface roughness should be considered for accurate lifetime predictions, and simple metal-insulator-metal (MIM) capacitors may serve as a useful test structure for this phenomenon.


Computer Programming Slides, Janagiammal Ramasamy Aug 2014

Computer Programming Slides, Janagiammal Ramasamy

janagiammal ramasamy

slides presenting lecture notes


Reductive Depolymerization Of Kraft Lignin For Chemicals And Fuels Using Formic Acid As A In-Situ Hydrogen Source, Shanhua Huang Aug 2014

Reductive Depolymerization Of Kraft Lignin For Chemicals And Fuels Using Formic Acid As A In-Situ Hydrogen Source, Shanhua Huang

University of Western Ontario - Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

In this thesis work, formic acid (FA) proved to be an effective in-situ hydrogen donor for the reductive de-polymerization of kraft lignin (KL). At the optimum conditions without catalysts, i.e., 300 oC, 1 h, 18.6 wt.% substrate concentration, 50/50 (v/v) water-ethanol medium at a FA-to-lignin mass ratio of 0.7, KL (Mw ~10,000 g/mol) was effectively de-polymerized, producing de-polymerized lignin (DL, Mw 1, 270 g/mol) at a yield of ~90 wt.% and wt.% yield of solid residue (SR). The effects of heterogeneous catalysts on KL reductive de-polymerization in 50/50 ...


Probabilistic Modeling And Bayesian Inference Of Metal-Loss Corrosion With Application In Reliability Analysis For Energy Pipelines, Hao Qin Aug 2014

Probabilistic Modeling And Bayesian Inference Of Metal-Loss Corrosion With Application In Reliability Analysis For Energy Pipelines, Hao Qin

University of Western Ontario - Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The stochastic process-based models are developed to characterize the generation and growth of metal-loss corrosion defects on oil and gas steel pipelines. The generation of corrosion defects over time is characterized by the non-homogenous Poisson process, and the growth of depths of individual defects is modeled by the non-homogenous gamma process (NHGP). The defect generation and growth models are formulated in a hierarchical Bayesian framework, whereby the parameters of the models are evaluated from the in-line inspection (ILI) data through the Bayesian updating by accounting for the probability of detection (POD) and measurement errors associated with the ILI data. The ...


Evaluation Of Truck Signal Priority At N Columbia Blvd And Martin Luther King Jr. Blvd Intersection, Maisha Mahmud Aug 2014

Evaluation Of Truck Signal Priority At N Columbia Blvd And Martin Luther King Jr. Blvd Intersection, Maisha Mahmud

Civil and Environmental Engineering Master's Project Reports

Given the importance of over growing freight transportation system worldwide, engineers and planners are faced with the challenge of improving freight service in urban area using low cost measure. Truck Signal Priority is one of the strategy that can be used to improve operational efficiency with enhance safety benefits (red light running) of freight service, without major capital investment. In light to this interest this study focus on evaluating the impacts of freight signal priority on a high truck density intersection like N Columbia Blvd and NE Martin Luther King Jr. Blvd. Using a simulation tool, VISSIM, these impacts were ...


Wind-Induced Pressures In Air Permeable, Double-Layer Roof Systems In Regions Of Separated Flow, Jeong Hee Oh Aug 2014

Wind-Induced Pressures In Air Permeable, Double-Layer Roof Systems In Regions Of Separated Flow, Jeong Hee Oh

University of Western Ontario - Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This thesis is concerned with the wind-induced pressure distribution acting on air permeable, double-layer roof systems placed on low-rise buildings. Because of the pressure transmission into the cavity between layers, the pressure difference in the double-layer systems differs significantly from that in a single layer. The interior pressures (in the cavity between layers) are highly correlated with external pressures at the openings on the external surface of the outer layer and thereby, the net wind load for the design of the outer layer is considerably reduced by the pressure equalization between the external and internal surfaces of the outer layer ...


Msu Xtreme: Minnesota State University, Mankato's Entry Into The "Clean Snowmobile Challenge 2001", Scott Betcher, Allen Caldwell, Nathan Lindeman, Brian Mandelkow, Dave Maniak, Randy Rohlf, James Skuya, Dennis Swanson, Aaron Wolff, Mark Brandl, Dan Dobesh, Ryan Erickson, Jeff Gillen, Jan Smith, Jason Wilkie Aug 2014

Msu Xtreme: Minnesota State University, Mankato's Entry Into The "Clean Snowmobile Challenge 2001", Scott Betcher, Allen Caldwell, Nathan Lindeman, Brian Mandelkow, Dave Maniak, Randy Rohlf, James Skuya, Dennis Swanson, Aaron Wolff, Mark Brandl, Dan Dobesh, Ryan Erickson, Jeff Gillen, Jan Smith, Jason Wilkie

Journal of Undergraduate Research at Minnesota State University, Mankato

Minnesota State University, Mankato’s Automotive Engineering Technology program formed a team to enter the Clean Snowmobile Challenge 2001. Selections for the organization’s machine included a 2001 Polaris Edge Chassis specially outfitted with a 2000 500 cc two-stroke Polaris engine. Modifications to the snowmobile were made specifically for Clean Snowmobile Challenge 2001 events. Acceleration, emissions, cold start, noise, fuel economy/range, handling/drivability, hill climb, and static display made up the list of events featured in the competition. MSU Xtreme has modified the snowmobile in every area with special emphasis on emissions and handling. Testing and analysis of the ...


Formula-Sae Wireless Data Logger, Eric Holland Aug 2014

Formula-Sae Wireless Data Logger, Eric Holland

Journal of Undergraduate Research at Minnesota State University, Mankato

The Formula-SAE (Society of Automotive Engineers) race car requires an onboard data logger to obtain and record the performance information received from the Fuel Injection Controller. This data is needed for analyzing the engine performance of the race car. It is advantageous to have this unit transmit the data via a wireless link to a handheld monitoring tool. Having user interface, like a LCD screen and a keypad, would make the monitoring tool easy to use. Also making the monitoring tool communicate with a PC would offer the beneficial features of saving and printing data. By having the PC connectivity ...


Health Risks Caused By Wireless Technologies, Durreeshahwar Zafarahmed, Qurrat-Ul-Ain Zafarahmed Aug 2014

Health Risks Caused By Wireless Technologies, Durreeshahwar Zafarahmed, Qurrat-Ul-Ain Zafarahmed

Journal of Undergraduate Research at Minnesota State University, Mankato

There are many health issues related to the use of cellular phones, wireless local area networks, and other devices that emit electromagnetic radiation (EMR). Some of these systems have become a part of our daily lives and many of us are in direct or indirect contact for extended period of times with these devices. However, the general public is unaware of the health risks associated with the use of these devices. Our research covers studies done by individuals as well as organizations on the harmful effects on the health of people from these devices and their claims. We also present ...