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Full-Text Articles in Science and Mathematics Education

Student Help-Seeking Behaviors And Teacher Instructional Practices: Examining Their Relationship With U.S. Student Mathematics Achievement, Michael C. Osborne Jan 2019

Student Help-Seeking Behaviors And Teacher Instructional Practices: Examining Their Relationship With U.S. Student Mathematics Achievement, Michael C. Osborne

Theses and Dissertations--Curriculum and Instruction

Even though the United States (U.S.) spends, on average, more money per student than most Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries, it continues to lag behind its international peers in mathematics achievement. This study, which responded to the call for educational reforms that improve the mathematics achievement of U.S. students, aimed to examine the issue of student help-seeking behaviors and teacher instructional practices as they interact to affect student mathematics achievement. The Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) defines student help-seeking behaviors as the ways in which students have a propensity to depend on the knowledge ...


Undergraduate Mathematics Students’ Connections Between Their Group Homomorphism And Linear Transformation Concept Images, Jeffrey Slye Jan 2019

Undergraduate Mathematics Students’ Connections Between Their Group Homomorphism And Linear Transformation Concept Images, Jeffrey Slye

Theses and Dissertations--Mathematics

It is well documented that undergraduate students struggle with the more formal and abstract concepts of vector space theory in a first course on linear algebra. Some of these students continue on to classes in abstract algebra, where they learn about algebraic structures such as groups. It is clear to the seasoned mathematician that vector spaces are in fact groups, and so linear transformations are group homomorphisms with extra restrictions. This study explores the question of whether or not students see this connection as well. In addition, I probe the ways in which students’ stated understandings are the same or ...


Assimilating Mathematical Thinking To The Learning Of Shadows, Taheeda Shwana Street-Conaway Jan 2019

Assimilating Mathematical Thinking To The Learning Of Shadows, Taheeda Shwana Street-Conaway

Theses, Dissertations and Culminating Projects

This study focuses on a teaching experiment with 33 six-graders in a Kearny public school in Hudson County, New Jersey, during the 2017-2018 academic year. More specifically, this study explored a) the types of tasks and tools that can be used to develop students’ covariational and correspondence reasoning in learning about shadows and b) the nature of students’ reasoning about covariation and correspondence relationships as students engage in the use of tools and tasks. The results showed that the simulation and the tasks I designed had the students engaged in the learning process. Students were able to reason about the ...


The Effects Of Metacognitive Training On Algebra Students’ Calibration Accuracy, Achievement, And Mathematical Literacy, Deana J. Ford Oct 2018

The Effects Of Metacognitive Training On Algebra Students’ Calibration Accuracy, Achievement, And Mathematical Literacy, Deana J. Ford

Teaching & Learning Theses & Dissertations

This dissertation describes an empirical study that investigated how metacognitive training influenced lower achieving Algebra students’ calibration accuracy, achievement, and development of mathematics literacy. Multiple methods were used to collect and analyze the data. Close analysis of students’ work and classroom observations revealed that students that were exposed to the metacognitive training had significantly higher prediction accuracy and made gains in their understanding of the mathematics word problems than did students who did not receive the metacognitive training. Overall, however, both the intervention and comparison groups improved in their academic performance and became more mathematically literate and accurate in their ...


Developmental Mathematics: A Quantitative Investigation Of Instructor Classification As Related To Student Success, Brittany A. Fish May 2018

Developmental Mathematics: A Quantitative Investigation Of Instructor Classification As Related To Student Success, Brittany A. Fish

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this quantitative study was to examine what type of predictive power exists between an instructor’s employment classification, student gender, student race, and first-generation status on a student’s academic success in developmental mathematics, as measured by final semester grades at a regionally comprehensive state university in Texas between fall 2013 and spring 2017. Data were collected from the institution under study and the sample population included 1932 unique student observations. The data collected in this study were analyzed through a binary logistic regression model to determine whether an instructor’s employment classification, student gender, student race ...


Launch-Explore-Summarize In High School Calculus, Nate Mattis Jan 2018

Launch-Explore-Summarize In High School Calculus, Nate Mattis

Honors Theses

Current research on high school calculus instruction indicates that students often possess a procedural knowledge of differentiation and integration as opposed to a conceptual knowledge (Orton, 1983; Ferrini-Mundy & Graham, 1994). Given the prominence of traditional lecture and textbook-based calculus classes in the United States, students are not always given the opportunity to expand their conceptual knowledge of essential calculus concepts. This project introduces calculus students to a more active and communal method of teaching: Launch-Explore-Summarize (LES) (CMP, n.d.). This methodology places students at the center of their learning and emphasizes inquiry-based thinking during a class. Specifically, two LES lessons ...


Students’ Interpretations Of Categorical Data Using Dynamic Graphical Representations, Adam Eide Jan 2018

Students’ Interpretations Of Categorical Data Using Dynamic Graphical Representations, Adam Eide

Master's Theses and Doctoral Dissertations

Statistical association is an important concept in statistics. An exploratory study examined how students reason about statistical association utilizing graphical representations constructed with CODAP, a dynamic statistical graphing software. Task-based interviews were conducted with three 6th grade students prior to formal instruction. Students’ conceptions of a statistical relationship, proportional reasoning skill level, ability to interpret bivariate categorical graphs (particularly segmented bar graphs and two-way binned plots), and ability to identify association of two categorical variables were all investigated through interview tasks and responses to inquiry. Students were found to have developing proportional reasoning skills and struggled to correctly define and ...


An Analysis Of Student Reasoning Regarding The Sequencing Of Mathematical Processes In A Pre-Algebra Course, Lauren Farquhar Jan 2018

An Analysis Of Student Reasoning Regarding The Sequencing Of Mathematical Processes In A Pre-Algebra Course, Lauren Farquhar

Mathematics Graduate Theses & Dissertations

We define sequencing of mathematical processes (SMP) to encompass all scenarios where changing the order in which operations or processes are applied to a math problem affects the result. Student errors in secondary and post-secondary mathematics courses frequently stem from SMP misconceptions. In this paper we explore SMP issues in a middle school Pre-Algebra class. Data is drawn from student assessments, including homework assignments, tests, and semester examinations throughout a year-long course. We find in a largely qualitative analysis that students are most successful when they incorporate a step- by-step process understanding with a big-picture object understanding of mathematical ideas ...


Calculus And Commutativity: An Investigation Of Student Thinking Regarding The Sequencing Of Mathematical Processes In Calculus, Laken Michelle Top Jan 2018

Calculus And Commutativity: An Investigation Of Student Thinking Regarding The Sequencing Of Mathematical Processes In Calculus, Laken Michelle Top

Mathematics Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Previous research has demonstrated that students enrolled in calculus courses continue to struggle with old algebra ideas along with new calculus-specific concepts. In this study we seek to investigate student thinking around the sequencing of mathematical processes (SMP) by examining student work in a one-semester university calculus course. Our results indicate that students enrolled at the calculus level continue to struggle with algebraic order of operations in addition to making new mistakes with respect to the commutativity of differentiation and other operations; these errors are often evidenced in student failure to apply the product, quotient, or chain rules. We examine ...


Can Addressing Language Skills For Fifth Grade Ells In A Multiplication Curriculum Help Address The Achievement Gap In Math? A Multiplication Workbook For Big Kids, Michelle Douglas Dec 2017

Can Addressing Language Skills For Fifth Grade Ells In A Multiplication Curriculum Help Address The Achievement Gap In Math? A Multiplication Workbook For Big Kids, Michelle Douglas

Master's Projects and Capstones

Currently, the state of California has 1,332,405 students from grades k-12 who speak a language other than English at home (Caledfacts, 2016). When I started my first year teaching fifth grade with 95% of my students being English language learners (ELLs), I was surprised to see an achievement gap of two to three years in my student’s reading and math skills. I found that my student’s developmental language and math skills contributed to a lack of engagement during math time. Upon further research, I found that these three factors play a role in the wide achievement ...


The Calculus War: The Ultimate Clash Of Genius, Walker Briles Bussey-Spencer Dec 2017

The Calculus War: The Ultimate Clash Of Genius, Walker Briles Bussey-Spencer

Chancellor’s Honors Program Projects

No abstract provided.


Prevalence Of Typical Images In High School Geometry Textbooks, Megan N. Cannon Jun 2017

Prevalence Of Typical Images In High School Geometry Textbooks, Megan N. Cannon

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Visualization in mathematics can be discussed in many ways; it is a broad term that references physical visualization objects as well as the process in which we picture images and manipulate them in our minds. Research suggests that visualization can be a powerful tool in mathematics for intuitive understanding, providing and/or supporting proof and reasoning, and assisting in comprehension. The literature also reveals some difficulties related to the use of visualization, particularly how illustrations can mislead students if they are not comfortable seeing concepts represented in varied ways. However, despite the extensive research on the benefits and challenges of ...


Discovery Learning Plus Direct Instruction Equals Success: Modifying American Math Education In The Algebra Classroom, Sean P. Ferrill Mr. Jun 2017

Discovery Learning Plus Direct Instruction Equals Success: Modifying American Math Education In The Algebra Classroom, Sean P. Ferrill Mr.

Honors Projects

In light of both high American failure rates in algebra courses and the significant proportion of innumerate American students, this thesis examines a variety of effective educational methods in mathematics. Constructivism, discovery learning, traditional instruction, and the Japanese primary education system are all analyzed to incorporate effective education techniques. Based on the meta-analysis of each of these methods, a hybrid method has been constructed to adapt in the American Common Core algebra classroom.


A Financial Literacy Curriculum Project On Linear Functions In Algebra I Aligned With New York State Common Core State Standards, Michael T. Hughson Jr May 2017

A Financial Literacy Curriculum Project On Linear Functions In Algebra I Aligned With New York State Common Core State Standards, Michael T. Hughson Jr

Education and Human Development Master's Theses

There is a lack of financial literacy curriculum available for teachers to support students learning of mathematical skills that are needed in real life. Financial literacy curricula can support students learning real life skills needed before independent living situations in college or career. Direct mathematical modelling and application can support students comprehension of the relationship between financial literacy and algebra. This curriculum highlights the ideology of the need to know drives learning and aligns real world financial literacy problems to the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) algebra standards.


A Study Of The Effect Of Using Simulations On Students' Learning Of Inferential Statistics In The Elementary Statistics Classes In The Mathematics Department Of The University Of Wisconsin Milwaukee, Alexa Schut May 2017

A Study Of The Effect Of Using Simulations On Students' Learning Of Inferential Statistics In The Elementary Statistics Classes In The Mathematics Department Of The University Of Wisconsin Milwaukee, Alexa Schut

Theses and Dissertations

This thesis reports the results of a studying into the use of simulation-based teaching in Introductory Statistics Class to analyze the effectiveness of this teaching strategy. We give a brief overview of the more recent research into the impact of using computer simulations in an introductory statistics course in order to deepen student understanding of inferential statistics along with the a look at a similar study recently conducted at another university. We then give a review of our study conducted in Math Stat 215 classes at UW-Milwaukee to evaluate whether or not the use of simulations in this introductory statistics ...


Roman Domination In Complementary Prisms, Alawi I. Alhashim May 2017

Roman Domination In Complementary Prisms, Alawi I. Alhashim

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The complementary prism GG of a graph G is formed from the disjoint union of G and its complement G by adding the edges of a perfect match- ing between the corresponding vertices of G and G. A Roman dominating function on a graph G = (V,E) is a labeling f : V(G) → {0,1,2} such that every vertex with label 0 is adjacent to a vertex with label 2. The Roman domination number γR(G) of G is the minimum f(V ) = Σv∈V f(v) over all such functions of G. We study the Roman domination number ...


Student-Created Test Sheets, Samuel Laderach Apr 2017

Student-Created Test Sheets, Samuel Laderach

Honors Projects

Assessment plays a necessary role in the high school mathematics classroom, and testing is a major part of assessment. Students often struggle with mathematics tests and examinations due to math and test anxiety, a lack of student learning, and insufficient and inefficient student preparation. Practice tests, teacher-created review sheets, and student-created test sheets are ways in which teachers can help increase student performance, while ridding these detrimental factors. Student-created test sheets appear to be the most efficient strategy, and this research study examines the effects of their use in a high school mathematics classroom.


A Study Of Perceptions Of Math Mindset, Math Anxiety, And View Of Math By Young Adults, Tami L. Hocker Apr 2017

A Study Of Perceptions Of Math Mindset, Math Anxiety, And View Of Math By Young Adults, Tami L. Hocker

Doctor of Education (Ed.D)

This study’s purpose was to determine whether instruction in growth math mindset led to change in perceptions of 18-22-year-old at-risk students in math mindset, math anxiety, and view of math. The experimental curriculum was created by the researcher with the guidance of experts in mathematics and education and focused on the impact of brain growth and learning supported by positive math mindset. Young adult public charter high school at-risk students were surveyed before and after completion of the experimental intervention to measure their perceptions in the domains of Math Mindset, Math Anxiety, and View of Math. The results revealed ...


Influences Of Probability Instruction On Undergraduates' Understanding Of Counting Processes, Kayla Blyman Jan 2017

Influences Of Probability Instruction On Undergraduates' Understanding Of Counting Processes, Kayla Blyman

Theses and Dissertations--Education Science

Historically, students in an introductory finite mathematics course at a major university in the mid-south have struggled the most with the counting and probability unit, leading instructors to question if there was a better way to help students master the material. The purpose of this study was to begin to understand connections that undergraduate finite mathematics students are making between counting and probability. By examining student performance in counting and probability, this study provides insights that inform future instruction in courses that include counting and probability. Consequently, this study lays the groundwork for future inquiries in the field of undergraduate ...


Developing Conceptual Understanding And Procedural Fluency In Algebra For High School Students With Intellectual Disability, Andrew J. Wojcik Jan 2017

Developing Conceptual Understanding And Procedural Fluency In Algebra For High School Students With Intellectual Disability, Andrew J. Wojcik

Theses and Dissertations

Teaching students with Intellectual Disability (ID) is a relatively new endeavor. Beginning in 2001 with the passage of the No Child Left Behind Act, the general education curriculum integrated algebra across the K-12 curriculum (Kendall, 2011; National Governors Association Center for Best Practices & Council of Chief State School Officers, 2010), and expansion of the curriculum included five intertwined skills (productive disposition, procedural fluency, strategic competence, adaptive reasoning, and conceptual understanding) (Kilpatrick, Swafford, & Findell, 2001). Researchers are just beginning to explore the potential of students with ID with algebra (Browder, Spooner, Ahlgrim-Delzell, Harris & Wakeman, 2008; Creech-Galloway, Collins, Knight, & Bausch, 2013; Courtade, Spooner, Browder, & Jimenez, 2012; Göransson, Hellblom-Thibblin, & Axdorph, 2016). Most of the research examines the development of procedural fluency (Göransson et al., 2016) and few researchers have explored high school level skills. Using a single-case multiple-baseline across participants design, the study proposes to teach two algebra skills to six high school students with ID, creating an equation (y=mx+b) from a graph of a line and creating a graph from an equation. The six high school students with ID will be recruited from a school district in central Virginia. The intervention package modeled after Jimenez, Browder, and Courtade (2008), included modeling, templates, time delay prompting, and a task analysis. Results showed that all six individuals improved performance during intervention for the target skills over baseline; results also indicated that in three out of the six cases some generalization to the inverse skill occurred without supplemental intervention. The ability of individuals with ID to generalize the learning without intervention provides some evidence that individuals with ID are developing conceptual understanding while learning procedural fluency.


The Creation Of A Video Review Guide For The Free-Response Section Of The Advanced Placement Calculus Exam, Jeffrey Brown Dec 2016

The Creation Of A Video Review Guide For The Free-Response Section Of The Advanced Placement Calculus Exam, Jeffrey Brown

Honors Theses

The Creation of a Video Review Guide for the Free-Response Section of the Advanced Placement Calculus Exam follows the creation of a resource to help students prepare for the College Board’s Advanced Placement Calculus Exam. This project originated out of the authors personal experiences in preparing for this exam. The goal of the project was to create an accessible resource that reviews content, provides insights into the Advanced Placement exam, and creates successful habits in student responses. This paper, chronologically, details the development of the resource and a reflection on the final product and future uses.


Pedagogical Moves As Characteristics Of One Instructor’S Instrumental Orchestrations With Tinkerplots And The Ti-73 Explorer: A Case Study, James L. Kratky Dec 2016

Pedagogical Moves As Characteristics Of One Instructor’S Instrumental Orchestrations With Tinkerplots And The Ti-73 Explorer: A Case Study, James L. Kratky

Dissertations

Those supporting contemporary reform efforts for mathematics education in the United States have called for increased use of technologies to support student-centered learning of mathematical concepts and skills. There is a need for more research and professional development to support teachers in transitioning their instruction to better meet the goals of such reform efforts.

Instrumental approaches to conceptualizing technology use in mathematics education, arising out of the theoretical and empirical work in France and other European nations, show promise for use to frame studies on school mathematics in the United States. Instrumental genesis is used to describe the bidirectional and ...


Teaching Functions: The Good, The Bad, And The Many Ways To Do Better, Melanie Bayens Nov 2016

Teaching Functions: The Good, The Bad, And The Many Ways To Do Better, Melanie Bayens

Honors College Theses

The way functions are taught in school needs improvement. Many times when students are introduced to functions in Algebra 2, the definition is glossed over, the instruction is lacking, and deeper understanding of the concept is lost. This causes problems when students are required to use this knowledge of functions in later classes, particularly, in Precalculus and Calculus. First, this paper will give the definition of a function and its role in mathematics. Second, this paper will delve into the problems of teaching functions the standard way. Finally, it will present multiple alternative methods for teaching functions. Specifically, it will ...


Definition Of A Method For The Formulation Of Problems To Be Solved With High Performance Computing, Ramya Peruri Aug 2016

Definition Of A Method For The Formulation Of Problems To Be Solved With High Performance Computing, Ramya Peruri

Master of Science in Computer Science Theses

Computational power made available by current technology has been continuously increasing, however today’s problems are larger and more complex and demand even more computational power. Interest in computational problems has also been increasing and is an important research area in computer science. These complex problems are solved with computational models that use an underlying mathematical model and are solved using computer resources, simulation, and are run with High Performance Computing. For such computations, parallel computing has been employed to achieve high performance. This thesis identifies families of problems that can best be solved using modelling and implementation techniques of ...


Rearranging Algebraic Equations Using Electrical Circuit Applications: A Unit Plan Aligned To The New York State Common Core Learning Standards, Susan L. Sommers Jun 2016

Rearranging Algebraic Equations Using Electrical Circuit Applications: A Unit Plan Aligned To The New York State Common Core Learning Standards, Susan L. Sommers

Education and Human Development Master's Theses

As a response to both the implementation of the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) and a recent approval of a change by the New York State Board of Regents to allow multiple pathways for graduation, this curriculum project, which will be referred to as a unit plan throughout the paper, was designed to meet the need for more units of study that apply mathematical modeling in algebra to real world situations that allow students to explore applications of mathematics in careers. The unit plan on rearranging algebraic equations using electrical circuit applications is aligned to the New York State Common ...


Trigonometry: An Overview Of Important Topics, Lauren Johnson Apr 2016

Trigonometry: An Overview Of Important Topics, Lauren Johnson

All Capstone Projects

The purpose of this project was to help students achieve a better understanding of Trigonometry, in order to better prepare them for future Calculus courses. The project is a tutorial that walks the student through important Trigonometry topics. The topics range from, but are not limited to, finding the measure of an angle to analyzing the graphs of Trigonometric Functions. Each topic allows an opportunity for the student to assess their understanding by working through practice problems and checking their solutions.

At any university, incoming students will have a wide variety of mathematical backgrounds. These students differ in age, in ...


The Impact Of Students’ Attitudes After Implementing A Leadership Collaborative Grouping Method In A Collegiate Technical Mathematics Class, Robert J. Belin Apr 2016

The Impact Of Students’ Attitudes After Implementing A Leadership Collaborative Grouping Method In A Collegiate Technical Mathematics Class, Robert J. Belin

All Student Theses

This research paper explored students’ attitudes towards mathematics before and after the implementation of an experimental instructional method. The measurement tool that was used is the Mathematics Attitude Inventory for Students (ATMI). The experimental methodology implemented in the collegiate class is a leadership based cooperative learning model. Students were surveyed twice. The first installment of the ATMI was conducted prior to a mathematics unit that spanned three classes. The second installment of the ATMI survey was conducted after the unit was completed. Student surveys were assessed and determined if the experimental model had any impact of students’ attitudes towards mathematics ...


A Mixed Methods Study Of The Effects Of Clicker Use On Math Anxiety And Achievement In Mathematics, John Herbert Batchelor Jan 2016

A Mixed Methods Study Of The Effects Of Clicker Use On Math Anxiety And Achievement In Mathematics, John Herbert Batchelor

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Many large lecture classes at undergraduate institutions have started to utilize technology to engage students. A mixed methods design was used in this dissertation research to build a comprehensive understanding of the statistical relationships among mathematics anxiety, math self-efficacy, and achievement in mathematics among students in a large lecture, undergraduate calculus class taught using clickers. The purpose of this study was to develop an understanding of the statistical relationships and of the students’ experiences and perspectives on the relationships among mathematics self-efficacy, math anxiety, and achievement, along with the effect of clicker use on these variables, with attention given to ...


A Mixed Methods Study Of The Effects Of Clicker Use On Math Anxiety And Achievement In Mathematics, John Herbert Batchelor Jan 2016

A Mixed Methods Study Of The Effects Of Clicker Use On Math Anxiety And Achievement In Mathematics, John Herbert Batchelor

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Many large lecture classes at undergraduate institutions have started to utilize technology to engage students. A mixed methods design was used in this dissertation research to build a comprehensive understanding of the statistical relationships among mathematics anxiety, math self-efficacy, and achievement in mathematics among students in a large lecture, undergraduate calculus class taught using clickers. The purpose of this study was to develop an understanding of the statistical relationships and of the students’ experiences and perspectives on the relationships among mathematics self-efficacy, math anxiety, and achievement, along with the effect of clicker use on these variables, with attention given to ...


Junior High School Teachers' Perceptions Of Math Instruction For African American Students, Sandra Denise Richardson Jan 2016

Junior High School Teachers' Perceptions Of Math Instruction For African American Students, Sandra Denise Richardson

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

A mathematics achievement gap exists between 8th grade African American students and other ethnic groups. Guided by the conceptual framework of constructivism, the purpose of this case study was to examine 8, Grade 8 math teachers' perceptions of factors contributing to mathematical performance gap in their African American students and what instructional strategies can be used to help reduce the achievement gap in southwest Georgia. Data were obtained through interviews and classroom observations and were coded and analyzed using typological analysis, followed by inductive analysis. The results of the data revealed teachers perceived recruiting and retaining African American teachers and ...