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2018

Stephen F. Austin State University

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Articles 1 - 30 of 172

Full-Text Articles in Education

Facilitating Pre-Service Teachers To Engage Emergent Bilinguals In Productive Struggle, Benjamin T. Dickey, Jim Ewing, Melissa Caruso, Emily D. Fulmer Dec 2018

Facilitating Pre-Service Teachers To Engage Emergent Bilinguals In Productive Struggle, Benjamin T. Dickey, Jim Ewing, Melissa Caruso, Emily D. Fulmer

Journal of Multicultural Affairs

This study utilized a multiple case study with qualitative research to examine how Pre-service teachers (PSTs) might engage Emergent Bilinguals (EBs) in productive struggle—grappling to solve problems (Warshauer, 2015). The researchers created a rubric based on Warshauer’s (2015) case study to record the types of questions PSTs asked as they tutored fourth grade EBs. Warshauer (2015) claimed PSTs should allow students more wait time and ask questions. She referred to such questions as affordance and probing guidance, which facilitates productive struggle. In order to discover more about the PSTs’ thinking, the researchers interviewed the PSTs before and after ...


Representation Of English Language Learners In Special Education: A Campus-Level Study, Ruby López, Diana Linn Dec 2018

Representation Of English Language Learners In Special Education: A Campus-Level Study, Ruby López, Diana Linn

Journal of Multicultural Affairs

This study utilized relative risk ratios to examine the representation of English language learners in special education programs in elementary, middle, and high school campuses in a school district in South Texas. Results indicated that English language learners were both underrepresented and overrepresented in the school district. Furthermore, underrepresentation was greater at the elementary campuses and overrepresentation was greater at the secondary campuses. The use of disaggregated data on the campus level continues to be of importance in understanding the representation of English language learners in special education programs as it provides critical information that cannot be gleaned from data ...


Higher Education Experiences Of International Faculty In The U.S. Deep South, Elizabeth Omiteru, James Martinez, Rudo Tsemunhu, Eugene F. Asola Dec 2018

Higher Education Experiences Of International Faculty In The U.S. Deep South, Elizabeth Omiteru, James Martinez, Rudo Tsemunhu, Eugene F. Asola

Journal of Multicultural Affairs

Immigration was one of the key issues from within the Obama administration. One focus of the administration was to retain brilliant foreign scholars who have studied in the United States (U.S). Rather than let International Faculty return to their countries after completing their programs, employers found it advantageous to retain these professionals to boost the United States workforce. Higher education was one of the government sectors that experienced an increase in the numbers of foreign nationals choosing to remain in the United States after completing their degrees. What many International Faculty may be oblivious of, and which their programs ...


An Analysis Of Black, Latinx, Multicultural And Asian/Pacific Islander Fraternity/Sorority Organizational Values, Ashley Tull, Andrew Shaw, Brittany Barker, Taylor Sandoval Dec 2018

An Analysis Of Black, Latinx, Multicultural And Asian/Pacific Islander Fraternity/Sorority Organizational Values, Ashley Tull, Andrew Shaw, Brittany Barker, Taylor Sandoval

Journal of Multicultural Affairs

The purpose of this study was to examine the espoused values of historically Black, Latinx, Multicultural and Asian/Pacific Islander fraternity/sorority organizations. This study reports the types of values discovered, as well as their alignment with universally accepted values that included: self-enhancement, openness to change, self-transcendence and conservation. Further examination included comparisons between the espoused universally accepted values of the above-identified organizations with those of historically White fraternity/sorority organizations.


Introduction To Constellar Theory In Multicultural Education Pedagogy, Antonio Garcia Dec 2018

Introduction To Constellar Theory In Multicultural Education Pedagogy, Antonio Garcia

Journal of Multicultural Affairs

The majority of education and social science ideas subscribe to a hierarchical ideology that not only necessitates but also obligates an always-already dialectic. Such a dialectical fetish and intellectual relegation is grounded in Marxist ideology, which has influenced a vast majority of cultural studies and social science theories. Constellar Theory challenges the hierarchical model ideology in concept and pedagogy to complicate and exhibit a more intricate matrix of considerations to move the multicultural education discourse in possible new directions.


The Development Of The Wise (Writing To Inspire Successful Education) Writing Mentoring Program: A University-School Collaboration, Bradley H. Smith, Michael S. Mathews, Serrae N. Reed, Michelle Q. N. Tran, Caroline Mousa, Mauricio Lozano, Erica S. Rodriguez, Andrew Hamilton, Jonathan T. Mathews Dec 2018

The Development Of The Wise (Writing To Inspire Successful Education) Writing Mentoring Program: A University-School Collaboration, Bradley H. Smith, Michael S. Mathews, Serrae N. Reed, Michelle Q. N. Tran, Caroline Mousa, Mauricio Lozano, Erica S. Rodriguez, Andrew Hamilton, Jonathan T. Mathews

MLET: The Journal of Middle Level Education in Texas

Abstract

This paper describes the development of a service learning writing mentoring program designed to close the achievement gap in writing proficiency for economically disadvantaged seventh grade students. Compared to writing mentoring studies found in the published literature, this program has three distinguishing components. First, it focused on economically disadvantaged middle school students. Second, it provided writing mentoring through a university-school partnership in which college students provided the intervention in collaboration with a seventh-grade teacher. Third, the program used technology to facilitate the mentoring process. Over the course of an academic year, mentors created videos with feedback on 19 writing ...


A Struggle To Bridge The Gap: Promoting African American Males In Teacher Education, Vance Vaughn Nov 2018

A Struggle To Bridge The Gap: Promoting African American Males In Teacher Education, Vance Vaughn

School Leadership Review

After serving 22 years in public education as a classroom teacher, assistant principal, principal, and superintendent, I am in awe over the small number of African American males as public school teachers. My classroom teacher experience was ephemeral as I was promoted to educational administration after five and one-half years. As the only African American male teacher in a high school with over 3,600 students, hundreds of whom were African American male, I was an anomaly in that environment. African American male role models were drastically needed and sought after mainly because campus data reported African American males ranked ...


Strengthening The Campus Leadership Team Through Effective Principal And Counselor Relationships: Implications For Training, Jane H. Macdonald, Stephen A. Armstrong, Robin K. Henson Nov 2018

Strengthening The Campus Leadership Team Through Effective Principal And Counselor Relationships: Implications For Training, Jane H. Macdonald, Stephen A. Armstrong, Robin K. Henson

School Leadership Review

Campuses with successful leadership teams have a better opportunity to meet the ever-increasing and complex needs of the students they serve (Crowther, Kaagan, Ferguson, & Hann, 2002). These successful campuses are strengthened when they include strong principals and counseling teams with shared mutual trust and understanding that permeates the school climate (DeVoss & Andrews, 2006). A review of the literature revealed a paucity of studies examining the nature of successful principal-counselor relations and the impact of this relationship on student success, effective campus leadership teams, and an effective school climate that promotes learning. Meaningful dialogue and discussion of this critical professional relationship ...


Caring Culture And Leadership Revealed: Narrative Non-Fiction Story Method And The Crystallization Process, Anita L. Johnston Nov 2018

Caring Culture And Leadership Revealed: Narrative Non-Fiction Story Method And The Crystallization Process, Anita L. Johnston

School Leadership Review

No abstract provided.


Ecological Systems, Complexity, And Student Achievement: Towards An Alternative Model Of Accountability In Education, Eileen S. Johnson Nov 2018

Ecological Systems, Complexity, And Student Achievement: Towards An Alternative Model Of Accountability In Education, Eileen S. Johnson

School Leadership Review

Within the field of education, there has been a growing recognition of the importance of context in understanding various aspects of education (Phillips & Burbules, 2000), and systems approaches to understanding change have become increasingly common. Yet, the simple linear algorithm implicit in current policy such as the Adequate Yearly Progress provision of No Child Left Behind (U.S. Department of Education, 2002) fails to take into account the complex and dynamic nature of education and represents an inappropriate oversimplification of educational outcomes and their measurement. This article postulates that the ecological systems model of Urie Bronfenbrenner represents a useful theoretical ...


Expectations Of Mentoring: Novice Teachers’ Voices, Rubén Garza, Martha N. Ovando, Alfredo Ramirez Jr. Nov 2018

Expectations Of Mentoring: Novice Teachers’ Voices, Rubén Garza, Martha N. Ovando, Alfredo Ramirez Jr.

School Leadership Review

Mentoring, as an avenue to support and retain new teachers, has received a renewed interest. As Trubowitz suggests, “School systems are finding that beginning teachers who have access to intensive mentoring are less likely to leave teaching” (2004, p. 59). While several factors may cause teachers to leave, alienation has been identified as one of the major forces. According to previous research, teachers experience “a combination of feelings of isolation, normlessness, powerlessness, and meaninglessness” (Benham & O’Brien, 2002, p. 20). Such feelings of isolation are compounded by the current accountability demands and the professional pressure teachers’ experience. Thus, it is imperative to consider alternative strategies aimed at providing the kind of support congruent with beginning teacher’s needs in order to be successful (Breaux & Wong, 2003, p. iii). A goal of such strategies should be the effective socialization of teachers, and providing on-going support for growth, through different approaches including mentoring (Darling-Hammond, 2003; Brennan, Thames, & Roberts, 1999). Although mentoring can be an effective means to enhance teacher efficacy and help beginning teachers (Breaux & Wong, 2003; Delgado, 1999; Yost, 2002), limited research focuses on teachers’ perspectives associated with their own expectations of mentoring, particularly in diverse school settings (Wang ...


Preparation Issues In Educational Leadership, Wesley D. Hickey, Peggy Gill Nov 2018

Preparation Issues In Educational Leadership, Wesley D. Hickey, Peggy Gill

School Leadership Review

Educational leaders have chosen to belong to one of the most important and influential professions. Not only do educators have an important impact on others, but there is a need to have a practical understanding of instruction, curriculum, and psychology. Leaders in all disciplines often relate to previous educational relationships in discussions about important moments in their lives. These relationships matter, and they provide foundational experiences for each of us.


Writing With Discipline: A Call For Avoiding Apa Style Guide Errors In Manuscript Preparation, Anthony J. Onwuegbuzie, Julie P. Combs Nov 2018

Writing With Discipline: A Call For Avoiding Apa Style Guide Errors In Manuscript Preparation, Anthony J. Onwuegbuzie, Julie P. Combs

School Leadership Review

The education community in the United States—as in many countries—is extremely large and diverse. Indeed, as documented by Mosteller, Nave, and Miech (2004),

The United States has more than 3.6 million teachers in elementary and secondary education, more than 100,000 principals, and about 15,000 school districts, each with its own set of district administrators, school board members, and concerned citizens. The parents and family members of the 60 million students in elementary and secondary education represent another constituency, as do the policymakers and legislators in the 50 states (along with the District of Columbia) and ...


Building Capacity For Quality Leadership With English Language Learners, John Leonard, Betty Alford, Neill Armstrong Nov 2018

Building Capacity For Quality Leadership With English Language Learners, John Leonard, Betty Alford, Neill Armstrong

School Leadership Review

Waxman, Téllez, and Walberg (2004) advocated that school leaders must assist staff developers in providing English language learner (ELLs)-related professional development that includes “demonstration of theories of language, sustained coaching, and evaluation programs measuring teacher implementation and impact” (p 2-3). These professional development goals are central to the leader’s purposeful expansion of teachers’ knowledge, skills, and dispositions concerning the unique needs of ELLs and communicating the importance of the effective curricular integration of well-planned and embedded strategies designed to meet the needs of the often marginalized ELL population. School leaders must be willing to provide a systematic program ...


The Changing Face Of The Elementary School Principal, Julie P. Combs, Stacey L. Edmonson Nov 2018

The Changing Face Of The Elementary School Principal, Julie P. Combs, Stacey L. Edmonson

School Leadership Review

Principals in today’s schools have more experience, have more education, and are of a more advanced age than ever before (National Association of Elementary School Principals [NAESP], 2006). Women elementary principals in the nation have increased from 41% to 56%. Likewise, the age of principals at all levels has increased, as did the percentage of principals who had more than 20 years of experience before entering the position (NAESP, 2006). In addition, the number of elementary principals has increased by 7,000 over the past 10 years (NAESP, 2004, 2005); this number grew to 61,000 in 2003-2004 from ...


None Of Us Are As Smart As All Of Us: Site Based Decision Making, Peggy B. Gill, Ross B. Sherman, Timothy B. Jones Nov 2018

None Of Us Are As Smart As All Of Us: Site Based Decision Making, Peggy B. Gill, Ross B. Sherman, Timothy B. Jones

School Leadership Review

The old Japanese Proverb states,” None of us are as smart as all of us.” In recent years, the educational system in the United States has been evolving from a largely centralized decision-making structure to a more decentralized one. This shift to school-based management requires fundamental changes to the organizational structure of the district as well as the roles within the organization. From administrators to parents, school based management demands a change in the "status quo" (Cotton, 1991). It involves shifting decision making from the central office administrators to that of local schools (Henkin, Cistone and Dee, 1999).


A Scholar–Practitioner Stance: Practices Of Social Justice And Democracy, Patrick M. Jenlink Nov 2018

A Scholar–Practitioner Stance: Practices Of Social Justice And Democracy, Patrick M. Jenlink

School Leadership Review

Crossing the threshold into a new millennium has been hallmarked by a series of defining events, which have shaped, irrevocably, society and its educational system. These events include the standards and accountability movement, the federal mandate of No Child Left Behind of 2001, the fifty-year anniversary of Brown v. Board of Education and the realization of how far we are from obtaining its promise, and the demographic shifts in population density and racial makeup nationally and particularly in urban centers, to mention a select few of the more profound historical events. Issues of diversity, both inter and intragroup, further illuminate ...


Teacher Perceptions Of The Instructional Leadership Practices Of Principals, Don Leech, James L. Pate, Nicole M. Gibson, Ronny Green, Robert Smith Nov 2018

Teacher Perceptions Of The Instructional Leadership Practices Of Principals, Don Leech, James L. Pate, Nicole M. Gibson, Ronny Green, Robert Smith

School Leadership Review

In today’s world school leadership, particularly instructional leadership, has taken on a new look. The era of high- stakes accountability has changed almost everything. The instructional leader of the 80’s was presented as an efficient top-down, task oriented manager who was focused on curriculum and instruction rather than buildings and budgets (Lashway, 2002). Gone are the days when principals spent most of their time with bus schedules, fire drills, and general curriculum, says the National Association of Elementary Principals (Henry, 2001). Leaders must keep abreast of state and federal goals, the latest technologies and teaching practices, as well ...


Ethical Development And Diversity Training For Educational Leaders, Ilene L. Ingram, Shannon Flumerfelt Nov 2018

Ethical Development And Diversity Training For Educational Leaders, Ilene L. Ingram, Shannon Flumerfelt

School Leadership Review

In the 21st century schools must meet the challenges of current and anticipated increases in racial and ethnic student populations. In turn, school principals must be prepared to lead diverse student populations to high levels of achievement. To facilitate adequate leadership preparation, therefore, the diversity training of educational leaders in given settings must be reworked so that the achievement gap between non-white and white students can be closed. Furthermore, restructuring of principal training is best accomplished through consensus within the profession, based on the tenets of the democratic values of respect, acceptance, and appreciation of diversity.

The purpose of this ...


Relationship Between Student Academic Achievement And Gender Of Campus Administrator, Pam Winn, Susan Erwin, Jim Gentry, Mary Cauble Nov 2018

Relationship Between Student Academic Achievement And Gender Of Campus Administrator, Pam Winn, Susan Erwin, Jim Gentry, Mary Cauble

School Leadership Review

Studies of the effectiveness of women’s leadership have been recommended by researchers for over three decades (e.g. Eckman, 2004; Edson, 1988; Schmuck, 1981; Shakeshaft, 1989). Burke & Nelson (2002) and Smulyan (2000) have suggested that a woman’s leadership experience is fundamentally influenced by gender. As greater numbers of women fill educational administration positions previously held by men (Addi-Raccah, 2006; Rusch & Marshall, 2006), opportunities to study leadership differences and effectiveness of men and women in meeting unique demands of their campuses can be measured. Although issues related to women leaders in superintendent positions have been explored (Tallerico, 1999; Brunner, 1999; Blount, 1998; Grogan, 1996), few studies have investigated women’s leadership at the campus level (Goldberg, 1991; Ortiz 1982; Shakeshaft, 1989; Schneider, 1986). Furthermore, identification of the complex leadership attributes of women might clarify the dynamics of their advancement into campus administration (Burke &Nelson, 2002).


Modeling Instructional Best Practices: Pedagogy Of College Of Education Professors, Kathleen Taylor Campbell, Rayma Harchar, Thomas Devaney, Deborah Mccarthy Nov 2018

Modeling Instructional Best Practices: Pedagogy Of College Of Education Professors, Kathleen Taylor Campbell, Rayma Harchar, Thomas Devaney, Deborah Mccarthy

School Leadership Review

In light of increased accountability for K-12 student achievement, critics have questioned the quality of teachers and school principals as well as the university programs that prepare them for these roles (Lambert, 1996; Levine, 2005; Murphy, 1992). Regarding the preparation of teachers, critics have stated that education courses are vapid, impractical, segmented, and directionless (Glenn, 2000). Two national reports that have made recommendations for teacher redesign are noteworthy. The report of the National Commission on Teaching and America’s Future, What matters most: Teaching for America’s future (Lambert, 1996), found that teacher preparation education is thin and fragmented and ...


Dimensions Of Educational Leadership: Cultural, Ethical, And Moral, Richard A. Gregory Nov 2018

Dimensions Of Educational Leadership: Cultural, Ethical, And Moral, Richard A. Gregory

School Leadership Review

Given the current state of affairs in the school districts of America, almost any observer could proclaim that a change in policy and leadership is urgently needed. The national pundits and politicians continue to blame the usual suspects: entrenched school cultures, teacher unions, shortened school years, and administrative bloat, to name a few. National educational leadership organizations (NCPEA, UCEA, and AASA) are hard at work defining a Knowledge Base (KB) for the training of educational leaders of the future.

While this author certainly applauds the efforts of these professional organizations, there are some things that university professors can do within ...


Professional Learning Communities: Are Schools Ready To Collaborate To Educate?, Rachel Hawkins, Jason Mixon Nov 2018

Professional Learning Communities: Are Schools Ready To Collaborate To Educate?, Rachel Hawkins, Jason Mixon

School Leadership Review

Every school in Texas has a common goal: students must pass the state-mandated test called the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS). With pressure from the state and federal government to raise achievement scores, schools are frantically searching for a program that will guarantee student success. Unfortunately, no program will be found because it is people, not programs, who make a difference in education.


An Lnvestigation Of Princapals' Use Of Data In Data-Driven Decision-Making And The Impact On Student Achievement, Jimmy K. Byrd, Colleen Eddy Nov 2018

An Lnvestigation Of Princapals' Use Of Data In Data-Driven Decision-Making And The Impact On Student Achievement, Jimmy K. Byrd, Colleen Eddy

School Leadership Review

The passage and implementation of the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB, 2001) ushered in a new era of educational accountability and school improvement. Schools are held accountable to meet adequate yearly progress that requires educators to closely monitor student performance on high-stake assessments. Further, NCLB significantly increases the pressure on states, districts and schools to collect, analyze and report data. Accountability demands are increasingly forcing school leaders to explore student-level data and to complete more sophisticated analyses. Data-driven decision-making (DDDM) has become an emerging field of practice for school leadership (Streifer, 2002) and a central focus of education policy ...


Preparing Aspiring Superintendents To Lead School Improvement: Perceptions Of Graduates For Program Development, Pauline M. Sampson, Betty J. Alford, Ralph L. Marshall Nov 2018

Preparing Aspiring Superintendents To Lead School Improvement: Perceptions Of Graduates For Program Development, Pauline M. Sampson, Betty J. Alford, Ralph L. Marshall

School Leadership Review

Changes in the design and delivery of educational leadership preparation programs are advocated in order to meet the needs of leadership for 21st century schools (Byrd, 2001; Cox, 2002; McKerrow, 1998; Smylie & Bennett, 2005). The changing needs of the 21st century, coupled with accountability standards and more diverse populations of students within school districts, create challenges for leaders who are attempting to increase student achievement (Firestone & Shipps, 2005; Schlechty, 2008). Further, student performance demands have increased at the state and national level because of the No Child Left Behind Act (Wong & Nicotera, 2007). These standards have thus increased the emphasis of the administrator's responsibility to positively impact student achievement (Taylor, 2001). With the graying of the profession and the need for exemplary school superintendents, the preparation of school superintendents who can successfully lead school improvement ...


Rural Principal Leadership Skill Proficiency And Student Achievement, Sue Erwin, Pam Winn, John Erwin, Jim Gentry, Mary Cauble Nov 2018

Rural Principal Leadership Skill Proficiency And Student Achievement, Sue Erwin, Pam Winn, John Erwin, Jim Gentry, Mary Cauble

School Leadership Review

Warren and Peel (2005) found that rural schools can effectively develop focused leadership support and training. However, as indicated by Arnold, et al. (2004), the knowledge and skills most critical to effective rural administration have yet to be identified. Targeting specific leadership skills related to student achievement might focus university principal preparation programs and public school district staff development programs on producing more effective rural leadership. Ultimately, this emphasis may improve student achievement and school performance in rural schools.

Because of the importance of developing highly skilled rural school leaders, this study will endeavor to identify the leadership skills of ...


A Policy Agenda For Addressing Homelessness, Kerri Tobin, Joseph Murphy Nov 2018

A Policy Agenda For Addressing Homelessness, Kerri Tobin, Joseph Murphy

School Leadership Review

Homelessness in the United States after World War II was primarily a problem of adult men, and initial attempts to address the problem were generally aimed at getting these men treatment for alcohol abuse and mental illness (Bahr, 1973). In the modern era of homelessness, however, the housing-displaced population also includes sober men and single women, families with children, and unaccompanied youth, necessitating distinct policies and programs to meet the needs of each group (National Center on Family Homelessness [NCFH], 2009). Before making policy decisions, however, it is imperative that we develop a better understanding of homelessness and what we ...


Evaluation Change: Building Rural Teacher Capacity Through International Partnerships, Peggy Gill, Joyce Nuner Nov 2018

Evaluation Change: Building Rural Teacher Capacity Through International Partnerships, Peggy Gill, Joyce Nuner

School Leadership Review

Teachers for a Better Belize (TFABB) is a partnership of educators from North America and Belize who volunteer their time to improve the training of teachers and the education of children in the rural Toledo district of Belize. TFABB aids Toledo's primary-school teachers and principals with training, supplies, and facilities required to help their students achieve academic success and escape poverty. Toledo, in southernmost Belize, is the least populated and most remote area in Belize. In the 2007 midyear population estimate, Toledo had a population of 29,700 which included at least five distinct ethnic groups who have settled ...


International Partnerships: A Model For Educational Organizations, Wesley D. Hickey, Janice M. Achtem, Joyce Nuner Nov 2018

International Partnerships: A Model For Educational Organizations, Wesley D. Hickey, Janice M. Achtem, Joyce Nuner

School Leadership Review

Opportunities exist for faculty and students within educational leadership preparation programs to participate in international initiatives within developing countries. One way to do this is through collaboration with organizations that already have an established presence in the country. Working within these organizations provides opportunities for learning and research for the educational leadership program. If done well, such work also helps host organizations meet their mission and goals. An understanding of effective behaviors in international partnerships may benefit educational leadership programs that develop these types of service opportunities. The behaviors mirror the scholar-practitioner philosophy, of which some prominent educational leadership programs ...


Professional Development Principles For Teachers Of English Language Learners, Beverly J. Irby, Cindy Guerrero, Rafael Lara-Alecio, Fuhui Tong, Linda Rodriguez Nov 2018

Professional Development Principles For Teachers Of English Language Learners, Beverly J. Irby, Cindy Guerrero, Rafael Lara-Alecio, Fuhui Tong, Linda Rodriguez

School Leadership Review

Since effective professional development is logically embedded in the reality of schools and teachers‘ work, it stands to reason that the principal would consider that reality for teachers of English language learners (ELL). Certainly, in general, professional development would incorporate principles of adult learning as reported by Knowles (1980): (1) adult learners need to be self-directed; (2) they display readiness to learn when they have a perceived need; and (3) they desire immediate application of new skills and knowledge. Based on adult learning theory, then, principals would provide teachers of ELLs professional development that addresses a need for self-direction, that ...