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2018

Dissertations

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Full-Text Articles in Education

Perceptions Of Teachers Regarding Development Of Positive Student-Teacher Relationships In Exemplar Schools Using Cstps, Sneha Sharma Dec 2018

Perceptions Of Teachers Regarding Development Of Positive Student-Teacher Relationships In Exemplar Schools Using Cstps, Sneha Sharma

Dissertations

Purpose: The purpose of this phenomenological, qualitative study was to describe and explore how teachers in Partnership for 21st Century Learning (P21) exemplar schools developed positive student-teacher relationships using the 6 domains of the California Standards of the Teaching Profession (CSTPs).

Methodology: This study included 12 teachers from 2 high schools in California that were recognized as exemplary by P21. Each school principal chose 6 teachers by utilizing a list of specific criteria, based on the CSTPs, that was provided by the researcher. The researcher also conducted interviews of all 12 teachers, completed artifact analysis, and conducted observations of teachers ...


Perceived Principal Servant Leadership And Teacher Stress, Donald Harris Dec 2018

Perceived Principal Servant Leadership And Teacher Stress, Donald Harris

Dissertations

Stress is one of the major factors in teacher attrition, a continuing problem in education. Further contributing to teacher stress are state and federal accountability measures, which put added pressure on schools and teachers to increase student performance. School leaders must navigate not only how to keep pace with these accountability practices, but how to do so in a manner that does not increase the stress on their teachers. To seek answers in how this might be accomplished, this paper investigates the relationship between perceived principal servant leadership characteristics and occupational stress in teachers. Data was collected using the Wilson ...


Preparation Matters: A Quantitative Examination Of Faculty Active Shooter Preparedness, Latisha Pitts Dec 2018

Preparation Matters: A Quantitative Examination Of Faculty Active Shooter Preparedness, Latisha Pitts

Dissertations

In recent years, the occurrence of active shooter incidents has become more prevalent within the United States. Since the Virginia Tech massacre in 2007, there has been an increase in active shooter incidents at institutions of higher learning (IHLs). Educational settings have been identified by the FBI as the second most common place for active shooter incidents to occur. As a result, there has become an increased need for administrators at IHLs to create and maintain cultures of preparedness that include effective active shooter training. In this research study, Albert Bandura’s Social Cognitive Theory was used as a framework ...


Cultural Branding: An Examination Of Website Marketing Practices At Historically Black College And Universities And Non-Hbcu Black Serving Institutions, James Hudson Dec 2018

Cultural Branding: An Examination Of Website Marketing Practices At Historically Black College And Universities And Non-Hbcu Black Serving Institutions, James Hudson

Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to determine if there was a difference between the way that higher education marketing professionals at Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) and non-HBCU Black Serving Institutions (BSIs) use website marketing techniques for institutional branding. This examination was prompted by Gasman (2007) who suggested that the inability of some HBCUs to garner and/or maintain sufficient enrollment numbers stems from poor image management. Further, Gibbs (2015) suggested that a comparison between HBCU websites and Traditionally White Institution (TWI) websites might be beneficial. Thus, this study sought to answer the following research questions:

RQ1. Is ...


Succession Planning For First-Year, P-12 Principals, Brannon Johnson Dec 2018

Succession Planning For First-Year, P-12 Principals, Brannon Johnson

Dissertations

In order to improve retention of first-year principals, all schools should have a leadership succession plan for first-year, P-12 principals to help improve principal effectiveness and retention (Fink & Brayman, 2006). Russell and Sabina (2014) defined succession planning as the explicit design and implementation of programs to identify and develop high-quality principal candidates. Further, succession planning is about ensuring that the next set of leaders is trained and poised to take on leadership responsibilities when needed (Beaulieu, n. d.).

It is clear that the challenges of being a principal are great, and that this is especially true during the early stages of a principal’s career. Multiple research studies have been conducted regarding first-year principals’ retention (Rivera-McCuthchen, 2014). As a result, factors such as ineffective mentoring, lack of support by staff members and district office personnel, little to no administrative internships, and ineffective preparation in university principalship programs have been identified. However, little to no research has been done regarding succession planning among first-year, P-12 principals. Additionally, extensive research pertaining to succession planning has been done in the business sector, but not the education sector (Russell & Sabina, 2014).

The purpose of this study was to explore and describe the succession planning process when used for first-year, P-12 principals. This study sought information regarding how transparent the succession planning process was, how widespread succession planning was, and whether it was a genuine process or merely a formality. The theoretical framework that guided this study regarded situational leadership theory. Additionally, the following research questions guided the study: (a) How do first-year principals describe their experiences in participating in the succession planning program?, (b) What were the benefits, if any, they experienced in the succession planning program?, and (c) What, if any, negative experiences do they describe as a result of participating in the succession planning program?

The researcher interviewed ten participants in person. Six participants were first-year principals, three were assistant superintendents, and one was a superintendent. In order to answer the research questions, a basic qualitative design was used in this study, and the methods of inquiry for this phenomenological approach were semi-structured interviews, transcriptions, and field notes.

After data collection and analysis, the following themes were found: (a) Succession Planning – What’s That?; (b) Grooming One’s Own; (c) A Leadership Pipeline: A Process; (d) From Instructional Literacy Coaches (Lead Teachers) to Principals; (e) The Presence/Absence of Instructional Literacy Coaches; (f) Three Years of Experience – A Minimum Preference/Requirement for the Principalship; (g) Good Ole’ Boy System; (h) Instructional Leadership; and (i) Situational Leadership.


Developing Social And Emotional Skills In Early Childhood Instruction: A Delphi Study, Tess Breen Dec 2018

Developing Social And Emotional Skills In Early Childhood Instruction: A Delphi Study, Tess Breen

Dissertations

Purpose: The purpose of this Delphi study was to explore social and emotional learning in early childhood instruction with an emphasis on identifying the methods expert early childhood teachers use to support and promote the development of empathy and emotion regulation, to have the teachers rate the impact of these methods, and to identify the specific activities used to implement the six most highly rated methods.

Methodology: This study utilized the Delphi method which is an iterative process used to collect and distill the judgments of experts using a series of questionnaires interspersed with feedback. Fourteen participants recommended strategies to ...


Career And Technical Education On Mathematics And Reading Achievement For Students In North Central Arkansas, Kimberley Sartain Dec 2018

Career And Technical Education On Mathematics And Reading Achievement For Students In North Central Arkansas, Kimberley Sartain

Dissertations

The purpose of this quantitative research study was to determine the effects of gender and Career and Technical Education (CTE) participation level on the mathematics and reading achievement as measured by the ACT Aspire for 10th-grade students and ACT subtest assessments for 11th-grade students in 2 5-A high schools in North Central Arkansas. While researching the effects of gender and CTE participation level, this scholar found no statistically significant difference between gender and CTE participation level on student achievement. This researcher explored the literature relating to the mathematic and reading achievement of males and females as well as whether they ...


Effects Of Teacher Degree And Teacher Experience On Literacy Achievement For Students Grades 3-6 In Arkansas, James Clay Hendrix Dec 2018

Effects Of Teacher Degree And Teacher Experience On Literacy Achievement For Students Grades 3-6 In Arkansas, James Clay Hendrix

Dissertations

The purpose of this dissertation was to determine the effects of teacher degree and teacher experience on student achievement in literacy for Grades 3-6. School leaders are under pressure from state and national legislation to improve student achievement continuously. At the times hiring and teaching assignment decisions are made, often there is little verifiable data available about individual teacher applicants. Throughout most of the history of public education, teacher degree and teacher experience have been thought to have an impact on school quality and student achievement, so much so that nearly all teacher pay models are based on those two ...


Looking Inward: Higher Education Public Relations And Internal Communication, Kelly A. Campbell Dec 2018

Looking Inward: Higher Education Public Relations And Internal Communication, Kelly A. Campbell

Dissertations

There has been a decline in public good will toward institutions of higher education for nearly four decades. Resultantly, the public, media, and politicians call for greater transparency. It would be beneficial for institutions of higher education to utilize strategic means to communicate their stories, successes and brand directly to various publics. A critical, albeit often an overlooked public, are the employees of the university. They can serve as ambassadors for the university interacting with outside publics. In this capacity, not only do employees need to know information about their organization to function well at their positions, they also need ...


High School Science Teachers’ Professional Development And Self-Efficacy In Using Technology Tools In The Classroom, Zahrah Hussain Aljuzayri Dec 2018

High School Science Teachers’ Professional Development And Self-Efficacy In Using Technology Tools In The Classroom, Zahrah Hussain Aljuzayri

Dissertations

Few studies have considered the relationship between professional development (PD) and self-efficacy with technology tool use, especially for high school science teachers. There is also a lack of research that considers relationships between teachers' demographic factors and teachers' self-efficacy, use of technology tools in the classroom, or their professional development. The goal of this quantitative study was to attempt to correlate science teacher self-efficacy, the PD science teachers have had for classroom technology, and how often they use that technology in the classroom. We also wanted to identify possible impacts of teachers' demographic factors on efficacy, use, and PD. Participants ...


Understanding The Experiences Of Students Re-Admitted After Academic Suspension As Part Of A University-Initiated Process: A Qualitative Study, Gary L. Versalle Dec 2018

Understanding The Experiences Of Students Re-Admitted After Academic Suspension As Part Of A University-Initiated Process: A Qualitative Study, Gary L. Versalle

Dissertations

Student persistence and retention continues to be a major issue facing most institutions of higher education. With ever more diverse student populations, researchers studied a multitude of groups and sub-groups of students based on ethnicity, sex, socioeconomic status, or age. These studies looked at how these various student groups can be supported and retained. Students who returned to school after having been academically dismissed are one group which has been consistently underreported. Reentry practices remained largely unchanged and still require the student to initiate the process. This phenomenological study examined the experiences of students accepted into the Reclaim the W ...


Are Experienced Principals More Likely To Implement The Attributes Of The Three-Minute Walkthrough Program Than Less-Experienced Principals?, Trent Mosley Dec 2018

Are Experienced Principals More Likely To Implement The Attributes Of The Three-Minute Walkthrough Program Than Less-Experienced Principals?, Trent Mosley

Dissertations

Today, in this era of accountability, school improvement rests heavily on the shoulders of building principals. Apart from being managers of school operations, disciplinarians, and community leaders, these individuals are also expected to be strong instructional leaders (Crum & Sherman, 2008). Principals now must engage in strategies that will lead the cycle of continuous improvement. One such strategy that has emerged is classroom walkthroughs (Cervone & Martinez, 2007). Classroom walkthroughs serve as a vehicle through which principals can engage teachers in a process that can lead to positive effects on teaching strategies through instructional conferences (Blasé & Blasé, 1998; King, 1991).

Approximately 2,000 principals in the continental United States were identified as having been trained in the Three-Minute Walkthrough Program during the 2010-2016 school years. With support from the Three-Minute Walkthrough Program developer, Dr. Carolyn Downey, and the International office of Phi Delta Kappan (PDK), the names of program participants were identified and requested to participate in a study that ...


The Effect Of Item Stem And Response Option Length On The Item Analysis Outcomes Of A Career And Technical Education Multiple Choice Assessment, Tina M. Koepf Dec 2018

The Effect Of Item Stem And Response Option Length On The Item Analysis Outcomes Of A Career And Technical Education Multiple Choice Assessment, Tina M. Koepf

Dissertations

Critical decisions in Career and Technical Education (CTE) can be based on assessment outcomes, requiring an essential focus on continuous improvement initiatives to provide increased multiple choice (MC) assessment validity. Previous research has determined that the presence of flawed test items negatively impacts student success; therefore, an MC taxonomy has been established and used in the assessment industry. While rigorous and successful Career and Technical Education (CTE) programs that enroll high-level academic students exist, many CTE programs enroll students with a wide spectrum of academic ability. Because many CTE students often have inferior reading skills, it is necessary to take ...


23 Illinois Administrative Code 50: Redefining The Formal School Site Observation In Principal Evaluation (A Policy Advocacy Document), Noah Riley Dec 2018

23 Illinois Administrative Code 50: Redefining The Formal School Site Observation In Principal Evaluation (A Policy Advocacy Document), Noah Riley

Dissertations

ABSTRACT

This document explores how the establishment of a Principal Evaluation Steering Committee (PESC) to implement and monitor U.S. District X’s Illinois Principal Evaluation Plan (IPEP) may ensure the effectiveness of its principals as capacity builders who facilitate meaningful and productive systems change. The PESC intervention helps ensure principals and their staff is engaging in purposeful reflective practice and collegial inquiry activities and exercises designed to increase their cognitive, emotional, interpersonal, and intrapersonal capacities (Drago-Severson, Blum-DeStefano, & Asghar, 2013). This document outlines the positive and effective impacts in the contexts of educational, economic, social, political and, moral and ethical disciplinary areas; and advocates that the establishment of a PESC becomes policy in the district. By igniting, through policy, the potential principals can bring ...


Professional Learning Through Professional Learning Communities, Mentorship, And Shared Leadership, Stephen Juracka Dec 2018

Professional Learning Through Professional Learning Communities, Mentorship, And Shared Leadership, Stephen Juracka

Dissertations

ABSTRACT

This Policy Advocacy paper focuses on expanding the District ABC Staff Development policy to include Drago-Severson’s (2009) pillars of adult learning. Research indicates the inclusion of a mentorship program, professional learning communities, and teacher leadership opportunities, will increase teacher collaboration, engagement, and professional capacities. There are significant educational, economic, political, social, legal and moral implications associated with the proposed staff development policy. Additionally, the staff development policy requires careful planning, implementation, and assessment, as will be addressed in this Policy Advocacy paper.


Alignment Of School Improvement Plans With District Professional Learning Plan: A Policy Advocacy Document, Scott Carlson Dec 2018

Alignment Of School Improvement Plans With District Professional Learning Plan: A Policy Advocacy Document, Scott Carlson

Dissertations

This paper advocates for a local policy connecting a standards-based district professional learning plan to individual school improvement plans for the purpose of improving targeted instructional behaviors and student learning outcomes. Currently, my district’s school improvement plans follow a general template focused on student subgroup deficits and standardized test scores with little emphasis on professional learning aligned to educator and student outcomes. A local policy that aligns school improvement plans with a district professional learning plan would be consistent with recommendations from the Illinois P-20 Council (2017) and help the local school board understand how a district professional learning ...


Improving Professional Learning Community Structures For Enhanced Professional Practice, Stephen Juracka Dec 2018

Improving Professional Learning Community Structures For Enhanced Professional Practice, Stephen Juracka

Dissertations

ABSTRACT

This Change Plan gauges the historical reality of the District ABC professional learning communities (PLC) to gain a better understanding of their past effectiveness and secure recommendations for the future. This Change Plan included a qualitative study conducted with the members of the Instructional Leadership Team (ILT). The ten members of the ILT provided feedback to the PLC Survey. The PLC survey was then coded for general themes and common language. The PLC Survey found that in past practice PLCs were absent within District ABC and collaboration among teachers was inconsistent and ineffective. Based upon the findings of the ...


A Change Plan For District Professional Learning And Teacher Collaboration In The Area Of Elementary English Language Arts Instruction, Scott Carlson Dec 2018

A Change Plan For District Professional Learning And Teacher Collaboration In The Area Of Elementary English Language Arts Instruction, Scott Carlson

Dissertations

This change plan used Wagner et al.’s (2006) framework to assess the arenas of culture, context, conditions, and competencies of a small suburban school district to create a plan for professional learning and teacher collaboration in the area of English Language Arts instruction. However, a backmapping approach could be used to plan professional learning in any subject area. Building on the judgments and recommendations from my program evaluation, I hope to move the school district toward a more comprehensive model of transformational learning. A secondary goal of this change plan is to build the capacity of the district’s ...


Creating Conditions For A Collaborative Relationship Between Principals And Their Supervisors: A Change Initiative, Noah Riley Dec 2018

Creating Conditions For A Collaborative Relationship Between Principals And Their Supervisors: A Change Initiative, Noah Riley

Dissertations

ABSTRACT

Studies by Kelley and Peterson (2002), Drago-Severson, Blum-DeStefano & Asghar (2013) and other researchers, have shown that in order for principals and other building leaders to be able to demonstrate the required expectations of “new” principal standards, they must engage in ongoing supervision, evaluation, coaching, and continuous career-long professional development. These studies also suggest that school districts, in their support and development of principals’ growth in competency capacity building, are more effective when the principal supervisor works in collaboration with principals they supervise/evaluate in a trusting, mutually respectful relationship of shared accountability for improving instruction and learning. This change ...


Examining The Perceptions Of Principals To Improve Professional Development Opportunities And Support From Central Office: A Program Evaluation, Noah Riley Dec 2018

Examining The Perceptions Of Principals To Improve Professional Development Opportunities And Support From Central Office: A Program Evaluation, Noah Riley

Dissertations

ABSTRACT

The work of Louis, Leithwood, Wahlstrom, and Anderson, (2010), Manna (2015), Leithwood and Azah (2016) validates that principals can have a powerful influence on instruction and learning in schools. Supporting principals’ growth with professional development, therefore, is critical to building principals’ competencies as instructional leaders. Although school districts are unique in internal and external conditions (e.g., educational, political, and financial); which may influence their approach to supporting principals, a useful place for all school districts to start is with an appraisal of principals’ perceptions of current support and professional development from central office; regardless of district internal and ...


A Program Evaluation Of District Professional Learning Practices Using The Standards Assessment Inventory, Scott Carlson Dec 2018

A Program Evaluation Of District Professional Learning Practices Using The Standards Assessment Inventory, Scott Carlson

Dissertations

This paper details an evaluation of a school district's professional learning program for the purpose of understanding major patterns and important nuances that give shape to staff development. The perceptions of teaching staff were compared to Learning Forward’s Standards for Professional Learning (2011) using the Standards Assessment Inventory-2. The research design followed a single-case study approach with a combination of survey and focus group methodologies. The goal was to determine to what extent the teaching staff perceive the impact of district professional development on their professional learning community. Teachers were also asked how we might strengthen our current ...


Employee Engagement Through The Instructional Leadership Team, Stephen Juracka Dec 2018

Employee Engagement Through The Instructional Leadership Team, Stephen Juracka

Dissertations

ABSTRACT

The Instructional Leadership Team (ILT) is an organizational structure designed to improve employee engagement, which for this project is defined as employee collaboration, autonomy, ownership and shared purpose, in the curriculum development process (Farris-Berg, 2013). This program evaluation, grounded in organizational theory, self-determination theory, and social exchange theory; it is aimed at validating the importance of creating an organizational structure designed to shape a cultural environment that supports employee ownership and autonomy while creating a social exchange economy that supports employee motivation. The Instructional Leadership Team created and initiated the ILT Engagement Survey to K-5 grade level teachers in ...


Scaffolded Discourse Within A Comprehensive Literacy Model, Kimberlee Wagner Dec 2018

Scaffolded Discourse Within A Comprehensive Literacy Model, Kimberlee Wagner

Dissertations

Research has shown that successful models of school change have several common features: a balance of teacher autonomy and accountability, high-quality professional development, quality leadership, and the support of an outside partner. One model that has these features is the comprehensive literacy model within the Partnership of Comprehensive Literacy model. This mixed methods study examined the language of scaffolding that occurred in three settings within the model: grade level meetings, coaching and mentoring, and small group instruction. Participants in this study included the literacy coaches, interventionists and first-grade teachers at two schools within the PCL network. Three levels of scaffolding ...


Assessing The Supports And Variables Needed For Graduation Of Students Receiving Special Education Service: A Longitudinal Study, Jennifer Dewaard Dec 2018

Assessing The Supports And Variables Needed For Graduation Of Students Receiving Special Education Service: A Longitudinal Study, Jennifer Dewaard

Dissertations

Graduation from high school is an important measure of success for both schools and individuals. While requirements for graduation change, the rate at which students receive a diploma within four years is on the rise. But students who receive special education services continue to have a lower graduation rate than the general population. It is imperative for both schools and individual students to increase this rate and close the gap for those receiving a diploma.

The purpose of this study is to examine that gap between graduation rates for the total population of a high school in West Michigan compared ...


Positive Behavior Interventions And Supports In Transitional Kindergarten Through Second Grade Classrooms: Year Three And Beyond, Anne Driscoll-Mink Nov 2018

Positive Behavior Interventions And Supports In Transitional Kindergarten Through Second Grade Classrooms: Year Three And Beyond, Anne Driscoll-Mink

Dissertations

Purpose: The purpose of this mixed-methods study was to examine the effects of Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports (PBIS) on students in transitional kindergarten (TK) through second grade before implementation and after implementation of PBIS at platinum level elementary schools.

Methodology: A mixed-methods study will be used to examine the effects of PBIS on students in TK through second grade before implementation and after implementation of PBIS at platinum level elementary schools in southern California. The quantitative method was used to gather archival data on pre PBIS implementation and post PBIS implementation to determine if there was a difference in ...


Teacher Perceptions Of Ability In Implementing A Culturally Responsive Educational Practice For Culturally Linguistically Diverse Students With Dis/Abilities, Melanie Ziebatree Nov 2018

Teacher Perceptions Of Ability In Implementing A Culturally Responsive Educational Practice For Culturally Linguistically Diverse Students With Dis/Abilities, Melanie Ziebatree

Dissertations

All children in the United States have the right to an equitable education, regardless of gender, religion, class, race, culture, language, or dis/ability. The literature demonstrates that financial, educational, and legal outcomes are disproportionately negative for those students falling outside of white able-bodied norms and that educational institutions often perpetuate exclusive policies and practices that disproportionately impact culturally linguistically diverse students with dis/abilities. A critical examination of the sociopolitical and contextual factors that fortify the barriers faced by marginalized groups highlights the need for a culturally responsive approach to educating students with multidimensional identities.

To serve the needs ...


Resilience And College Persistence: Characterizing Students Who Have Failed Courses, Mary Merrifield Nov 2018

Resilience And College Persistence: Characterizing Students Who Have Failed Courses, Mary Merrifield

Dissertations

Students who fail a course early in their college careers are at risk of leaving college before completion of their programs. Little is known about this high-risk group and why some members of this group complete their programs while others do not. This research addressed this gap in the college-level persistence literature by focusing first on differences between completers and non-completers, then on differences between students who fail a course early in their college careers but become completers or non-completers. The goal was to understand the protective value of individual traits beyond the prediction of risk based on membership to ...


Unmasking Whiteness: Progressing Toward Cultural Responsiveness Within A Rti Framework, Melinda F. Scheetz Nov 2018

Unmasking Whiteness: Progressing Toward Cultural Responsiveness Within A Rti Framework, Melinda F. Scheetz

Dissertations

Response to Intervention (RTI) developed out of educational policies and practices that comprise NCLB and IDEA. RTI is a system to ensure all students receive high-quality instruction that meets their needs, increases opportunities to learn, and prevents reading failure. A culturally relevant RTI framework offers the most promising pedagogical approach to quality instruction and educational equity. The purpose of this study was to understand, describe, and explore the intersection of culturally relevant practices and RTI. The research questions that guided this study were: What can be learned about a culturally responsive approach to RTI by listening to teachers’ perspectives and ...


An Analysis Of African-American Faculty Experiences During The Tenure Process, Katrina M. Hubbard Nov 2018

An Analysis Of African-American Faculty Experiences During The Tenure Process, Katrina M. Hubbard

Dissertations

Abstract

How faculty allocate their time among research, teaching, and service, and the perceived quality of that work determines whether faculty obtain tenure or are released from the university (Bellas & Toutkoushian, 1999; Link, Swann, & Bozeman, 2008; Price & Cotten, 2006). Prior research indicated that African-American faculty comprised 4.5% of the faculty at high-activity research institutions and 3.5% of faculty at very-high-activity research institutions (The Chronicle of Higher Education Almanac 2016-2017, 2016).

The purpose of this study was to 1) document African-American faculty experiences during their tenure probationary period at PWI research institutions; 2) compare faculty experiences during the pursuit of tenure by race; 3) identify behavior that can detract from and contribute to success in promotion and tenure at PWI research institutions (information can be utilized for the benefit of all faculty as well as administration); 4) evaluate whether African-American faculty perceive any differences in their experiences when compared to the experiences of Caucasian faculty; and 5) to identify ...


The Impact Of Male Gender Dissonance On Women’S Potential Eligibility For Advancement To The Position Of High School Principal, Kristen Lee Harris Nov 2018

The Impact Of Male Gender Dissonance On Women’S Potential Eligibility For Advancement To The Position Of High School Principal, Kristen Lee Harris

Dissertations

Purpose: The purpose of this qualitative, replication study was to discover what behaviors female administrators exhibit that may prompt male administrators with whom they work in California public education to demonstrate behaviors associated with gender dissonance and also to determine what impact these dissonant behaviors may have on women’s potential eligibility for advancement to the position of high school principal.

Methodology: This qualitative phenomenological study examined the experience of six male and six female high school principals in Riverside County, California. Purposive criterion sampling method was applied to identify participants based on delimiting criteria. The researcher collected and coded ...