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Full-Text Articles in Education

Should Women Aged 70-74 Be Invited To Participate In Screening Mammography? A Report On Two Australian Community Juries, Christopher J. Degeling, Alexandra Barratt, Sanchia Aranda, Robin J. Bell, Jenny Doust, Nehmat Houssami, Jolyn Hersch, Ruben Sakowsky, Vikki A. Entwistle, Stacy M. Carter Jan 2018

Should Women Aged 70-74 Be Invited To Participate In Screening Mammography? A Report On Two Australian Community Juries, Christopher J. Degeling, Alexandra Barratt, Sanchia Aranda, Robin J. Bell, Jenny Doust, Nehmat Houssami, Jolyn Hersch, Ruben Sakowsky, Vikki A. Entwistle, Stacy M. Carter

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Objective To elicit informed views from Australian women aged 70-74 regarding the acceptability of ceasing to invite women their age to participate in government-funded mammography screening (BreastScreen). Design Two community juries held in 2017. Setting Greater Sydney, a metropolis of 4.5 million people in New South Wales, Australia. Participants 34 women aged 70-74 with no personal history of breast cancer, recruited by random digit dialling and previously randomly recruited list-based samples. Main outcomes and measures Jury verdict and rationale in response to structured questions. We transcribed audio-recorded jury proceedings and identified central reasons for the jury's decision. Results ...


Evidence For Sample Selection Effect And Hawthorne Effect In Behavioural Hiv Prevention Trial Among Young Women In A Rural South African Community, Molly Rosenberg, Audrey Pettifor, Rhian Twine, James Hughes, F Gomez-Olive, Ryan Wagner, Afolabi Sulaimon, Stephen Tollman, Amanda Selin, Catherine L. Mac Phail, Kathleen Kahn Jan 2018

Evidence For Sample Selection Effect And Hawthorne Effect In Behavioural Hiv Prevention Trial Among Young Women In A Rural South African Community, Molly Rosenberg, Audrey Pettifor, Rhian Twine, James Hughes, F Gomez-Olive, Ryan Wagner, Afolabi Sulaimon, Stephen Tollman, Amanda Selin, Catherine L. Mac Phail, Kathleen Kahn

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Objectives We examined the potential influence of both sample selection effects and Hawthorne effects in the behavioural HIV Prevention Trial Network 068 study, designed to examine whether cash transfers conditional on school attendance reduce HIV acquisition in young South African women. We explored whether school enrolment among study participants differed from the underlying population, and whether differences existed at baseline (sample selection effect) or arose during study participation (Hawthorne effect). Methods We constructed a cohort of 3889 young women aged 11-20 years using data from the Agincourt Health and socio-Demographic Surveillance System. We compared school enrolment in 2011 (trial start ...


Associations Between Friendship Characteristics And Hiv And Hsv-2 Status Amongst Young South African Women In Hptn-068, Elizabeth Fearon, Richard Wiggins, Audrey Pettifor, Catherine L. Macphail, Kathleen Kahn, Amanda Selin, F Gomez-Olive, Sinead Delany-Moretlwe, Estelle Piwowar-Manning, Oliver Laeyendecker, James Hargreaves Jan 2017

Associations Between Friendship Characteristics And Hiv And Hsv-2 Status Amongst Young South African Women In Hptn-068, Elizabeth Fearon, Richard Wiggins, Audrey Pettifor, Catherine L. Macphail, Kathleen Kahn, Amanda Selin, F Gomez-Olive, Sinead Delany-Moretlwe, Estelle Piwowar-Manning, Oliver Laeyendecker, James Hargreaves

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Introduction: Prevalence of HIV among young women in South Africa remains extremely high. Adolescent peer groups have been found to be an important influence on a range of health behaviours. The characteristics of young women's friendships might influence their sexual health and HIV risk via connections to sexual partners, norms around sexual initiation and condom use, or provision of social support. We investigated associations between young women's friendships and their Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 (HSV-2) and HIV infection status in rural South Africa. Methods: Our study is a cross-sectional, egocentric network analysis. In 2011 to 2012, we ...


Effect Of Schooling On Age-Disparate Relationships And Number Of Sexual Partners Among Young Women In Rural South Africa Enrolled In Hptn 068, Marie Stoner, Jessie Edwards, William Miller, Allison Aiello, Carolyn Halpern, Aimee Julien, Amanda Selin, James Hughes, Jing Wang, F Gomez-Olive, Ryan Wagner, Catherine L. Mac Phail, Kathleen Kahn, Audrey Pettifor Jan 2017

Effect Of Schooling On Age-Disparate Relationships And Number Of Sexual Partners Among Young Women In Rural South Africa Enrolled In Hptn 068, Marie Stoner, Jessie Edwards, William Miller, Allison Aiello, Carolyn Halpern, Aimee Julien, Amanda Selin, James Hughes, Jing Wang, F Gomez-Olive, Ryan Wagner, Catherine L. Mac Phail, Kathleen Kahn, Audrey Pettifor

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Background:

Attending school may have a strong preventative association with sexually transmitted infections among young women, but the mechanism for this relationship is unknown. One hypothesis is that students who attend school practice safer sex with fewer partners, establishing safer sexual networks that make them less exposed to infection.

Setting:

We used longitudinal data from a randomized controlled trial of young women aged 13–20 years in the Bushbuckridge district, South Africa, to determine whether the percentage of school days attended, school dropout, and grade repetition are associated with having a partner 5 or more years older (age–disparate) and ...


Symptom Endorsement In Men Versus Women With A Diagnosis Of Depression: A Differential Item Functioning Approach, Anna Cavanagh, Coralie J. Wilson, Peter Caputi, David J. Kavanagh Jan 2016

Symptom Endorsement In Men Versus Women With A Diagnosis Of Depression: A Differential Item Functioning Approach, Anna Cavanagh, Coralie J. Wilson, Peter Caputi, David J. Kavanagh

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Background: There is some evidence that, in contrast to depressed women, depressed men tend to report alternative symptoms that are not listed as standard diagnostic criteria. This may possibly lead to an under- or misdiagnosis of depression in men. Aims: This study aims to clarify whether depressed men and women report different symptoms. Methods: This study used data from the 2007 Australian National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing that was collected using the World Health Organization's Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Participants with a diagnosis of a depressive disorder with 12-month symptoms (n = 663) were identified and included in ...


Biopedagogies And Indigenous Knowledge: Examining Sport For Development And Peace For Urban Indigenous Young Women In Canada And Australia, Lyndsay M C Hayhurst, Audrey R. Giles, Jan Wright Jan 2016

Biopedagogies And Indigenous Knowledge: Examining Sport For Development And Peace For Urban Indigenous Young Women In Canada And Australia, Lyndsay M C Hayhurst, Audrey R. Giles, Jan Wright

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

This paper uses transnational postcolonial feminist participatory action research (TPFPAR) to examine two sport for development and peace (SDP) initiatives that focus on Indigenous young women residing in urban areas, one in Vancouver, Canada, and one in Perth, Australia. We examine how SDP programs that target urban Indigenous young women and girls reproduce the hegemony of neoliberalism by deploying biopedagogies of neoliberalism to 'teach' Indigenous young women certain education and employment skills that are deemed necessary to participate in competitive capitalism. We found that activities in both programs were designed to equip the Indigenous girls and young women with individual ...


Women Drinking Alcohol: Assembling A Perspective From A Victorian Country Town, Australia, Gordon R. Waitt, Susannah Clement Jan 2016

Women Drinking Alcohol: Assembling A Perspective From A Victorian Country Town, Australia, Gordon R. Waitt, Susannah Clement

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Gender is a key lens for interpreting meanings and practices of drinking. In response to the overwhelming amount of social and medical alcohol studies that focus on what extent people conform to norms of healthy drinking, this article extends critical feminist geographical engagement with assemblage thinking to explore how the technologies of biopower covertly materialised as bodily habits may be preserved and challenged. We suggest an embodied engagement with alcohol to help think through the gendered practices and spatial imaginaries of rural drinking life. Our account draws on interviews with women of different cohort generations with Anglo-Celtic ancestry living in ...


Exploring Australian Women's Level Of Nutrition Knowledge During Pregnancy: A Cross-Sectional Study, Khlood Bookari, Heather Yeatman, Moira J. Williamson Jan 2016

Exploring Australian Women's Level Of Nutrition Knowledge During Pregnancy: A Cross-Sectional Study, Khlood Bookari, Heather Yeatman, Moira J. Williamson

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Background: The Australian Guide to Healthy Eating (AGHE) for pregnancy provides a number of food- and nutrition-related recommendations to assist pregnant women in optimizing their dietary behavior. However, there are limited data demonstrating pregnant women’s knowledge of the AGHE recommendations. This study investigated Australian pregnant women’s knowledge of the AGHE and related dietary recommendations for maintaining a healthy pregnancy. The variations in nutrition knowledge were compared with demographic characteristics. Methods: A cross-sectional study assessed eight different nutrition knowledge domains and the demographic characteristics of pregnant women. Four hundred women across Australia completed a multidimensional online survey based on ...


“Just Because You’Re Pregnant, Doesn’T Mean You’Re Sick!” A Qualitative Study Of Beliefs Regarding Physical Activity In Black South African Women, Estelle D. Watson, Shane A. Norris, Catherine E. Draper, Rachel A. Jones, Mireille N. M Van Poppel, Lisa K. Micklesfield Jan 2016

“Just Because You’Re Pregnant, Doesn’T Mean You’Re Sick!” A Qualitative Study Of Beliefs Regarding Physical Activity In Black South African Women, Estelle D. Watson, Shane A. Norris, Catherine E. Draper, Rachel A. Jones, Mireille N. M Van Poppel, Lisa K. Micklesfield

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Background Despite the benefits of physical activity during pregnancy, the physiological and psychological changes that occur during this unique period may put women at greater risk of being sedentary. Lifestyle and environmental transitions have left black South African women at increased risk of physical inactivity and associated health risks. Therefore, the aim of this qualitative study was to describe the beliefs regarding physical activity during pregnancy in an urban African population. Methods Semi-structured interviews (n = 13) were conducted with pregnant black African women during their third trimester. Deductive thematic analysis was completed based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour. Coding ...


Transactional Sex Among Young Women In Rural South Africa: Prevalence, Mediators And Association With Hiv Infection, Meghna Ranganathan, Lori Heise, Audrey Pettifor, Richard J. Silverwood, Amanda Selin, Catherine L. Mac Phail, Sinead Delany-Moretlwe, Kathleen Kahn, F Gomez-Olive, James Hughes, Estelle Piwowar-Manning, Oliver Laeyendecker, Charlotte Watts Jan 2016

Transactional Sex Among Young Women In Rural South Africa: Prevalence, Mediators And Association With Hiv Infection, Meghna Ranganathan, Lori Heise, Audrey Pettifor, Richard J. Silverwood, Amanda Selin, Catherine L. Mac Phail, Sinead Delany-Moretlwe, Kathleen Kahn, F Gomez-Olive, James Hughes, Estelle Piwowar-Manning, Oliver Laeyendecker, Charlotte Watts

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

INTRODUCTION: Young adolescent women in sub-Saharan Africa are three to four times more likely to be HIV-positive than boys or men. One of the relationship dynamics that is likely to be associated with young women's increased vulnerability to HIV is transactional sex. There are a range of HIV-related risk behaviours that may drive this vulnerability. However, to date, limited epidemiological data exist on the role of transactional sex in increasing HIV acquisition, especially among young women in sub-Saharan Africa. Our paper presents data on the prevalence of self-reported engagement in transactional sex and explores whether transactional sex is associated ...


Physical Activity Patterns During Pregnancy In A Sample Of Portuguese Women: A Longitudinal Prospective Study, Paula Clara-Santos, Sandra Abreu, Carla Moreira, Rute Santos, Margarida Ferreira, Odete Alves, Pedro Moreira, Jorge Mota Jan 2016

Physical Activity Patterns During Pregnancy In A Sample Of Portuguese Women: A Longitudinal Prospective Study, Paula Clara-Santos, Sandra Abreu, Carla Moreira, Rute Santos, Margarida Ferreira, Odete Alves, Pedro Moreira, Jorge Mota

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Background: Physical activity (PA) patterns during pregnancy have not been explored in depth and most previous studies lack assessment of variables such as type, frequency, duration and intensity of activity. Objectives: This study had two goals: 1) to analyze PA patterns during pregnancy according to weekly time spent on different types of activity; and 2) to determine women's perception about health care providers regarding PA advisement during pregnancy. Patients and Methods: A longitudinal prospective study was carried out with a 118-pregnant women cohort. Participants were evaluated during all trimesters. Self-reported questionnaires were used to collect personal and obstetric data ...


Understanding The Effects Of Crime On Women: Fear And Well-Being In The Context Of Diverse Relationships, Natalia K. Hanley, Leah Ruppanner Jan 2015

Understanding The Effects Of Crime On Women: Fear And Well-Being In The Context Of Diverse Relationships, Natalia K. Hanley, Leah Ruppanner

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

The risk-fear paradox, whereby people who experience the least criminal victimisation report the greatest fear of crime, has been established in the extant literature. That this paradox is gendered, notably that women report greater fear yet are less likely to experience crime, has also been consistently identified. However, there remains a largely unanswered call to explore further the distinctive experiences of women and men. There are likely to be substantial within-group differences as well as between-group differences in experiences of crime and reported fear of crime. For instance, women may experience fear differently by relationship type. Specifically, women in non-traditional ...


Arriving, Surviving, And Succeeding: First-In-Family Women And Their Experiences Of Transitioning Into The First Year Of University, Sarah Elizabeth O'Shea Jan 2015

Arriving, Surviving, And Succeeding: First-In-Family Women And Their Experiences Of Transitioning Into The First Year Of University, Sarah Elizabeth O'Shea

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

This article outlines a qualitative narrative inquiry study conducted within Australia that focused on a group of female students commencing university, all of whom were the first in their family to pursue higher education. During 1 year of academic study, 17 women participated in periodic interviews as each moved through the year. By following the students, the study reveals a very different perspective on the student experience, one that is often missing in policy documents and university discourse, which can place these students within a deficit discourse. Instead, by approaching this topic from a strengths perspective, the intent was to ...


Nutrition During Pregnancy - Exploring Women's Knowledge And Models Of Nutrition Communication, Khlood Bookari, Heather Yeatman, Moira Williamson Jan 2014

Nutrition During Pregnancy - Exploring Women's Knowledge And Models Of Nutrition Communication, Khlood Bookari, Heather Yeatman, Moira Williamson

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Abstract of paper presented at the ICM 30th Triennial Congress - Midwives: Improving Women's Health Globally, 1-5 June 2014, Prague, Czech Republic


Learning Wisdom Through Collectivity: The Women Writing Women Collective, Luanne Armstrong, Barbara Bickel, Lynn Fels, Gillian Gerhard, Alyson Hoy, Nane Jordan, Wendy S. Nielsen, Annie Smith, Jeannie Stubbs, Valerie Triggs Jan 2014

Learning Wisdom Through Collectivity: The Women Writing Women Collective, Luanne Armstrong, Barbara Bickel, Lynn Fels, Gillian Gerhard, Alyson Hoy, Nane Jordan, Wendy S. Nielsen, Annie Smith, Jeannie Stubbs, Valerie Triggs

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

The Women Writing Women Collective was a collegial and collaborative response to the isolation that is often experienced by women scholars as they pursue their academic careers. For 5 years, a group of women gathered on a monthly basis to share their writing. In doing so, the group members provided a sounding board for each other as they engaged with writing and scholarship through reflective, reciprocal, and responsible critique and curiosity. As a writing collective, we began to recognize and deconstruct specific institutional constraints, practices, and theoretical stances that had influenced our perspectives and experiences of what it means to ...


The Hero's Journey: Stories Of Women Returning To Education, Sarah O'Shea, Cathy Stone Jan 2014

The Hero's Journey: Stories Of Women Returning To Education, Sarah O'Shea, Cathy Stone

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

This paper draws upon the metaphor of the "hero's journey" to further analyse seven stories of women returning to education. These stories have formed the basis of a recent book publication by the authors (Stone & O'Shea, 2012) and are derived from two complementary but separate research studies (O'Shea, 2007; Stone, 2008). None of the women featured in this article have a parent who went to university and all have a number of competing demands in their lives including families, partners and employment. This paper aims to both frame the richly descriptive nature of these stories within a heroic metaphor and also to indicate how these stories, whilst unique, share common thematic elements and ...


Eeg Activity Of Men And Women With Dsm-5 Adult Ad/Hd, Franca Dupuy, Adam Clarke, Robert Barry, Rory Mccarthy, Mark Selikowitz Jan 2013

Eeg Activity Of Men And Women With Dsm-5 Adult Ad/Hd, Franca Dupuy, Adam Clarke, Robert Barry, Rory Mccarthy, Mark Selikowitz

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Abstract presented at the 23rd Australasian Society for Psychophysiology Conference, 20-22 Nov 2013, Wollongong, Australia


Women's Awareness Of Cancer Symptoms: A Review Of The Literature, Sandra C. Jones, Keryn Johnson Jan 2012

Women's Awareness Of Cancer Symptoms: A Review Of The Literature, Sandra C. Jones, Keryn Johnson

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Improvements in cancer detection and treatment have led to consistent declines in mortality from many cancers. However, many patients present for treatment at a point where more invasive treatment is required and/or treatment outcomes are less than optimal. One factor that has been consistently shown to be associated with late diagnosis and treatment is delay in seeking help for symptoms. This paper reviews the literature on women's awareness of cancer symptoms and aims to identify knowledge gaps that need to be addressed in order to improve help-seeking behaviors. The discovery of substantial gaps in awareness suggest a need ...


Early Coital Debut And Associated Hiv Risk Factors Among Young Women And Men In South Africa, Audrey Pettifor, Katie O'Brien, Catherine L. Mac Phail, William Miller, Helen Rees Jan 2009

Early Coital Debut And Associated Hiv Risk Factors Among Young Women And Men In South Africa, Audrey Pettifor, Katie O'Brien, Catherine L. Mac Phail, William Miller, Helen Rees

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

CONTEXT Young people in South Africa are at high risk of HIV infection. Because first sexual experiences may influence a young person's HIV risk, a better understanding of coital debut is needed. METHODS Data from a nationally representative survey that included 7,692 sexually active South African youth aged 15-24 were used to assess characteristics related to sexual debut and to respondents' first sexual partner. Poisson regression analyses were conducted to identify relationships among these characteristics and partner age differences, early coital debut (i.e., before age 15), forced sex with one's first partner and nonuse of condoms ...


Keep Them In School: The Importance Of Education As A Protective Factor Against Hiv Infection Among Young South African Women, Audrey Pettifor, Brooke Levandowski, Catherine L. Mac Phail, Nancy S. Padian, Myron Cohen, Helen Rees Jan 2008

Keep Them In School: The Importance Of Education As A Protective Factor Against Hiv Infection Among Young South African Women, Audrey Pettifor, Brooke Levandowski, Catherine L. Mac Phail, Nancy S. Padian, Myron Cohen, Helen Rees

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Objective To identify risk factors for HIV infection among young women aged 15-24 years reporting one lifetime partner in South Africa. Design In 2003, we conducted a nationally representative household survey of sexual behaviour and HIV testing among 11 904 young people aged 15-24 years in South Africa. This analysis focuses on the subset of sexually experienced young women with only one reported lifetime sex partner (n = 1708). Methods Using the proximate determinants framework and the published literature we identified factors associated with HIV in young women. The associations between these factors and HIV infection were explored in multivariable logistic ...


The Information Needs Of Women Diagnosed With Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome - Implications For Treatment And Health Outcomes, Jodie C. Avery, Annette J. Braunack-Mayer Jan 2007

The Information Needs Of Women Diagnosed With Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome - Implications For Treatment And Health Outcomes, Jodie C. Avery, Annette J. Braunack-Mayer

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Background This paper reports the findings of an exploratory study about the information women diagnosed with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) want to know about their condition and the consequences of this information for future treatment and health outcomes. Methods In-depth qualitative interviews regarding their information needs were undertaken with ten South Australian women diagnosed with PCOS. These women were aged 28-38 years and at differing stages of their fertility experience. The time since diagnosis ranged from 1-17 years. The main outcome measures sought were the identification of the information needs of women diagnosed with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) during different ...


Talking About Food And Nutrition: Australian Women's Magazines, Danielle Mcvie, Heather Yeatman, Sandra C. Jones Jan 2007

Talking About Food And Nutrition: Australian Women's Magazines, Danielle Mcvie, Heather Yeatman, Sandra C. Jones

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Abstract presented at the Cultivating Appetites for Knowledge International Food Conference, May 30 - Jun 3 2007, Victoria, Canada


'I Don't Really Know, So It's A Guess': Women's Reasons For Breast Cancer Risk Estimation., Nancy Humpel, Sandra C. Jones Jan 2004

'I Don't Really Know, So It's A Guess': Women's Reasons For Breast Cancer Risk Estimation., Nancy Humpel, Sandra C. Jones

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Women of all ages have been found to overestimate both the incidence and the mortality rate from breast cancer and the reasons for this are unclear. A qualitative study asked eighty three women (mean age = 44 years) how likely they thought they were to get breast cancer and to explain the reasoning behind their choice. Based on their responses, women's perceptions were categorised as: no risk (5%); reasonably accurate (30%); overestimated (22%); and greatly overestimated (43%). Four main themes emerged from the reasons given: 'Don't know/guess', 'family history' of breast cancer, 'age' related reasoning, and making their ...


Effects Of Supplementation With Purified Red Clover (Trifolium Pratense) Isoflavones On Plasma Lipids And Insulin Resistance In Healthy Premenopausal Women, Sarah Blakesmith, Philippa Lyons-Wall, Caroline George, George Joannou, Peter Petocz, Samir Samman Jan 2003

Effects Of Supplementation With Purified Red Clover (Trifolium Pratense) Isoflavones On Plasma Lipids And Insulin Resistance In Healthy Premenopausal Women, Sarah Blakesmith, Philippa Lyons-Wall, Caroline George, George Joannou, Peter Petocz, Samir Samman

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Consumption of isoflavone-rich soyabean protein is reported to reduce total and LDL-cholesterol, but the specific components responsible are undetermined. In a previous crossover trial we showed that purified isoflavones, derived from red clover (Trifolium pratense), raised HDL3-cholesterol in premenopausal women; however, these findings were inconclusive due to period and carryover effects. In an attempt to overcome this problem, we utilised a parallel study designed to re-examine the effects of purified isoflavones on plasma lipoproteins and markers of insulin resistance in premenopausal women. Twenty-five healthy premenopausal women participated in a double-blind, randomised, parallel study. The treatment group (n 12 ...


Relative Risk Of Hiv Infection Among Young Men And Women In A South African Township, Catherine L. Mac Phail, Brian G. Williams, Catherine Campbell Jan 2002

Relative Risk Of Hiv Infection Among Young Men And Women In A South African Township, Catherine L. Mac Phail, Brian G. Williams, Catherine Campbell

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

The prevalence of HIV infection in Africa is substantially higher among young women than it is among young men. Biological explanations of this difference have been presented but there has been little exploration of social factors. In this paper we use data from Carletonville, South Africa to explore various social explanations for greater female infection rates. This paper reports on data from a random sample of 507 people between 13 and 24 years old. Subjects were tested for HIV, as well as other sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and answered a behavioural questionnaire. The age-prevalence of HIV infection differs between men ...


Key Issues In The Provision Of Correctional Services For Women, Mitchell K. Byrne, Kevin Howells Jan 2000

Key Issues In The Provision Of Correctional Services For Women, Mitchell K. Byrne, Kevin Howells

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

The time has arrived for a more detailed analysis of the specific needs of female offenders. Even though there is an increasing prevalence, internationally, of women in prison, there is a perception in the literature that governments and correctional systems have failed to deliver reforms and changes in the management of women prisoners. The extent of need identified in the international literature is of relevance to Australia, where the number of female prisoners also appears to be on the increase - in 1983 women comprised 3.9% of the entire prison population, in 1990, 5.4% and in 1998: 6%. Easteal ...