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Out Of School Time Science Programs: Examining A Program’S Impacts On The Science Identities Of Middle School Female Participants, Elizabeth Ripley Mactavish
Science education reform efforts emphasize teaching science for all Americans, and identify scientific literacy as the principle goal of science education (American Association for the Advancement of Science [AAAS], 1993; National Research Council [NRC], 1996). Despite the goal of scientific literacy, some students, especially females and minorities, consider science irrelevant to their personal interests or career goals. Additionally, research pinpoints middle school as a period when female students begin to lose interest in science (Farenga, 1999; Hill et al., 2010).
Decades of research have documented the gender achievement gap, yet little research has been focused on the science identity gap ...