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Full-Text Articles in Education

In-Service Teacher Training: Around The World In Many Ways, Carrie Mcdermott, Andrea Honigsfeld Ed.D. Nov 2019

In-Service Teacher Training: Around The World In Many Ways, Carrie Mcdermott, Andrea Honigsfeld Ed.D.

Andrea Honigsfeld

Regardless of the subject matter or certification area, all teachers participate in professional development programs, some of which are mandated and others self-selected. Both as participants and presenters at numerous staff development sessions, invariably we have found that teachers' active participation is key to successful in-service teacher training.


In-Service Teacher Training: Around The World In Many Ways, Carrie Mcdermott, Andrea Honigsfeld Ed.D. Nov 2019

In-Service Teacher Training: Around The World In Many Ways, Carrie Mcdermott, Andrea Honigsfeld Ed.D.

Carrie McDermott

Regardless of the subject matter or certification area, all teachers participate in professional development programs, some of which are mandated and others self-selected. Both as participants and presenters at numerous staff development sessions, invariably we have found that teachers' active participation is key to successful in-service teacher training.


Correlates Among Teachers’ Anxieties, Demographics, And Telecomputing Activity, Judith B. Harris, Neal Grandgenett Sep 2018

Correlates Among Teachers’ Anxieties, Demographics, And Telecomputing Activity, Judith B. Harris, Neal Grandgenett

Judith Harris

Are educators' anxiety levels or demographics related to their voluntary use of networked resources? In this study, one year of logins and online time for 189 randomly selected educators with accounts on Tenet (Texas Education Network) were correlated with six interval-level subject attribute variables: (a) writing apprehension, (b) oral communication apprehension, (c) computer anxiety, (d) age, (e) teaching experience, and (f) telecomputing experience. The usage data were also correlated with three nominal-level subject attribute variables: (a) gender, (b) professional specialty, and (c) teaching level. Results indicated that writing apprehension was significantly and negatively correlated with network use, and that telecomputing ...


The Chicago Teachers Strike And Its Public, Amy B. Shuffelton Jan 2018

The Chicago Teachers Strike And Its Public, Amy B. Shuffelton

Amy Shuffelton

No abstract provided.


Sexual Abuse Of Students By School Personnel, Audrey Cohan Ed.D, Charol Shakeshaft Jan 2018

Sexual Abuse Of Students By School Personnel, Audrey Cohan Ed.D, Charol Shakeshaft

Audrey Cohan

Every day parents send their children off to school confident that teachers and administrators will not only teach them but also ensure the safety of their environment. Most of us believe that, whatever the failings of our schools, the people employed in them will not hurt our children. Should we be so trusting? While most professionals in schools can be trusted not to harm children, this is not true of all of them. Newspaper accounts reveal in lurid detail what can happen to children when a sexual offender works in a school.

But few studies of sexual abuse in schools ...


It Doesn’T Feel Like A Job To Learn: Hispanic Preservice Teachers’ Perceptions Of Dance-Themed Mathematics Education, William H. Robertson Nov 2017

It Doesn’T Feel Like A Job To Learn: Hispanic Preservice Teachers’ Perceptions Of Dance-Themed Mathematics Education, William H. Robertson

William H. Robertson

A series of dance activities were introduced to preservice teachers (n  = 76) to help them understand how mathematics concepts could be associated with dance performance and choreography processes. A total of 468 pieces of qualitative data were collected, including 147 online discussion entries with 248 follow-up 10 comments, and 73 individual reflection essays. The main themes for the various benefits that emerged across the preservice teachers’  reflections were: (1) improving students’  dispositions toward mathematics and creating an enjoyable learning environment for reducing mathematics anxiety; (2) allowing students to develop their creativity and allowing teachers to meet different students’  needs; and ...


On The Fault Line: A Qualitative Exploration Of High School Teachers’ Involvement With Student Mental Health Issues, Kate L. Phillippo, Michael S. Kelly Oct 2017

On The Fault Line: A Qualitative Exploration Of High School Teachers’ Involvement With Student Mental Health Issues, Kate L. Phillippo, Michael S. Kelly

Michael Kelly

School-based mental health (SBMH) research often underplays the crucial role that teachers play in supporting student mental health, even as teachers often find themselves encountering student mental health issues. Further, teachers’ and school-based mental health practitioners’ (SBMHPs) work with shared students has historically tended toward distance rather than collaboration. This article explores the virtual fault line where SBMHPs’ and teachers’ work intersect, concerning student mental health issues. Drawing on qualitative data gathered at three high schools that, to varying degrees, required teachers’ involvement with student mental health issues, this study analyzes the nature of teachers’ work in this area. In ...


Preparing Early Childhood Professionals For The Culturally And Linguistically Diverse Classrooms And Communities Of Illinois, Amy J. Heineke, Adam S. Kennedy, Anna Lees Sep 2017

Preparing Early Childhood Professionals For The Culturally And Linguistically Diverse Classrooms And Communities Of Illinois, Amy J. Heineke, Adam S. Kennedy, Anna Lees

Adam Kennedy

Recent Illinois state policies call for mandatory preparation of early childhood educators to address the needs of the large and growing population of young English language learners. University-based early childhood teacher preparation programs across Illinois have responded by integrating content related to cultural and linguistic diversity into existing programs. The authors discuss research and professional literature in support of teacher preparation programs that emphasize field-based experience, particularly clinical experience in culturally and linguistically diverse schools and community organizations. They describe the comprehensive field-based teacher education program at Loyola University of Chicago that was redesigned to address current Illinois policies related ...


Hybrid Plcs: Building Collaboration Among Teachers In Different Schools, Laura Robertson, Pamela Cromie, Lindsay Lester, Jennifer Hill, Diana O'Neal Aug 2017

Hybrid Plcs: Building Collaboration Among Teachers In Different Schools, Laura Robertson, Pamela Cromie, Lindsay Lester, Jennifer Hill, Diana O'Neal

Laura Robertson

How do highly motivated teachers from different schools collaborate? We formed a hybrid PLC that included face-to-face meetings and online interactions to improve student learning.


Teaching, Learning, And Leading: Preparing Teachers As Educational Policy Actors, Amy J. Heineke, Ann Marie Ryan, Charles Tocci Jul 2017

Teaching, Learning, And Leading: Preparing Teachers As Educational Policy Actors, Amy J. Heineke, Ann Marie Ryan, Charles Tocci

Ann Marie Ryan, PhD

Within the current federal, state, and local contexts of educational reform, teachers must be recognized as central actors in policy work, but rarely do we explicitly consider preparing teachers to become policy actors. Understanding these implications for teacher education, we investigate teacher candidates’ learning of the complexity and dynamism of educational policy through a field-based teacher preparation program. Situated across four unique school contexts in the diverse neighborhoods of Chicago, Illinois, we qualitatively study the cases of eight teacher candidates as they explore policy in practice. We found that candidates developed enduring understandings about policy as complex, situated, and multilayered ...


Preparing Globally Minded Teachers Through The Incorporation Of The International Baccalaureate, Ann Marie Ryan, Amy J. Heineke, Caleb Steindam Jul 2017

Preparing Globally Minded Teachers Through The Incorporation Of The International Baccalaureate, Ann Marie Ryan, Amy J. Heineke, Caleb Steindam

Ann Marie Ryan, PhD

In this articles, we describe the initiative of one university's teacher education program to incorporate the International Baccalaureate Teacher Certificate. Responding to the growing number of public and private International Baccalaureate World Schools in urban and suburban settings in our region, the program aims to prepare teachers to meet the needs of diverse learners within a rigorous and global approach to curriculum and instruction. Writing for teacher educators considering the integration of the internationally minded teaching and learning framework, we explain the redesign of our teacher preparation program that was intended to target and integrate the principles and practices ...


Data-Based Decisions Guidelines For Teachers Of Students With Severe Intellectual And Developmental Disabilities, Bree A. Jimenez, Pamela J. Mims, Diane M. Browder May 2017

Data-Based Decisions Guidelines For Teachers Of Students With Severe Intellectual And Developmental Disabilities, Bree A. Jimenez, Pamela J. Mims, Diane M. Browder

Pamela J. Mims

Effective practices in student data collection and implementation of data-based instructional decisions are needed for all educators, but are especially important when students have severe intellectual and develop- mental disabilities. Although research in the area of data-based instructional decisions for students with severe disabilities shows benefits for using data, there is limited research to demonstrate teachers in applied settings can acquire the decision-making skills required. The purpose of this research was to demonstrate how teachers from five states acquired a set of data-based decisions implementation guidelines through online professional development. Recommendations for practice and future research are included.


Plunging Beneath The Surface: Uncovering Internal Dispositions, Lori Piowlski, Karen Colum Feb 2017

Plunging Beneath The Surface: Uncovering Internal Dispositions, Lori Piowlski, Karen Colum

Lori Piowlski, Ph. D.

Teacher preparation programs face the challenge of measuring candidates’ competencies that can be considered internal dispositions; which impact the quality of their instruction. This study delves into candidate edTPA scores in correlation with their IDI mindsets to support program development.


Teachers Or Psychologists : Who Should Facilitate Depression Prevention Programs In Schools?, Melanie S. Wahl, Jill L. Adelson, Margarete A. Patak, Patrick Possel, Martin Hautzinger Feb 2017

Teachers Or Psychologists : Who Should Facilitate Depression Prevention Programs In Schools?, Melanie S. Wahl, Jill L. Adelson, Margarete A. Patak, Patrick Possel, Martin Hautzinger

Patrick Pössel

The current study evaluates a depression prevention program for adolescents led by psychologists vs. teachers in comparison to a control. The universal school-based prevention program has shown its efficacy in several studies when implemented by psychologists. The current study compares the effects of the program as implemented by teachers versus that implemented by psychologists under real-life conditions. A total of 646 vocational track 8th grade students from Germany participated either in a universal prevention program, led by teachers (n = 207) or psychologists (n = 213), or a teaching-as-usual control condition (n = 226). The design includes baseline, post-intervention, and follow-up (at 6 ...


Victoria, The Education State?, Lawrence C. Ingvarson Aug 2016

Victoria, The Education State?, Lawrence C. Ingvarson

Dr Lawrence Ingvarson (Consultant)

Proposals announced yesterday by Education Minister James Merlino to attract more talented teacher education candidates underline the importance of teacher quality to student learning.
 
We have allowed teaching to become a much less attractive career option for academically successful secondary school students. Allowing the current trend to persist would have a detrimental effect on school students and on education in the long term in Victoria.
 
Future teachers can apply for undergraduate teacher education programs through two different pathways; through Tertiary Admissions Centres at the state level, or directly to a university.


Victorian Teacher Supply And Demand Report 2012 And 2013, Paul R. Weldon, Chandra Shah, Glenn Rowley Jun 2016

Victorian Teacher Supply And Demand Report 2012 And 2013, Paul R. Weldon, Chandra Shah, Glenn Rowley

Dr Paul Weldon

This report provides forecasts of the supply and demand for teachers in Victoria from 2014 to 2020. The teaching workforce includes all teachers from K to 12. This is the tenth in the series of such reports, the first of which was released in 2001. Unlike previous reports, this one includes a section on Early Childhood and has more extensive analysis of the future demand for teachers in the state.


Using Wikis To Facilitate Communication For Rural, Remote, And At-Risk Practicum Students, Serena Davie, Richard G. Berlach May 2016

Using Wikis To Facilitate Communication For Rural, Remote, And At-Risk Practicum Students, Serena Davie, Richard G. Berlach

Serena Davie

The practicum experience is often highlighted as the core of any pre-service teacher education course. Unless effective communication mechanisms can be established to support students in off-campus locations, the practicum experience can be compromised if students feel isolated and abandoned when faced with difficulties. Such a scenario may be particularly relevant to students in remote placements or for those who have been identified as being at-risk. The main goal of this project was to determine whether a Wiki could be an effective tool for facilitating meaningful dialogue between the university, school-based personnel and students during the practicum. A Wiki was ...


We Are All Educators...Or Are We? Changes In Perceptions Of The Childcare Sector By Australian Pre-Service Teachers Following Professional Exposure To Educational Practice Within Childcare Settings, Doireann O'Connor, Christine Mcgunnigle, Tracy Treasure, Serena Davie May 2016

We Are All Educators...Or Are We? Changes In Perceptions Of The Childcare Sector By Australian Pre-Service Teachers Following Professional Exposure To Educational Practice Within Childcare Settings, Doireann O'Connor, Christine Mcgunnigle, Tracy Treasure, Serena Davie

Serena Davie

This paper presents the findings of a research project investigating the perceptions and expectations held by pre-service teachers regarding the childcare sector. It presents the views of a group of pre-service teachers both before and after their exposure to practice within childcare following a ten week practicum. The personal experiences of the research participants impacted greatly on their evolutionary understanding of and attitude towards the Childcare Sector.

It offers a contribution to the developing body of research relevant to the Australian Government policy that requires qualified teachers to be employed in Childcare Services by 2014. This policy evolved as a ...


Shall We Play Us And Them Or All Together Now? Leadership Opportunities For Cohesiveness And Unity Within A Fractured Western Australian Early Childhood Education Sector, Doireann O'Connor, Christine Mcgunnigle, Tracy Treasure, Serena Davie May 2016

Shall We Play Us And Them Or All Together Now? Leadership Opportunities For Cohesiveness And Unity Within A Fractured Western Australian Early Childhood Education Sector, Doireann O'Connor, Christine Mcgunnigle, Tracy Treasure, Serena Davie

Serena Davie

This paper presents the qualitative and quantitative findings of a research project that examines the perceptions and expectations held by pre-service teachers regarding the Childcare sector. It presents the experience based position of a group of pre-service teachers both before and after their exposure to practice within Childcare following a ten week practicum.

It offers a contribution to the evolving body of research relevant to a recent Government decision that requires the employment of qualified teachers in all Childcare Services by 2014. This decision came about as a response to the 2006 report by the Organisation of Economic Cooperation and ...


Who Am I In The Eyes Of The World? A Comparative Study Of Pre-Service Teachers' Perceptions Of Early Childhood Educators' Professional Status In Their Community. Australian And American Perspectives, Doireann O'Connor, Christine Mcgunnigle, Serena Davie, J Waggoner, Tracy Treasure, Linda Cranley May 2016

Who Am I In The Eyes Of The World? A Comparative Study Of Pre-Service Teachers' Perceptions Of Early Childhood Educators' Professional Status In Their Community. Australian And American Perspectives, Doireann O'Connor, Christine Mcgunnigle, Serena Davie, J Waggoner, Tracy Treasure, Linda Cranley

Tracy Treasure

This research provides an insight into the perceptions held by pre-service teachers on the professional status of early childhood educators in their community. As a comparative study, it presents results from both Australian and American perspectives.

It is the first research of its kind in studying pre-service teachers’ perceptions of ECEC teacher’s status in relation to the Australian context or in comparing perspectives from Australia and the USA.

The paper illuminates on two main points. It presents findings on multiple level pre-service teachers’ perceptions of early childhood educators’ professional status in their community and also examines how the perceptions ...


We Are All Educators...Or Are We? Changes In Perceptions Of The Childcare Sector By Australian Pre-Service Teachers Following Professional Exposure To Educational Practice Within Childcare Settings, Doireann O'Connor, Christine Mcgunnigle, Tracy Treasure, Serena Davie May 2016

We Are All Educators...Or Are We? Changes In Perceptions Of The Childcare Sector By Australian Pre-Service Teachers Following Professional Exposure To Educational Practice Within Childcare Settings, Doireann O'Connor, Christine Mcgunnigle, Tracy Treasure, Serena Davie

Tracy Treasure

This paper presents the findings of a research project investigating the perceptions and expectations held by pre-service teachers regarding the childcare sector. It presents the views of a group of pre-service teachers both before and after their exposure to practice within childcare following a ten week practicum. The personal experiences of the research participants impacted greatly on their evolutionary understanding of and attitude towards the Childcare Sector.

It offers a contribution to the developing body of research relevant to the Australian Government policy that requires qualified teachers to be employed in Childcare Services by 2014. This policy evolved as a ...


Teachers Who Care And Carers Who Educate. Professional Status Issues And Differences In Pay And Conditions Are Resulting In A Tale Of Division Within Our Early Childhood Community, Doireann O'Connor, Christine Mcgunnigle, Tracy Treasure, Serena Davie May 2016

Teachers Who Care And Carers Who Educate. Professional Status Issues And Differences In Pay And Conditions Are Resulting In A Tale Of Division Within Our Early Childhood Community, Doireann O'Connor, Christine Mcgunnigle, Tracy Treasure, Serena Davie

Tracy Treasure

This paper presents the findings of a research project that investigated the views of a group of pre-service teachers both before and after their exposure to practice within professional Childcare. A mixed methods approach was employed. Thirty students in their third year of a four year teaching degree at The University of Notre Dame, Australia were surveyed and interviewed before and after embarking on a ten week practicum within the Childcare sector.

A key finding of the study was that there is currently great division within the Western Australian Early Childhood Education sector. This division has arisen following a recent ...


Shall We Play Us And Them Or All Together Now? Leadership Opportunities For Cohesiveness And Unity Within A Fractured Western Australian Early Childhood Education Sector, Doireann O'Connor, Christine Mcgunnigle, Tracy Treasure, Serena Davie May 2016

Shall We Play Us And Them Or All Together Now? Leadership Opportunities For Cohesiveness And Unity Within A Fractured Western Australian Early Childhood Education Sector, Doireann O'Connor, Christine Mcgunnigle, Tracy Treasure, Serena Davie

Tracy Treasure

This paper presents the qualitative and quantitative findings of a research project that examines the perceptions and expectations held by pre-service teachers regarding the Childcare sector. It presents the experience based position of a group of pre-service teachers both before and after their exposure to practice within Childcare following a ten week practicum.

It offers a contribution to the evolving body of research relevant to a recent Government decision that requires the employment of qualified teachers in all Childcare Services by 2014. This decision came about as a response to the 2006 report by the Organisation of Economic Cooperation and ...


Who Am I In The Eyes Of The World? A Comparative Study Of Pre-Service Teachers' Perceptions Of Early Childhood Educators' Professional Status In Their Community. Australian And American Perspectives, Doireann O'Connor, Christine Mcgunnigle, Serena Davie, J Waggoner, Tracy Treasure, Linda Cranley May 2016

Who Am I In The Eyes Of The World? A Comparative Study Of Pre-Service Teachers' Perceptions Of Early Childhood Educators' Professional Status In Their Community. Australian And American Perspectives, Doireann O'Connor, Christine Mcgunnigle, Serena Davie, J Waggoner, Tracy Treasure, Linda Cranley

Christine McGunnigle

This research provides an insight into the perceptions held by pre-service teachers on the professional status of early childhood educators in their community. As a comparative study, it presents results from both Australian and American perspectives.

It is the first research of its kind in studying pre-service teachers’ perceptions of ECEC teacher’s status in relation to the Australian context or in comparing perspectives from Australia and the USA.

The paper illuminates on two main points. It presents findings on multiple level pre-service teachers’ perceptions of early childhood educators’ professional status in their community and also examines how the perceptions ...


We Are All Educators...Or Are We? Changes In Perceptions Of The Childcare Sector By Australian Pre-Service Teachers Following Professional Exposure To Educational Practice Within Childcare Settings, Doireann O'Connor, Christine Mcgunnigle, Tracy Treasure, Serena Davie May 2016

We Are All Educators...Or Are We? Changes In Perceptions Of The Childcare Sector By Australian Pre-Service Teachers Following Professional Exposure To Educational Practice Within Childcare Settings, Doireann O'Connor, Christine Mcgunnigle, Tracy Treasure, Serena Davie

Christine McGunnigle

This paper presents the findings of a research project investigating the perceptions and expectations held by pre-service teachers regarding the childcare sector. It presents the views of a group of pre-service teachers both before and after their exposure to practice within childcare following a ten week practicum. The personal experiences of the research participants impacted greatly on their evolutionary understanding of and attitude towards the Childcare Sector.

It offers a contribution to the developing body of research relevant to the Australian Government policy that requires qualified teachers to be employed in Childcare Services by 2014. This policy evolved as a ...


Teachers Who Care And Carers Who Educate. Professional Status Issues And Differences In Pay And Conditions Are Resulting In A Tale Of Division Within Our Early Childhood Community, Doireann O'Connor, Christine Mcgunnigle, Tracy Treasure, Serena Davie May 2016

Teachers Who Care And Carers Who Educate. Professional Status Issues And Differences In Pay And Conditions Are Resulting In A Tale Of Division Within Our Early Childhood Community, Doireann O'Connor, Christine Mcgunnigle, Tracy Treasure, Serena Davie

Christine McGunnigle

This paper presents the findings of a research project that investigated the views of a group of pre-service teachers both before and after their exposure to practice within professional Childcare. A mixed methods approach was employed. Thirty students in their third year of a four year teaching degree at The University of Notre Dame, Australia were surveyed and interviewed before and after embarking on a ten week practicum within the Childcare sector.

A key finding of the study was that there is currently great division within the Western Australian Early Childhood Education sector. This division has arisen following a recent ...


Shall We Play Us And Them Or All Together Now? Leadership Opportunities For Cohesiveness And Unity Within A Fractured Western Australian Early Childhood Education Sector, Doireann O'Connor, Christine Mcgunnigle, Tracy Treasure, Serena Davie May 2016

Shall We Play Us And Them Or All Together Now? Leadership Opportunities For Cohesiveness And Unity Within A Fractured Western Australian Early Childhood Education Sector, Doireann O'Connor, Christine Mcgunnigle, Tracy Treasure, Serena Davie

Christine McGunnigle

This paper presents the qualitative and quantitative findings of a research project that examines the perceptions and expectations held by pre-service teachers regarding the Childcare sector. It presents the experience based position of a group of pre-service teachers both before and after their exposure to practice within Childcare following a ten week practicum.

It offers a contribution to the evolving body of research relevant to a recent Government decision that requires the employment of qualified teachers in all Childcare Services by 2014. This decision came about as a response to the 2006 report by the Organisation of Economic Cooperation and ...


Improving The Mathematical Content Knowledge Of Pre-Service Middle School Teachers, Gregory Hine May 2016

Improving The Mathematical Content Knowledge Of Pre-Service Middle School Teachers, Gregory Hine

Gregory S.C. Hine

The tertiary training of pre-service teachers is pivotal in their professional preparation and formation as qualified educators. Multiple authors posit that teachers require a development of pedagogical content knowledge, or knowing a variety of ways to present mathematical content and to assist students to deepen their understanding (Chick, 2012; Shulman, 1987). Emerick, Hirsch and Berry (2003) argue that high quality teachers must possess appropriate mathematical content knowledge, and must also possess considerable background in communicating effectively to students. There are two aims of this educational research. The first is to investigate the self-perceptions of pre-service middle school teachers enrolled in ...


Who Am I In The Eyes Of The World? A Comparative Study Of Pre-Service Teachers' Perceptions Of Early Childhood Educators' Professional Status In Their Community. Australian And American Perspectives, Doireann O'Connor, Christine Mcgunnigle, Serena Davie, J Waggoner, Tracy Treasure, Linda Cranley May 2016

Who Am I In The Eyes Of The World? A Comparative Study Of Pre-Service Teachers' Perceptions Of Early Childhood Educators' Professional Status In Their Community. Australian And American Perspectives, Doireann O'Connor, Christine Mcgunnigle, Serena Davie, J Waggoner, Tracy Treasure, Linda Cranley

Linda Cranley

This research provides an insight into the perceptions held by pre-service teachers on the professional status of early childhood educators in their community. As a comparative study, it presents results from both Australian and American perspectives. It is the first research of its kind in studying pre-service teachers’ perceptions of ECEC teacher’s status in relation to the Australian context or in comparing perspectives from Australia and the USA. The paper illuminates on two main points. It presents findings on multiple level pre-service teachers’ perceptions of early childhood educators’ professional status in their community and also examines how the perceptions ...


Who Am I In The Eyes Of The World? A Comparative Study Of Pre-Service Teachers' Perceptions Of Early Childhood Educators' Professional Status In Their Community. Australian And American Perspectives, Doireann O'Connor, Christine Mcgunnigle, Serena Davie, J Waggoner, Tracy Treasure, Linda Cranley May 2016

Who Am I In The Eyes Of The World? A Comparative Study Of Pre-Service Teachers' Perceptions Of Early Childhood Educators' Professional Status In Their Community. Australian And American Perspectives, Doireann O'Connor, Christine Mcgunnigle, Serena Davie, J Waggoner, Tracy Treasure, Linda Cranley

Dee O'Connor

This research provides an insight into the perceptions held by pre-service teachers on the professional status of early childhood educators in their community. As a comparative study, it presents results from both Australian and American perspectives.

It is the first research of its kind in studying pre-service teachers’ perceptions of ECEC teacher’s status in relation to the Australian context or in comparing perspectives from Australia and the USA.

The paper illuminates on two main points. It presents findings on multiple level pre-service teachers’ perceptions of early childhood educators’ professional status in their community and also examines how the perceptions ...