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Full-Text Articles in Education

Investing In Schools: Capital Spending, Facility Conditions, And Student Achievement (Revised And Edited), Paco Martorell, Kevin Stange, Isaac Mcfarlin Jr. May 2016

Investing In Schools: Capital Spending, Facility Conditions, And Student Achievement (Revised And Edited), Paco Martorell, Kevin Stange, Isaac Mcfarlin Jr.

Upjohn Institute Working Papers

Public investments in repairs, modernization, and construction of schools cost billions. However, little is known about the nature of school facility investments, whether such investments actually change the physical condition of public schools, and the subsequent causal impacts on student achievement. We study the achievement effects of nearly 1,400 capital campaigns initiated and financed by local school districts, comparing districts where school capital bonds were either narrowly approved or narrowly defeated by district voters. Overall, we find little evidence that school capital campaigns improve student achievement. Our event-study analyses focusing on students that attend targeted schools and therefore are ...


Who Believes In Me? The Effect Of Student-Teacher Demographic Match On Teacher Expectations, Seth Gershenson, Stephen B. Holt, Nicholas Papageorge Jul 2015

Who Believes In Me? The Effect Of Student-Teacher Demographic Match On Teacher Expectations, Seth Gershenson, Stephen B. Holt, Nicholas Papageorge

Upjohn Institute Working Papers

Teachers are an important source of information for traditionally disadvantaged students. However, little is known about how teachers form expectations and whether they are systematically biased. We investigate whether student-teacher demographic mismatch affects high school teachers’ expectations for students’ educational attainment. Using a student fixed effects strategy that exploits expectations data from two teachers per student, we find that non-black teachers of black students have significantly lower expectations than do black teachers. These effects are larger for black male students and math teachers. Our findings add to a growing literature on the role of limited information in perpetuating educational attainment ...


Performance Standards And Employee Effort: Evidence From Teacher Absences, Seth Gershenson Jan 2015

Performance Standards And Employee Effort: Evidence From Teacher Absences, Seth Gershenson

Upjohn Institute Working Papers

The 2001 No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) increased accountability pressure in U.S. public schools by threatening to impose sanctions on Title 1 schools that failed to make adequate yearly progress (AYP) in consecutive years. Difference-in-difference estimates of the effect of failing AYP in the first year of NCLB on teacher effort in the subsequent year suggest that, on average, teacher absences in North Carolina fell by about 10 percent, and the probability of being absent 15 or more times fell by about 30 percent. Reductions in teacher absences were driven by within-teacher increases in effort and were larger ...


The Effects Of Doubling Instruction Efforts On Middle School Students' Achievement: Evidence From A Multiyear Regression-Discontinuity Design, Timothy J. Bartik, Marta Lachowska Jan 2014

The Effects Of Doubling Instruction Efforts On Middle School Students' Achievement: Evidence From A Multiyear Regression-Discontinuity Design, Timothy J. Bartik, Marta Lachowska

Upjohn Institute Working Papers

We use a regression-discontinuity design to study the effects of double blocking sixth-grade students in reading and mathematics on their achievement across three years of middle school. To identify the effect of the intervention, we use sharp cutoffs in the test scores used to assign students to double blocking. We find large, positive, and persistent effects of double blocking in reading, but, unlike previous research, we find no statistically significant effects of double blocking in mathematics either in the short run or medium run.


Effects Of The Pre-K Program Of Kalamazoo County Ready 4s On Kindergarten Entry Test Scores: Estimates Based On Data From The Fall Of 2011 And The Fall Of 2012, Timothy J. Bartik Jun 2013

Effects Of The Pre-K Program Of Kalamazoo County Ready 4s On Kindergarten Entry Test Scores: Estimates Based On Data From The Fall Of 2011 And The Fall Of 2012, Timothy J. Bartik

Upjohn Institute Working Papers

This paper uses a regression discontinuity model to examine the effects on kindergarten entrance assessments of the Kalamazoo County Ready 4s (KC Ready 4s) program, a half-day pre-K program for four-year-olds in Kalamazoo County, Michigan. The results are based on test scores and other characteristics of up to 220 children participating in KC Ready 4s, with data coming from both 2011–2012 and 2012–2013 participants in the program. The estimates find consistently statistically significant effects of this pre-K program on improving entering kindergartners’ math test scores. Some estimates also suggest marginally statistically significant effects of KC Ready 4s on ...


How Important Are Classroom Peer Effects? Evidence From Boston's Metco Program, Joshua David Angrist, Kevin Lang Oct 2002

How Important Are Classroom Peer Effects? Evidence From Boston's Metco Program, Joshua David Angrist, Kevin Lang

Upjohn Institute Working Papers

Most integration programs transfer students between schools within districts. In this paper, we study the impact of Metco, a long-running desegregation program that sends mostly black students out of the Boston public school district to attend schools in more affluent suburban districts. We focus on the impact of Metco on the students in one of the largest Metco-receiving districts. In the 2000 school year, Metco increased the proportion black in this district from about 7.5 percent to almost 12.5 percent. Because Metco students have substantially lower test scores than local students, this inflow generates a significant decline in ...


Impact Of Charter School Attendance On Student Achievement In Michigan, Randall W. Eberts, Kevin Hollenbeck Apr 2002

Impact Of Charter School Attendance On Student Achievement In Michigan, Randall W. Eberts, Kevin Hollenbeck

Upjohn Institute Working Papers

Proponents of school reform have argued that charter schools and vouchers can provide adequate market pressure to improve the performance of traditional public schools. While the number of charter schools and student enrollment have burgeoned, relatively little attention has been paid to their effects on student achievement. Proponents of charter schools suggest a direct effect on student achievement through the restructuring of teaching and learning processes and an indirect effect through peer effects on learning and through the market forces of competition. Of course, competitive pressures may result in higher achievement in traditional public schools as well. This paper focuses ...


Does Charter School Attendance Improve Test Scores?: Comments And Reactions On The Arizona Achievement Study, Christopher Nelson, Kevin Hollenbeck Jul 2001

Does Charter School Attendance Improve Test Scores?: Comments And Reactions On The Arizona Achievement Study, Christopher Nelson, Kevin Hollenbeck

Upjohn Institute Working Papers

In a recent report, Solmon, Paark, and Garcia (2001) seek to identify the impact of attending charter schools on student achievement using data from Arizona. Based on a sophisticated statistical analysis, these authors report that charter school attendance increases test score gains of students. This note raises some questions about the interpretation of the results reported and some questions about the empirical approach and underlying data. First, the report relies on a 2-x-2 evaluation design with type of school (charter or traditional) attended in a base year as the rows and type of school in the ensuing year as the ...


An Examination Of Student Achievement In Michigan Charter Schools, Randall W. Eberts, Kevin Hollenbeck Mar 2001

An Examination Of Student Achievement In Michigan Charter Schools, Randall W. Eberts, Kevin Hollenbeck

Upjohn Institute Working Papers

Since their inception in 1991, the number of and the student enrollment in charter school have burgeoned. However, little attention has been paid to their effects on student achievement. Proponents hypothesize direct and indirect positive impacts of charter schools on student achievement. The direct effect is through the restructuring of teaching and learning processes. The indirect effect operates through peer effects on learning and through the market forces of competition. This paper focuses on student achievement in charter schools in Michigan. The analyses presented here suggest that students attending charter schools in Michigan are not reaching the same levels of ...


Teacher Performance Incentives And Student Outcomes, Randall W. Eberts, Kevin Hollenbeck, Joe Allan Stone Aug 2000

Teacher Performance Incentives And Student Outcomes, Randall W. Eberts, Kevin Hollenbeck, Joe Allan Stone

Upjohn Institute Working Papers

This paper reviews the evidence on the effectiveness of individual merit pay systems for teachers on student achievement, and it presents new empirical results based on a system established within a collective bargaining environment. While many merit pay systems have been established in school districts across the U.S., very little empirical evidence concerning their influence on student achievement exists. A natural experiment arose in a county in which one high school piloted a merit pay system that rewarded student retention and student evaluations of teachers while another comparable high school maintained a traditional compensation system. A difference-in-differences analysis implies ...