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Technology

2018

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Full-Text Articles in Education

The Effect Of Ipad Instruction On Capital Letter Recognition Of Preschoolers, Jessica Adkins Dec 2018

The Effect Of Ipad Instruction On Capital Letter Recognition Of Preschoolers, Jessica Adkins

Dissertations, Theses, and Projects

The purpose of this study is to look at the effect of iPad instruction on capital letter recognition in preschool children between the ages of four and five. The study divided participants into two groups. One group received capital letter instruction with an iPad. The second group received capital letter instruction using letter manipulatives. Letter manipulatives were wooden puzzle letters. Baseline data was taken on capital letter recognition of all participants before this study began. At the end of the study, data was taken on capital letter recognition of all participants. Baseline and final data was compared to show growth ...


The Role Of Virtual Communication Platforms In Academically Supporting Post-Secondary Students, Eldora M. Fosmire Dec 2018

The Role Of Virtual Communication Platforms In Academically Supporting Post-Secondary Students, Eldora M. Fosmire

Ed.D. Dissertations

While many consider college students to be digital natives, who are at ease with multiple forms of technology, many of these students do not adapt these skills for academic purposes. Retention concerns for college students often prompt support staff to seek out and adopt technology approaches to promote completion. This study provided a virtual learning platform to deliver academic support and sought to promote learning community interaction for rural and urban post-secondary students. A subset of vocational major programs that prepare students for employment after completion served as a participant pool. However, participants in the study chose not to use ...


Teaching Science Through Multimedia: Transitioning From A Technology-Centered Approach To A Learner-Centered Approach, Daniel Roberti Dec 2018

Teaching Science Through Multimedia: Transitioning From A Technology-Centered Approach To A Learner-Centered Approach, Daniel Roberti

Education and Human Development Master's Theses

An increase in the amount of educational multimedia content found on the internet has made it easier for teachers to flip their classrooms and have students learn through video as opposed to traditional lecture. However, two primary concerns exist with this method: (1) learning through video can be too passive as students are just expected to absorb the material and (2) there is usually no way to ensure students are viewing the multimedia assigned for them to watch. This project addresses each of these concerns and proposes solutions. Criteria are also identified within the literature to establish what characterizes a ...


The Effect Of Seesaw Technology On Parent Engagement At Private Montessori Schools, Stephanie Kurnava, Jamie Sellhorn Dec 2018

The Effect Of Seesaw Technology On Parent Engagement At Private Montessori Schools, Stephanie Kurnava, Jamie Sellhorn

Masters of Arts in Education Action Research Papers

The researchers looked at how using Seesaw technology, in a six-week parent education intervention, would affect parent engagement with their children in learning at home as well as parent understanding of Montessori principles. The research participants were 31 parents and 2 teachers at two private, urban Montessori schools. Data was collected through pre and postintervention questionnaires, teacher logs of parent questions, and Seesaw usage data. Through the intervention, we saw parent knowledge of Montessori principles, parent engagement, parent efficacy, and parent confidence in Montessori education beyond preschool increase. Parents also enjoyed interacting with each other as a community of parents ...


A Study Of Minnesota Elementary Principals’ Perceptions On 1:1 Technology Implementation, Susan J. Powell Dec 2018

A Study Of Minnesota Elementary Principals’ Perceptions On 1:1 Technology Implementation, Susan J. Powell

Culminating Projects in Education Administration and Leadership

Abstract

According to the Center for Universal Education at the Brookings Institute the rapid advancement in technology today requires students to attain a broader set of competencies to be successful than in the past (Winthrop, McGivney, Williams, & Shankar, 2016). To achieve these higher standards, education must take “new approaches that can reach children who have not yet been reached” to attain higher student learning outcomes (Winthrop et al., 2016).

School leadership matters when a school or school district is considering a technology initiative (Anderson & Dexter, 2005) and principals must be increasingly involved in the project to model and support implementation (Anthony & Patravanich, 2014; Stuart, Mills, & Remus, 2009).

“A growing body of evidence has suggested that we are in the midst of a global learning crisis. Pedagogical practices and curricula used in schools are ill equipped to allow children to learn the skills they will need for the future. If education systems in their current form fail to improve learning outcomes, it is because the design of ...


The Development And Integration Of Nearpod Materials Into A High School Biology Curriculum, Matthew Halloran Oct 2018

The Development And Integration Of Nearpod Materials Into A High School Biology Curriculum, Matthew Halloran

Education and Human Development Master's Theses

Due to the previously outlined benefits of formative assessment, and the increasing ability of technology of aid in its implementation there are very few barriers to experimenting with new technology in the classroom. While the technology available to classroom teachers does not need to be incredibly high tech, it should be compatible with what students and teachers already have at their fingertips. Applications like Socrative are beneficial because they allow for a classroom teacher to use technology already in the classroom (mobile phones and laptops) and utilize them in the collection of formative assessment data (Coca & Slisko, 2013). Students are ...


"The Norms And Procedures Needed For Successful One-To-One Device Implementation In An Upper Elementary", Katie Coulson Oct 2018

"The Norms And Procedures Needed For Successful One-To-One Device Implementation In An Upper Elementary", Katie Coulson

School of Education Student Capstone Projects

This capstone project focuses on answering the question, what are the impacts on digital citizenship when creating the norms and procedures for integrating one-to-one iPads into an upper elementary classroom? It documents one educator’s experience and research that led them to gathering and adapting six mini lessons that teach digital footprints, healthy media choices, digital citizenship, credible sources, private vs personal information, and setting up expectations for home and school. This project resulted in four major findings. First, collaborating within your school and district is essential for providing the support needed for 1:1 implementation. Second, having a strong ...


Preparing Teachers For Their Zoo Trip With An Interactive Website., Jamie L. Hardcastle Oct 2018

Preparing Teachers For Their Zoo Trip With An Interactive Website., Jamie L. Hardcastle

School of Education Student Capstone Projects

Zoos and aquariums have an attendance of 50 million children visitors every year with 12 million of those being student learners on field trips (Association of Zoos and Aquariums, 2018, Annual Survey Results, Informal Science Education). According to Willis, Weiser, and Kirkwood, (2014) field trips are not just a ‘day off’ from school, they serve to provide enriching experiences that help students to explore the world outside of their direct environment. To ensure that learning is happening before, during, and after the field trip takes preparation on part of the teacher. Anderson, et al. (2006) state that students should be ...


Electronic Portfolios: Best Practices To Help Increase Student Ownership And Engagement In The Third-Grade Classroom, Bridget Farrell Oct 2018

Electronic Portfolios: Best Practices To Help Increase Student Ownership And Engagement In The Third-Grade Classroom, Bridget Farrell

School of Education Student Capstone Projects

This project was created to explore the question: what are the best practices related to implementing electronic portfolios that will help increase my third-grade students’ sense of ownership and engagement? The project presents a synthesis of the research related to electronic portfolios; including a definition of electronic portfolio, the various types of electronic portfolios, best implementation practices, and how best practices can help increase students’ sense of ownership and engagement. The project includes the creation of a professional development session aimed at building and improving other educators’ knowledge and practice with electronic portfolio implementation, to positively impact students' learning.


The Inclusion Of Media Literacy In The English Curriculum, Nicole Manioci Aug 2018

The Inclusion Of Media Literacy In The English Curriculum, Nicole Manioci

Education and Human Development Master's Theses

Today, the digital world is ever changing. Teenagers all over the world are hypnotized by their tech-savvy devices. Their free time is spent on their smartwatches, cell phones, computers, or in front of their televisions and video games. When they arrive at school, they are expected to have the devices stored away and not have contact at all during the time they are at school. These students have lost their desire and passion for learning. The students need to have new and engaging ways to learn in the classroom, especially in English. Students have become disinterested in the teacher’s ...


Effective Use Of Interactive Technology In Elementary Classrooms, Miriam White Aug 2018

Effective Use Of Interactive Technology In Elementary Classrooms, Miriam White

Culminating Projects in Education Administration and Leadership

Statement of the Problem

While there was ample literature highlighting the limited use of interactive technology by teachers, minimal research was located which identified the critical resources and supports that need to be in place in school districts and classrooms to assist teachers in engaging students through interactive technology in the elementary classroom. The findings from this study are intended to provide school and district administrators with information regarding essential resources and supports to assist elementary classroom teachers in their use of interactive technology.

Study Purpose and Overview

The purpose of the mixed-method study was to determine how school and ...


Teaching A Second Language: Communication, Culture, And Collaboration, Diannylín Núñez De Paulino Aug 2018

Teaching A Second Language: Communication, Culture, And Collaboration, Diannylín Núñez De Paulino

All Graduate Plan B and other Reports

This portfolio presents the author’s perspectives on the effective use of language teaching techniques, practices, and tools. The first section demonstrates the author’s teaching philosophy, which includes her perceptions as a foreign language instructor and learner, teaching observations of various foreign language instructors, and self-reflections about teaching. The following section contains three research papers, which explore foreign language anxiety, effectiveness of co-teaching a foreign language class, and refusals across different cultures. The last section consists of three annotated bibliographies in which the author analyzes journal articles and book chapters about communicative language teaching, the role of culture in ...


Ethical Considerations For The Information Age: A Qualitative Study Of Doctoral Psychology Trainees' Preparation And Decision Making For Technology Use, Samuel David Lustgarten Aug 2018

Ethical Considerations For The Information Age: A Qualitative Study Of Doctoral Psychology Trainees' Preparation And Decision Making For Technology Use, Samuel David Lustgarten

Theses and Dissertations

Psychologists now use and interact with a mélange of technology for client care, including (but not limited to) email (Delsignore et al., 2016; Eysenbach, 2000), text messaging (Bradley & Hendricks, 2009; Elhai & Frueh, 2016), electronic medical records (Harrison & Palacio, 2006; Steinfeld & Keyes, 2011), telemental health/televideo (Richardson, Frueh, Grubaugh, Egede, & Elhai, 2012), and digital assessments (Jellins, 2015; Pearson Education Inc., 2015b). Amidst this technological revolution, threats to ethical obligations and regulations exist that might hinder effective client care (Elhai & Hall, 2016b; Lustgarten, 2015; Lustgarten & Colbow, 2017). Literature suggests that individuals, organizations, companies, and government actors have targeted individuals and nations for their data (Elhai & Hall, 2016b; Greenwald, 2014; Lustgarten, 2015). Despite concerns for protecting client information, little is known about the education and training opportunities present in APA-accredited clinical and/or counseling psychology doctoral programs around technology competence. Researchers have recommended trainees receive technology training for use within psychotherapy (Colbow, 2013 ...


Promoting Vocabulary Knoweldge In Inclusive Science Classrooms: Comparison Of Instructional Methods, Matthew Love Aug 2018

Promoting Vocabulary Knoweldge In Inclusive Science Classrooms: Comparison Of Instructional Methods, Matthew Love

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

A sustained trend in the overall enrollment in the United States has seen classrooms reflect more student diversity. This diversity has included increased rates of participation in general education classrooms from both students from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds and students with disabilities. While the increase in student diversity in general education classrooms is certainly a positive step in increasing inclusive education, shifting student demographics have presented teachers with new and evolving instructional challenges. The diverse academic, cultural, and linguistic backgrounds students represent also come to characterize the unique learning needs teachers should address. This is particularly true in science ...


Electronic Health Record Instruction In First-Semester Nursing Students: A Comparative Study, Angela Ruckdeschel Aug 2018

Electronic Health Record Instruction In First-Semester Nursing Students: A Comparative Study, Angela Ruckdeschel

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

The use of health information technology has been shown to have positive effects on patient outcomes and provider efficiency. New nurses make more than half of the 7 million life-threatening medication errors that occur each year, and electronic health records (EHRs) have been shown to significantly reduce these errors. Nurses now are expected to enter practice with a solid foundation in health information technology and the use of the EHR. Unfortunately, the vast majority of nursing schools do not specifically train their students in effective EHR utilization. Academic EHRs (AEHRs) are software packages with learning features that can be incorporated ...


Comparison Of Stimulus Delivery Methods Via An Ipad To Teach The Expressive Labeling Of Action Verbs To Children With Autism, Amy M. Heaps Aug 2018

Comparison Of Stimulus Delivery Methods Via An Ipad To Teach The Expressive Labeling Of Action Verbs To Children With Autism, Amy M. Heaps

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Delays in communication are one of the defining characteristics of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Educators have begun using technology to teach students with ASD to label different items. However, more research needs to be conducted with technology (such as iPads and other tablets) to find the most effective teaching procedures. We wanted to find the most effective way to teach children with ASD age-appropriate action verbs, such as drawing and painting. Five preschool-aged students with ASD participated in this study. We taught these participants to label action verbs using pictures and short video clips, to test which method was the ...


Creating Smart Board Activities To Engage Students’ Learning In Chinese Immersion Kindergarten., Wenting Qiang Jul 2018

Creating Smart Board Activities To Engage Students’ Learning In Chinese Immersion Kindergarten., Wenting Qiang

School of Education Student Capstone Projects

The research question addressed in this capstone is How to create SMART Board activities to engage students’ learning in Chinese immersion kindergarten. Through literature review and my personal experience as a Chinese immersion kindergarten, I find that SMART Board offers very interactive activities that can be very beneficial to young children in learning. That to be said, SMART Board has transformed a typical classroom into a stimulating and encouraging learning environment. The project for this research is a website of SMART Board activities that can be used and shared among Chinese immersion teachers, as well as students and parents who ...


How Technology Can Be Integrated Into The Seventh Grade Mathematics Classroom To Ensure A Positive Impact On Student Learning And Engagement, Melanie Strachota Jul 2018

How Technology Can Be Integrated Into The Seventh Grade Mathematics Classroom To Ensure A Positive Impact On Student Learning And Engagement, Melanie Strachota

School of Education Student Capstone Projects

In recent years, there has been a movement for more technology in classrooms across the country. With this new movement, many teachers and students have been hesitant on where to begin and how to use technology in the classroom. This movement in education led for the author to explore the following research question: How can meaningful technology resources be integrated into the seventh grade mathematics classroom to ensure a positive impact on student learning and engagement? This Capstone records one teacher’s creation of a website designed to offer students and teachers an array of resources in one location for ...


Shifting Directions: Conceiving, Implementing, And Navigating The Inherent Complexities Of Student Recruitment Customer/Constituent Relationship Management (Crm) Systems Within Higher Education, Colin Couchman Jun 2018

Shifting Directions: Conceiving, Implementing, And Navigating The Inherent Complexities Of Student Recruitment Customer/Constituent Relationship Management (Crm) Systems Within Higher Education, Colin Couchman

The Organizational Improvement Plan at Western University

A Constituent (often and typically referenced as Customer) Relationship Management (CRM) system is utilized within organizations whose focus is on customer development and service. A CRM is both an organizational approach involving significant human and system processes, as well as a technological intervention. Typically, CRMs have been implemented within commercial enterprises, specifically those operations with direct contact with customers or consumers, possibly as end–users of products, or even middle–sales operators such as wholesalers and governmental agencies. Over the past number of decades, higher education institutions in Canada have developed strategic and tactical plans to more fully respond to ...


The Effects Of An Elementary Stem Intervention On Fourth-Grade Outcomes In Language Arts And Math, Rhonda Stitham Jun 2018

The Effects Of An Elementary Stem Intervention On Fourth-Grade Outcomes In Language Arts And Math, Rhonda Stitham

Ed.D. Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to examine if a relationship existed between two schools with regard to science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) and the growth scores from the Northwest Evaluation Assessment (NWEA). The research questions that guided this study were: (a) To what extent, if any, will students that have STEM intervention one day per week demonstrate increased NWEA English language scores on state tests? and (b) To what extent, if any, will students that have STEM intervention one day per week demonstrate increased NWEA mathematics scores on state tests? Kinesthetic learning was used to develop an understanding ...


Middle School Teachers’ Perceptions Of Self-Efficacy, Preparedness, And Pedagogical Transformation To Implement One-To-One Instructional Technology: Implications For Educational Leaders, Adrianne Redmond May 2018

Middle School Teachers’ Perceptions Of Self-Efficacy, Preparedness, And Pedagogical Transformation To Implement One-To-One Instructional Technology: Implications For Educational Leaders, Adrianne Redmond

Electronic Theses & Dissertations Collection for Atlanta University & Clark Atlanta University

The purpose of this mixed methods study was to explore middle school teachers’ pedagogy and their transformations as they implement one-to-one laptop instructional technology in their classroom environments. Statistical correlation and narratives provided a greater understanding of the research problem. A mixed methods approach was the most appropriate research design for this study due to the nature of information being collected. Data collection draws from several sources, such as questionnaires, interviews, or analysis of documents. In this study, the researcher used the questionnaire responses from 48 teachers and transcripts of semi structured focus group interviews of four teachers to create ...


Effects Of A Multimedia Shared Story On Comprehension Of An Employee Handbook, Stephanie M. Devine May 2018

Effects Of A Multimedia Shared Story On Comprehension Of An Employee Handbook, Stephanie M. Devine

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Employment outcomes for individuals with intellectual disability (ID) continue to be among the lowest reported (Migliore, Butterworth, & Hart, 2009; Siperstein, Parker, & Drascher, 2013). Literacy skills are critical for obtaining employment and for supporting continued success in the workplace (Conceição, 2016), but individuals with ID typically have very low literacy levels (Katims, 2000). Limited research has been conducted on literacy skill development for young adults with ID, particularly on work-related texts such as employee handbooks. Research supports the use of shared stories on adapted age-appropriate texts for students with significant cognitive disabilities, including those with ID (Hudson & Test, 2011; Shurr & Taber-Doughty, 2012; Spooner, Kemp-Inman, Ahlgrim-Delzell, Wood, & Davis, 2015), but these studies primarily focused on elementary or middle school students. Very little research on shared stories has been conducted with older students with ID (ages 18 and up). These students may have access to functional academic instruction, such as accessing real-world texts, within high school, vocational programs, and postsecondary education programs found in colleges and universities. Participation in university-based postsecondary education programs for young adults with ID have demonstrated improved competitive employment outcomes for this population, with 82% of the students working jobs that paid at or above minimum wage (Grigal & Hart, 2013). Functional academic instruction, such as literacy skill development, within these programs has successfully included the incorporation of technology to access or supplement the intervention (Evmenova, Behrmann, Mastropieri, Baker, & Graff, 2011; McMahon, Cihak, Wright, & Bell, 2016). The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a multimedia shared story using speech-to-text technology on the text comprehension skills of college students with ID. This intervention included the use of systematic instruction to provide error correction instruction for correctly answering comprehension questions about the text of an adapted employee handbook. This study used a multiple probe across participants design to measure the effectiveness of the intervention across ...


What Happens When The Seesaw App Is Used In A Kindergarten Classroom?, Alison Ryan May 2018

What Happens When The Seesaw App Is Used In A Kindergarten Classroom?, Alison Ryan

Masters of Education in Teaching and Learning

Parent-teacher relationships can make or break a student’s academic career. It is possible that taking advantage of parents’ media-connectedness to form positive relationships may be more effective than more traditional methods like hand-written notes, phone calls, or emails. In this study the researcher sought to understand what happens in a kindergarten classroom when one technology in particular was used facilitate communication: Seesaw (a digital portfolio app used to post pictures and videos of children as well as communicate with parents using its private messaging feature). Data was collected through parent surveys, observations, and interviews of parents, students, and teachers ...


Augmented Reality Technology Used To Enhance Informal Science Learning, Erin Reidy May 2018

Augmented Reality Technology Used To Enhance Informal Science Learning, Erin Reidy

Education and Human Development Master's Theses

With science advancements ever-changing and an increased use of multimedia to display information to the public, science literacy and critical thinking skills are important for the public to keep up to date. Students will need to know how to interpret science information they are faced with throughout their lives to make decisions and critique scientific arguments (Squire & Mingfong, 2007). Science education reform is becoming more focused on incorporating science practices with the use of tools and processes to enhance learning. An authentic learning experience can be described as experiencing real problems and consequences in context (Rosenbaum et al., 2007). Augmented ...


Language Educators’ Perceptions Of Their Use Of Social Media For Pedagogical Purposes, Alessandro Cesarano May 2018

Language Educators’ Perceptions Of Their Use Of Social Media For Pedagogical Purposes, Alessandro Cesarano

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Technology has changed the way we communicate, teach, and learn. Today’s generation of college students has never known what it is like to be without a cell phone or a computer. Social media is an integral part of their lives. As technology evolves, so do students’ expectations for a learning experience. This experience goes beyond the traditional classroom boundaries’ constrains. Understanding how to take advantage of the pedagogical potential of new technologies is therefore essential for language educators. Broadly speaking, there is much discussion about the integration of social media in language education. However, little is known about how ...


Using Ipads To Increase Students’ Letters And Letter Sounds Knowledge, Jessica Isgett, Leslie Mann May 2018

Using Ipads To Increase Students’ Letters And Letter Sounds Knowledge, Jessica Isgett, Leslie Mann

Masters of Arts in Education Action Research Papers

This action research was carried out to determine if the use of an application named Phonics Island would help student knowledge of letters/letter sounds increase. The research was completed in a full day Primary Montessori classroom of 4k and 5k students. Data was gathered using teacher observation and teacher made checklists. Data on students’ feelings toward learning letters/letter sounds was also assessed to see if students’ thoughts about letters changed after incorporating technology. Students were given an iPad for approximately fifteen minutes per day. The letters were grouped in categories, and the researchers chose which group the student ...


The Arts And Technology: How Educational Technology Can Bring Humanities Further Into Elementary And Primary School Systems., Coleman D. Alameda May 2018

The Arts And Technology: How Educational Technology Can Bring Humanities Further Into Elementary And Primary School Systems., Coleman D. Alameda

Senior Theses and Capstone Projects

As the world becomes more inclined to implement technology in nearly every aspect of society, the United States Department of Education must find a way to incorporate new styles of modern and high-tech teaching without pushing out certain subjects from its curriculum. I believe technology can be used to bring the Humanities further into the classroom. In today’s society American education programs are desperately trying to make up for subpar primary school scores in mathematics and science. According to the government accredited international education forum (the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development) the United States was found to be ...


A Case Study Examining How Stakeholders Experience And Perceive Changes In Organizational Structure And Culture Throughout The Paradigm Switch From Traditional To Hybrid Secondary Education, Gabrielle R. Hoffman May 2018

A Case Study Examining How Stakeholders Experience And Perceive Changes In Organizational Structure And Culture Throughout The Paradigm Switch From Traditional To Hybrid Secondary Education, Gabrielle R. Hoffman

Theses and Dissertations (All)

While secondary education districts are beginning to implement hybrid and blended learning programs, little research exists that provides insights and guidance into the challenges and organizational change associated with that implementation. One of the first secondary schools to implement blended learning, Cumberland Valley School District provided the site for this mixed methods case study. The research examined the process of implementing hybrid education in a secondary educational environment, and how students, parents, teachers, and administrators experienced and perceived changes in organizational culture and structure. In addition, this study examined challenges and barriers faced by stakeholders, and how the organizational system ...


The Impact Of A Sixth Grade Laptop Initiative On Student Attitudes Concerning Their Learning And Technological Competencies, Jamie Jordan May 2018

The Impact Of A Sixth Grade Laptop Initiative On Student Attitudes Concerning Their Learning And Technological Competencies, Jamie Jordan

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This research explored the impact of a sixth grade one-to-one laptop initiative on student attitudes about learning and technological competencies. The study compared student preintervention and postintervention survey data prior to and after a sixth grade laptop intervention initiative. The survey responses were divided into 5 dimensions (School Subject Attitudes, Teaching and Learning Preferences, Computer Use Perceptions, Technology Skills, and Personal Attitudes and Behaviors) on both pre- and postsurveys. District means were compared with preintervention and postintervention data, as well as the means from the 5 dimensions, using a one-sample t-test with a midpoint test value of 3 on a ...


The Perceived Mentoring Experiences Of Male And Female Doctoral Students In Sociology, Macsu A. Hill May 2018

The Perceived Mentoring Experiences Of Male And Female Doctoral Students In Sociology, Macsu A. Hill

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

Over the years, women have made significant strides in the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields. Nevertheless, women continue to be underrepresented at the graduate and academic career entry levels, and minority women continue to lag behind Whites in navigating the pipeline to an academic career in the STEM disciplines. In sociology for instance, women overall are well represented at the BA level, but experience a steep decline when moving to doctoral education and then into subsequent academic careers. Numerous explanations have been advanced by educators and researchers to explain the dearth of underrepresented minority (URM) female doctoral students ...