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2016

Obesity

Articles 1 - 16 of 16

Full-Text Articles in Education

Effects Of Obesity In Elementary School Children After No Child Left Behind (Nclb), Victoria L. Moore Dec 2016

Effects Of Obesity In Elementary School Children After No Child Left Behind (Nclb), Victoria L. Moore

Capstone Projects and Master's Theses

Ever since No Child Left Behind (NCLB) legislation became adopted into our school system, students’ physical health has suffered. Recently, the number of unhealthy children has grown. One in three children are classified as overweight or obese. This senior capstone project demonstrates the causes and effects of such an issue in regards to both physical education and nutritional education in elementary schools in the tri-county areas of Monterey, Salinas, and Santa Clara counties. The results from twenty-seven survey results and one interview suggest that most teachers feel that there is a need for daily physical education and nutritional education should ...


Assessing Feasibility And Readiness To Address Obesity Through Policy In American Indian Reservations, Valarie Blue Bird Jernigan, Gail Boe, Carolyn Noonan, Leslie Carroll, Dedra Buchwald Oct 2016

Assessing Feasibility And Readiness To Address Obesity Through Policy In American Indian Reservations, Valarie Blue Bird Jernigan, Gail Boe, Carolyn Noonan, Leslie Carroll, Dedra Buchwald

Journal of Health Disparities Research and Practice

The Institute of Medicine and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) have identified policy and environmental strategies as critical to the prevention and control of obesity. However such strategies are rare in American Indian communities despite significant obesity-related disparities. Tribal policymaking processes differ by tribal nation and are often poorly understood by researchers and public health practitioners, hindering the dissemination, implementation, and successful scale-up of evidence-base obesity strategies in tribal communities. To address these gaps in knowledge we surveyed 138 diverse stakeholders in two American Indian reservations to assess the feasibility of and readiness to implement CDC-recommended obesity policy ...


The Contributions Of Skeletal Muscle Pkc Theta To Diet-Induced Obesity, Erika Harness, Joseph S. Marino, Phd, Yvette Huet, Phd Aug 2016

The Contributions Of Skeletal Muscle Pkc Theta To Diet-Induced Obesity, Erika Harness, Joseph S. Marino, Phd, Yvette Huet, Phd

Journal of Health Disparities Research and Practice

Protein Kinase C- Theta (PKCθ) is a gene predominantly expressed in hematopoietic cells and skeletal muscle. In skeletal muscle, PKCθ regulates fat metabolism and insulin sensitivity. PKCθ activity increases in response to high levels of diacylglycerol in the cell, a common outcome of chronic high fat diet consumption and obesity. PKCθ is associated with skeletal muscle metabolic dysfunction, which may exacerbate weight gain and metabolic disease. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that the selective deletion of PKCθ from skeletal muscle protects against diet-induced obesity.

Mice lacking PKCθ in skeletal muscle were created using Cre-Lox recombination ...


An Intervention To Promote Navajo Gardening, Nutrition, And Community Wellness, Sonia Avitia, Mark C. Bauer, Phd, Linda Garcia Aug 2016

An Intervention To Promote Navajo Gardening, Nutrition, And Community Wellness, Sonia Avitia, Mark C. Bauer, Phd, Linda Garcia

Journal of Health Disparities Research and Practice

The rates of diabetes and obesity in Navajo communities are higher than national rates. A healthy diet of fresh fruits and vegetables will help to prevent and reduce such rates. So the project focuses on promoting gardening to make vegetables and fruits more accessible at the comfort of one’s own home. Previous research in this area shows that gardeners consume 2 more servings of fruits and vegetables than nongardeners. Thirty participants were recruited by flyer distribution at chapter houses, senior centers, and community centers, from four Navajo targeted areas: Shiprock, NM; Tsaile, AZ; Lukachukai, AZ, and Hogback, NM. With ...


Leptin Induces Proliferation And Notch Expression In Pancreatic Cancer, Felice Watson, Ruben Gonzalez-Perez, Phd Aug 2016

Leptin Induces Proliferation And Notch Expression In Pancreatic Cancer, Felice Watson, Ruben Gonzalez-Perez, Phd

Journal of Health Disparities Research and Practice

Pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PA) is an aggressive cancer. It develops in a way that causes almost no detectable symptoms, which leads to a rapid progression and a short survival rate.

Researchers have discovered a link between pancreatic cancer (and other cancer types) and obesity. High levels of leptin, an appetite hormone secreted by adipocytes, have been found in obese people. Studies have shown that the absence of leptin in the body or severe leptin resistance can lead to uncontrolled eating and weight gain, hence, its connection to obesity. Consequently, our lab is analyzing the relationship between obesity and leptin and what ...


Exploration Of Antagonist Efficacy For Lpra2 Like Peptide, Ayobami Loye, Ruben R. Gonzalez-Perez, Phd Aug 2016

Exploration Of Antagonist Efficacy For Lpra2 Like Peptide, Ayobami Loye, Ruben R. Gonzalez-Perez, Phd

Journal of Health Disparities Research and Practice

Leptin is a small protein hormone that controls satiety and is produced by adipocytes. Obese people have increased levels of circulating leptin. Excessive leptin levels cause a break down in the control of leptin signaling pathways leading to increased angiogenesis, proliferation, cell migration, invasion, and anti-apoptotic events. Obesity and leptin signaling have been linked to cancer progression. Literature shows that LPrA2 is an effective leptin antagonist as it decreases proliferation of breast cancer cells in vitro.

This project compares the effectiveness of LPrA2 like compounds in breast cancer cell-line MDA-MB-468 (M-468 BCs). We hypothesize that the new peptide antagonists have ...


Have You Counted The Ingredients On Your Child's Lunch Tray?: An Economic Analysis Of Sustainability Initiatives Within The School Lunch Program, Vanessa R. Scalora Jul 2016

Have You Counted The Ingredients On Your Child's Lunch Tray?: An Economic Analysis Of Sustainability Initiatives Within The School Lunch Program, Vanessa R. Scalora

Business and Economics Summer Fellows

In 2010, President Obama signed the Healthy Hunger Free Kids Act, establishing a monetary incentive for schools that served meals following a more rigorous nutritional requirement than standard guidelines. This act is a step in the right direction towards placing more importance on school lunches, however America’s lunchroom practices continue to be environmentally unsustainable, and students absorb this message. The production and transportation of processed cafeteria food contributes to climate change, its packaging is polluting, and its consumption contributes to obesity. The use of premade foods and sales from vending machines increase as lunch times grow ever shorter. In ...


The Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills Model: An Examination Of Obesity Prevention Behavioral Change In Children Who Participated In The Afterschool Program Virginia Beach Let’S Move, Marilyn Miroshlava Bartholmae Jul 2016

The Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills Model: An Examination Of Obesity Prevention Behavioral Change In Children Who Participated In The Afterschool Program Virginia Beach Let’S Move, Marilyn Miroshlava Bartholmae

Health Services Research Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to examine the utility of the Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills Model (IMB) as a foundation to design childhood obesity prevention afterschool programs. This study employed a secondary analysis of pre (n=172), post (n=170), and 1-year follow-up (n=32) evaluations of the obesity prevention afterschool program Virginia Beach Let’s Move for children ages 5-11 years. Independent variables included demographic characteristics for the participating children and their parents. Dependent variables used in this study were the IMB constructs information and motivation. Motivation was measured by the attitudes of the children and information was measured by ...


Newsroom, Georgia Southern University Jun 2016

Newsroom, Georgia Southern University

Newsroom

  • Georgia Southern study shows dangerous disconnect between doctors and parents of overweight children


Is There A Relationship Between Physical Fitness And Student Academic Achievement?, William Rushton Parker May 2016

Is There A Relationship Between Physical Fitness And Student Academic Achievement?, William Rushton Parker

Dissertations

The study utilized a quantitative approach to identify the relationship between students’ levels of fitness to students’ academic achievement as well as addressing the attitudes of elementary administrators, fifth grade regular education teachers, and elementary physical education teachers towards physical fitness and academic achievement. Instruments used in the study were the Mississippi Curriculum Test, 2nd Edition (MCT2) and the FITNESSGRAM. The data from the FITNESSGRAM and MCT2 were archival, coming from the 2013-2014 academic school year. The MCT2 provided scores from the areas of language arts, mathematics, and science, and the FITNESSGRAM provided the fitness scores of those students ...


The Relationship Between Physical Fitness And School Performance In Middle School Girls, Jamie Anne Donnelly Jan 2016

The Relationship Between Physical Fitness And School Performance In Middle School Girls, Jamie Anne Donnelly

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Past research has indicated a significant relationship between physical fitness and standardized test scores; however, the relationship between physical fitness and other aspects of school performance has yet to be empirically examined in a population specifically composed of middle school girls. This study examined several factors that contribute to school success, such as classroom behavior, attendance, and grades, in relation to physical fitness among a group of adolescent girls. It was specifically designed to examine the statistical relationship between physical fitness, as measured by the Fitnessgram, and quantitative data on school performance including grades, standardized test scores, school behavior, and ...


Practicalities And Research Considerations For Conducting Childhood Obesity Prevention Interventions With Families, Philip J. Morgan, Rachel A. Jones, Clare E. Collins, Kylie Hesketh, Myles D. Young, Tracy L. Burrows, Anthea Magarey, Helen L. Brown, Trina Hinkley, Rebecca A. Perry, Leah Brennan, Alison C. Spence, Karen Campbell Jan 2016

Practicalities And Research Considerations For Conducting Childhood Obesity Prevention Interventions With Families, Philip J. Morgan, Rachel A. Jones, Clare E. Collins, Kylie Hesketh, Myles D. Young, Tracy L. Burrows, Anthea Magarey, Helen L. Brown, Trina Hinkley, Rebecca A. Perry, Leah Brennan, Alison C. Spence, Karen Campbell

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Internationally, childhood obesity is a major public health concern. Given the established difficulties in treating obesity, designing and evaluating effective obesity prevention interventions are research priorities. As parents play a crucial role in establishing positive health behaviours in children, they are a key target for child obesity prevention programs. However, recruiting and engaging parents in such interventions can be a considerable challenge for researchers and practitioners. Members of the 'Parenting, Child Behaviour and Well-being' stream of the Australasian Child and Adolescent Obesity Research Network (ACAORN) have considerable and varied expertise in conducting such interventions and can provide insights into addressing ...


Assessing The Sustained Impact Of A School-Based Obesity Prevention Program For Adolescent Boys: The Atlas Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial, David R. Lubans, Jordan J. Smith, Ronald Plotnikoff, Kerry A. Dally, Anthony D. Okely, Jo Salmon, Philip J. Morgan Jan 2016

Assessing The Sustained Impact Of A School-Based Obesity Prevention Program For Adolescent Boys: The Atlas Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial, David R. Lubans, Jordan J. Smith, Ronald Plotnikoff, Kerry A. Dally, Anthony D. Okely, Jo Salmon, Philip J. Morgan

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Background: Obesity prevention interventions targeting 'at-risk' adolescents are urgently needed. The aim of this study is to evaluate the sustained impact of the 'Active Teen Leaders Avoiding Screen-time' (ATLAS) obesity prevention program. Methods: Cluster RCT in 14 secondary schools in low-income communities of New South Wales, Australia. Participants were 361 adolescent boys (aged 12-14 years) 'at risk' of obesity. The intervention was based on Self-Determination Theory and Social Cognitive Theory and involved: professional development, fitness equipment for schools, teacher-delivered physical activity sessions, lunch-time activity sessions, researcher-led seminars, a smartphone application, and parental strategies. Assessments for the primary (body mass index ...


Targeting Population Nutrition Through Municipal Health And Food Policy: Implications Of New York City's Experiences In Regulatory Obesity Prevention, Jana Sisnowski, Jackie M. Street, Annette J. Braunack-Mayer Jan 2016

Targeting Population Nutrition Through Municipal Health And Food Policy: Implications Of New York City's Experiences In Regulatory Obesity Prevention, Jana Sisnowski, Jackie M. Street, Annette J. Braunack-Mayer

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Obesity remains a major public health challenge across OECD countries and policy-makers globally require successful policy precedents. This paper analyzes New York City’s innovative experiences in regulatory approaches to nutrition. We combined a systematic documentary review and key informant interviews (n = 9) with individuals directly involved in nutrition policy development and decision-making. Thematic analysis was guided by Kingdon’s three-streams-model and the International Obesity Task Force’s evidence-based decision-making framework. Our findings indicate that decisive mayoral leadership spearheaded initial agenda-change and built executive capacity to support evidence-driven policy. Policy-makers in the executive branch recognized the dearth of evidence for ...


African American Single Mothers' Perceptions Of Physical Activity, Sheryl Lynn Richard Jan 2016

African American Single Mothers' Perceptions Of Physical Activity, Sheryl Lynn Richard

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Insufficient physical activity detracts from healthy living and has a disparate impact on African American women and their female children. The extensive body of prior research addressing preventable chronic disease and other consequences of insufficient physical activity includes limited information specific to African American single mothers. The purpose of this descriptive phenomenological study was to gain an understanding of African American single mothers' perceptions of physical activity. Specifically investigated were African American women's familial influences and potential effects of these influences on their children's health behaviors. The health belief model served as the theoretical framework for this study ...


Parent-Focused Childhood And Adolescent Overweight And Obesity Ehealth Interventions: A Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis, Megan Hammersley, Rachel A. Jones, Anthony D. Okely Jan 2016

Parent-Focused Childhood And Adolescent Overweight And Obesity Ehealth Interventions: A Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis, Megan Hammersley, Rachel A. Jones, Anthony D. Okely

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Background: Effective broad-reach interventions to reduce childhood obesity are needed, but there is currently little consensus on the most effective approach. Parental involvement in interventions appears to be important. The use of eHealth modalities in interventions also seems to be promising. To our knowledge, there have been no previous reviews that have specifically investigated the effectiveness of parent-focused eHealth obesity interventions, a gap that this systematic review and meta-analysis intends to address. Objective: The objective of this study was to review the evidence for body mass index (BMI)/BMI z-score improvements in eHealth overweight and obesity randomized controlled trials for ...