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2016

SIT Graduate Institute/SIT Study Abroad

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Articles 1 - 30 of 100

Full-Text Articles in Education

Global Citizenship Certificate Program, Alison C. Meighan Dec 2016

Global Citizenship Certificate Program, Alison C. Meighan

Capstone Collection

In today’s highly globalized and increasingly interconnected world, we face many pressing world problems including poverty, social inequalities, and climate change, to name a few. Reflecting this stark reality and acknowledging that these problems are indeed borderless, it has become vital to rethink education and provide the next generation of worldwide change-makers with the knowledge, skills, and attitudes necessary to solve these problems and make our world more equitable and sustainable. One avenue for achieving this shift in education and fostering these global problem-solving skills and attitudes, is global citizenship. United Nations Secretary General Ban Ki-moon corroborates this point ...


Student Perspectives On Proficiency-Based Learning In Vermont's High School Completion Program, Hayley J. Shriner Dec 2016

Student Perspectives On Proficiency-Based Learning In Vermont's High School Completion Program, Hayley J. Shriner

Capstone Collection

This Independent Practitioner Inquiry Capstone (IPIC) paper examines student perspectives on proficiency-based learning at an adult education center in Vermont. Through Vermont’s High School Completion Program (HSCP), adults can earn their high school diplomas through proficiency-based Personalized Learning Plans (PLPs). This qualitative study focuses on high school-aged students who received referrals to the program from area schools within the context of the current shift toward proficiency-based learning mandated by Vermont Act 77. The study draws on resources specific to Act 77, as well as literature on the nationwide trend toward personalized learning and proficiency-based learning. The researcher uses holistic ...


Learning To Know, Do And Be: Curriculum For Self-Reflection And Intercultural Consciousness For The Sena Volunteacher Program, Claire H. Hero Dec 2016

Learning To Know, Do And Be: Curriculum For Self-Reflection And Intercultural Consciousness For The Sena Volunteacher Program, Claire H. Hero

Capstone Collection

Teach abroad programs have gained popularity across the world, as they are often an attractive option for people to live internationally while earning money. Many programs’ practices contribute to local teachers’ loss of employment, perpetuating stereotypes or ethnocentric views, or invite tourists into classrooms to “teach” English to communities they have no substantial interest in. As the industry grows, it is important to develop programs that promote responsible practices to encourage favorable impacts on the communities as well as visiting teachers. This proposed curriculum has been designed to enhance the experience for participants of the SENA Volunteacher Program for the ...


Relationship Between Preponderance Of Adhd In The African American Community And How Teachers Are Trained To Type Students As Adhd, E Madison Dec 2016

Relationship Between Preponderance Of Adhd In The African American Community And How Teachers Are Trained To Type Students As Adhd, E Madison

Capstone Collection

The following capstone paper “Relationship between preponderance of ADHD in African American community and how teachers are trained to type students as ADHD” explores the epidemic of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) diagnosis in students and the prevalence of ADHD in the African American community. In recent years the number of African American children with ADHD have skyrocketed concerning parents about the over diagnoses and misdiagnoses of the disorder (Ahmann, 2016). A recent study by Getahun and colleagues found a "70 percent increase in the number of ADHD diagnoses among African American children, with a 90 percent increase among African ...


Backpacking Brothers: An Experiential, Adventure Education Program To Transform Rape Culture And Prevent Sexual Violence, Matthew Lynn Dec 2016

Backpacking Brothers: An Experiential, Adventure Education Program To Transform Rape Culture And Prevent Sexual Violence, Matthew Lynn

Capstone Collection

Sexual violence is a public health crisis in the United States and globally, that has devastating interpersonal, social, psychological, spiritual and economic impacts. The root causes of sexual violence are tied to all forms of oppression. The normalization and perpetuation of sexual violence is buttressed by cultural paradigms used by media, religion, education and other systems that maintain rigid gender roles and power dynamics. There are promising initiatives for preventing sexual violence before it occurs. This paper explores one of those initiatives called Backpacking Brothers. The purpose of Backpacking Brothers is to engage middle school boys in an adventure education ...


The University Of Hawaii At Hilo: National Student Exchange Four-Part Workshop For The Outgoing Students At The University Of Hawaii At Hilo, Kadian Shaw Dec 2016

The University Of Hawaii At Hilo: National Student Exchange Four-Part Workshop For The Outgoing Students At The University Of Hawaii At Hilo, Kadian Shaw

Capstone Collection

The University of Hawaii at Hilo (UH Hilo) is part of the National Student Exchange Consortium, a unique, not for profit organization of nearly 170 accredited, baccalaureate-granting Colleges and Universities that provide exchange opportunities to undergraduate students. These exchange opportunities are across the US mainland, the US territories and Canada. The purpose of the National Student Exchange Office at the University of Hawaii at Hilo is to provide UH Hilo students with exchange opportunities at a reasonable and affordable cost. This capstone explores the idea that it is important to prepare students for a domestic exchange program. This capstone will ...


Reflections On Donor-Funded Reports And Education Programs In Pakistan: A Qualitative Analysis On Pakistan’S English Education, Amy M. Puett Oct 2016

Reflections On Donor-Funded Reports And Education Programs In Pakistan: A Qualitative Analysis On Pakistan’S English Education, Amy M. Puett

MA TESOL Collection

The extensive rise in aid from aid organizations and donor agencies for education in Pakistan at the beginning of the 21st century has resulted in a rise of the number of studies and reports on Pakistan’s education system and newly developed education programs. This was partially due to the concern about the status of the religious schools known as madaris and the quality of education they provided. The majority of the existing reports on education offer quantitative analyses and pay little attention to English taught in schools although English is critically important for job opportunities and professional growth in ...


“Si No Participas, Alguien Ajeno Va A Decidir Por Vos:” Practicas De Autonomia En El Bachillerato Popular De Frente Popular Darío Santillán En Constitución, Buenos Aires / "If You Do Not Participate, Someone Else Will Decide For You:" Practices Of Autonomy In The Popular Baccalaureate Of Frente Popular Darío Santillán In Constitución, Buenos Aires, Sarah Kravinsky Oct 2016

“Si No Participas, Alguien Ajeno Va A Decidir Por Vos:” Practicas De Autonomia En El Bachillerato Popular De Frente Popular Darío Santillán En Constitución, Buenos Aires / "If You Do Not Participate, Someone Else Will Decide For You:" Practices Of Autonomy In The Popular Baccalaureate Of Frente Popular Darío Santillán In Constitución, Buenos Aires, Sarah Kravinsky

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Los reformas neoliberales en Argentina durante las últimas décadas han causado una crisis en el sistema educativo público, los efectos de la cual todavía se sienten más profundamente en el sector de para adultos y jóvenes (EDAJ). Durante este mismo período, nuevos movimientos sociales, como el movimiento piquetero de trabajadores desocupadas, habían surgido para resistir las políticas de neoliberalismo y crear fuentes de educación, salud, y trabajo cuando el educación estado no está hacerlo. La presente investigación toma como su tema las prácticas cotidianas y dilemas de la educación popular como una de estas iniciativas, un bachillerato popular (BP) del ...


Las Percepciones De Las Dinámicas De Género A Través De Los Niveles Socioeconómicos De Dos Liceos De Santiago De Chile / 119/5000 Perceptions Of Dynamics Gender Equality Across Socio-Economic Levels Of Two High Schools In Santiago De Chile, Sarah Kochanek Oct 2016

Las Percepciones De Las Dinámicas De Género A Través De Los Niveles Socioeconómicos De Dos Liceos De Santiago De Chile / 119/5000 Perceptions Of Dynamics Gender Equality Across Socio-Economic Levels Of Two High Schools In Santiago De Chile, Sarah Kochanek

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

La siguiente investigación se enfoca en el tema de género en el sistema educativo chileno. El objetivo amplio de la investigación es comparar las percepciones de género y reproducciones de roles de género en las opiniones de estudiantes de dos liceos de diferentes niveles socioeconómicos en Santiago y analizar las diferencias. Los métodos de esta investigación incluyeron observación participante, entrevistas con estudiantes y profesores de dos diferentes liceos de Santiago (una municipal y una particular pagada). Los principales hallazgos rechazaron la hipótesis planteada; se encontró que la conciencia del tema es más presente en la escuela municipal, de bajos recursos ...


Access Is Not Enough: Family Planning In Dar Es Salaam, Claire Burrus Oct 2016

Access Is Not Enough: Family Planning In Dar Es Salaam, Claire Burrus

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Population growth is a large problem, both globally and at local levels. The global population is growing at an unsustainable rate, particularly in developing nations. Tanzania, as a developing nation, is one of the fastest growing countries in the world, and as a result, faces many hardships related to high population. The Tanzanian government, non-governmental organizations, and private institutions have made attempts to address these concerns by encouraging family planning. Even so, the national population continues to rise. Many social and cultural factors have contributed to this phenomenon. This study was performed in the Women’s Clinic at Sanitas Hospital ...


Estudio Acerca Del Apoyo Educacional Y Laboral Para Alumnos En Situación De Discapacidad Intelectual: El Caso De Cinco Instituciones De Educación Especial En Santiago, Viña Del Mar Y San Antonio / Study On Educational And Work Support For Students In Situations Of Intellectual Disability: The Case Of Five Special Education Institutions In Santiago, Viña Del Mar And San Antonio, Sophia Gomez Oct 2016

Estudio Acerca Del Apoyo Educacional Y Laboral Para Alumnos En Situación De Discapacidad Intelectual: El Caso De Cinco Instituciones De Educación Especial En Santiago, Viña Del Mar Y San Antonio / Study On Educational And Work Support For Students In Situations Of Intellectual Disability: The Case Of Five Special Education Institutions In Santiago, Viña Del Mar And San Antonio, Sophia Gomez

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Research Question: How effective are special education organizations and programs in helping students with intellectual disabilities with job pursuits, education, and independence?

Objectives: The general objective of this study is to describe the support that students with intellectual disabilities receive from the special education system and how this support promotes autonomy. The specific objectives are to investigate the teachers’ roles, discover the level of autonomy students have, and identify how the education system supports labor insertion.

Antecedents: Historically, job placement has been difficult for people with disabilities. Many people are misinformed regarding their true abilities. There also exists an ignorance ...


Protección De Los Niños Y Niñas Indígenas: El Caso Del Sename Y El Pueblo Mapuche En Chile / 90/5000 Protection Of Indigenous Children: The Case Of The Sename And The Mapuche People In Chile, Maxine Freedman Oct 2016

Protección De Los Niños Y Niñas Indígenas: El Caso Del Sename Y El Pueblo Mapuche En Chile / 90/5000 Protection Of Indigenous Children: The Case Of The Sename And The Mapuche People In Chile, Maxine Freedman

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

The rights of all children are guaranteed in the Convention on the Rights of the Child, adopted by the United Nations in 1989. This Convention guaranteed children the right not only to sufficient food, a place to live, and security, but also to a high quality education and political inclusion. Chile ratified the Convention in 1990, and it became the legal base for the work done by Chile’s child protection system, el Servicio Nacional del Menor (SENAME). The system administers sanctions for youth who have broken the law and intervenes when children have been victims of a violation of ...


Migrant Education In Morocco: Cross-Cultural Competence Favored Over Integrative Reform. An Analysis Of The Moroccan Government’S Migrant Integration Efforts Through Education., Ella Schoenen Oct 2016

Migrant Education In Morocco: Cross-Cultural Competence Favored Over Integrative Reform. An Analysis Of The Moroccan Government’S Migrant Integration Efforts Through Education., Ella Schoenen

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

In 2014 the Ministry in Charge of Moroccans Abroad and Migration Affairs, adopted the National Policy of Immigration and Asylum detailing efforts to realize an adaptive education system, sensitive to migrant education and inclusive of teaching and learning strategies directed towards children of foreign heritage. As migrant networks grow more and more fortified, and people all over the world experience improved mobility, destination countries are finding multicultural and inclusive education systems integral to the wellbeing of its new residents, and the tolerance of its native citizens. Based on the national strategy for immigration and asylum put forth by the Ministry ...


For A Public-Private Partnership To Achieve Migrant Health Equality In Morocco: A Cross-Analysis Of Integration Policies And Migrant Peer Educator Programs, Victoria Anders Oct 2016

For A Public-Private Partnership To Achieve Migrant Health Equality In Morocco: A Cross-Analysis Of Integration Policies And Migrant Peer Educator Programs, Victoria Anders

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Since the Moroccan Ministry in Charge of Moroccans Living Abroad and Migration Affairs (MRE) released its National Strategy on Immigration and Asylum in December 2014, MRE has put forth various policies and action plans to improve migrant integration in Morocco, including the need for their integration into the national healthcare system. Before that, most of the needs of the growing migrant population in Morocco were provided for by civil society and non-governmental organizations, who worked with severely underserved and isolated migrants often fearful and distrusting of the government and authorities. To overcome this resentment, these organizations had to develop community ...


Actually, Let’S Not Talk About Sex: The Value-Laden Sex Education Received By China’S Young Women, Allyson Tsu Oct 2016

Actually, Let’S Not Talk About Sex: The Value-Laden Sex Education Received By China’S Young Women, Allyson Tsu

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

This research explored China’s sex education and the values it imparts to China’s young women. Findings indicate that although young women wish to learn about safe sex and sexuality from both schools and parents, communication is restricted by both parties embarrassment, lack of preparation, and fear that open dialogue on such topics will promote sexual activity.

The study found that while sex education classes were informative on physiological topics, in participants' perceptions, they lacked information on safe sex (i.e. use of contraceptives) by sticking to the abstinence narrative, and assuming—or pretending—that China’s young people ...


Human Rights Education: A Tool For The Cultivation Of National Human Rights Culture In Morocco, Page Benoit Oct 2016

Human Rights Education: A Tool For The Cultivation Of National Human Rights Culture In Morocco, Page Benoit

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Human rights have been taught in Morocco for twenty years. Since the process of Moroccan transitional justice, the aim of this human rights education has been to promote a national human rights culture. This research is a cross-comparison between how human rights education; for the purpose of creating a human rights aware society, is presented and enacted by the the Moroccan government and how it is presented and enacted by non-governmental bodies in a post transitional justice moment of history. The study was conducted through a qualitative data method. It includes interviews with the Inter-Ministerial Delegation of Human Rights and ...


Mandating International Experience: A Policy Analysis Of The State University Of New York (Suny) At Geneseo Requirement For All International Relations Degree Seeking Students To Study Abroad, Leiah Heckathorn Aug 2016

Mandating International Experience: A Policy Analysis Of The State University Of New York (Suny) At Geneseo Requirement For All International Relations Degree Seeking Students To Study Abroad, Leiah Heckathorn

Capstone Collection

The prioritization of international education is gaining momentum among higher education institutions. One specific testament to this fact is the steady growth in study abroad participation. As the overall percentage of students studying abroad for credit during their undergraduate career rises, policies are being created in a variety of contexts to promote international education experiences (Open Doors). Amidst these fledgling policies, a 22-year-old major-specific study abroad requirement has thrived and continues to evolve in today’s global state.

This capstone is an analysis of the State University of New York (SUNY) at Geneseo’s International Relations (IR) policy requiring all ...


The Amandla Project, Alexander Stone Aug 2016

The Amandla Project, Alexander Stone

Capstone Collection

The Amandla Project is designed to increase the number of disabled American college students pursuing educational opportunities abroad. Incorporated as a nonprofit organization, the Amandla Project will cover all costs for accepted participants through fundraising activities, removing the financial barrier for participants. Participants will complete internships with organizations serving South Africans with disabilities, in roles that match their professional and academic goals. With educational excursions and learning activities to supplement internship experiences, the Amandla Project meets its mission while benefiting the host country and fostering leadership and advocacy skills within participants.


Enlaces: Transformative Educational Policy For The Latin American And Caribbean Region, Kelcy B. Cox Aug 2016

Enlaces: Transformative Educational Policy For The Latin American And Caribbean Region, Kelcy B. Cox

Capstone Collection

This capstone paper explores ENLACES, the Latin American and Caribbean Meeting Space for Higher Education, or in Spanish, Espacio de Encuentro Latinamericano y Caribeño de Educación Superior (ENLACES). In the same fashion that the UNESCO-Bologna Accords gave rise to the European Higher Education Area, so, too, did the UNESCO-International Institute for Higher Education in Latin America and the Caribbean give rise to ENLACES. ENLACES is an evolving, transformative education policy that promotes the region’s integration and internationalization of higher education through collaborative means. This paper explores the region’s educational environment during the twentieth and twenty-first centuries that led ...


Diversity Training Workshop Series: How To Learn And Interact Within A Diverse Community, Katherine Mabel Bernal Aug 2016

Diversity Training Workshop Series: How To Learn And Interact Within A Diverse Community, Katherine Mabel Bernal

Capstone Collection

This capstone focuses on a diversity initiative designed for higher education institutions in the United States and it targets students of all levels and degrees. The theme selected for this capstone is: “Diversity Training Workshop Series: How to Learn and Interact within a Diverse Community” and it will be a co-curricular program that follows the interests promoted by Affirmative Action. Due to the wide range of intersectionalities and the abstract definition of Diversity, in this paper, diversity is defined solely as the “composition of the student body”.

The trainings outline the needs for students to recognize and acknowledge non-visible identity ...


Internationalizing Teacher Education: A Case Study Of A School Of Education, Florence Bromfield Aug 2016

Internationalizing Teacher Education: A Case Study Of A School Of Education, Florence Bromfield

Capstone Collection

Schools of Education across the US are some of the furthest behind in the race to internationalize departments across campuses in higher education. What does this mean for students in the K-12 classroom? The purpose of this case study is to explore the internationalization of teacher education within the context of a medium-sized state university in the South-East of the US. Working with the School of Education on this campus, qualitative interviews and surveys were administered to faculty and pre-service teachers to understand the extent of internationalization at the university, and the needs of the K-12 classroom. For this research ...


Advocating For In-Service Teacher Training In Mexico: English4mexico, Carrie Byrne Aug 2016

Advocating For In-Service Teacher Training In Mexico: English4mexico, Carrie Byrne

Capstone Collection

The lack of English language proficiency among Mexican public school students, due to a deficit of skilled English language teachers, can have a profound effect on a students’ university prospects, study abroad opportunities, and earning potential. With the current emphasis on student mobility between the US and Mexico being promoted by the complementary initiatives of the Department of State’s 100,000 Strong in the Americas, of which NAFSA: Association of International Educators (NAFSA) is a partner, and Mexico’s Proyecta 100,000, now is the perfect time to bring together the international education community to help address this injustice ...


Ease On Down The Road: From Diagnosis To Graduation And Beyond, An Auto-Ethnography, Amber M. Alford Aug 2016

Ease On Down The Road: From Diagnosis To Graduation And Beyond, An Auto-Ethnography, Amber M. Alford

Capstone Collection

This study was envisioned following a personal acknowledgement of perceived suppression of the author’s “unorthodox” approach to the research design process resulting in the desire to explore the role of the researcher’s experience in research design and ultimately in higher education. The author began feeling lost and overwhelmed in the pursuit of her Master of Arts degree. She felt that her particular values and methodology were not being validated or supported. Through the use of narrative, the author analyzes her own experience navigating higher education as one of the first in her entire family to do so, with ...


A National Bilingual Education Policy For The Economic And Academic Empowerment Of Youth In St. Lucia, West Indies, Gabriella Bellegarde Aug 2016

A National Bilingual Education Policy For The Economic And Academic Empowerment Of Youth In St. Lucia, West Indies, Gabriella Bellegarde

Capstone Collection

This campaign portfolio argues the case for a national bilingual education policy on the island of St. Lucia, where youth speak both St Lucian Creole and St. Lucian standard English. The portfolio consists of a policy paper and brief, an advocacy plan, a communications plan, monitoring and evaluation plan. The Bilingual Education Taskforce (BET), made up of teachers, parents and principals, is an advocacy organization that discovered the need for a bilingual education intervention when they observed, assessed and analyzed the written work of struggling readers at their school, the Anse la Raye Infant School on the west coast of ...


An Introductory Online Interactive Training To Disability Etiquette And Protocol To Promote Inclusion, David Murcko Aug 2016

An Introductory Online Interactive Training To Disability Etiquette And Protocol To Promote Inclusion, David Murcko

Capstone Collection

Study abroad is a privilege and an opportunity of a lifetime that not many individuals take full advantage of. Many factors can contribute towards a student’s decision to not study abroad, including but not limited to: finances, academic coursework, family concerns, and not being able to graduate on time. A topic rarely discussed is disclosing medical information. While the amount of students studying abroad is increasing every year, a significant amount of underrepresented minorities desire to embark on that journey of study abroad as well. Unfortunately, advisers are not always well equipped with adequate knowledge of resources. Outdated terminology ...


International Service-Learning And Experiential Education: Reframing A Putney Student Travel Service-Learning Program In The Dominican Republic, Zufan Hagos Aug 2016

International Service-Learning And Experiential Education: Reframing A Putney Student Travel Service-Learning Program In The Dominican Republic, Zufan Hagos

Capstone Collection

This paper presents the rationale for and design of a curricular framework for Putney Student Travel’s community service programs. The design is situated as a four-week service-learning program for high school students based in the Dominican Republic. With the exception of region-specific content, the curricular model will be transferable to any of Putney Student Travel’s 13 service-learning programs. Best practices in experiential education indicate that critical reflective thought is the key to harnessing the transformative capacity of international service-learning programs (Bringle, 2010; Whitney & Clayton, 2010). Following Kolb’s (2008) model for experiential learning and Baxter Magolda’s (1999 ...


Diversifying The Curriculum: An Analysis Of Diversity Course Policies At The University Of California San Diego, Maria Lourdes Amparo Aug 2016

Diversifying The Curriculum: An Analysis Of Diversity Course Policies At The University Of California San Diego, Maria Lourdes Amparo

Capstone Collection

As U.S. higher education institutions and the larger society become increasingly global and racially and ethnically diverse, educational institutions are faced with the challenge of adapting their policies and academic curriculum to reflect and meet the demands of a changing environment. As part of a comprehensive plan to address campus climate issues at the University of California, San Diego (UC San Diego), the UC San Diego Academic Senate revised the undergraduate graduation requirement in 2011 to include one course that focuses on Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion (DEI). In addition to having a diverse student population, UC San Diego is ...


Defining And Analyzing Internationalization At The University Of Northern Iowa, Melvin E. Fatimehin Aug 2016

Defining And Analyzing Internationalization At The University Of Northern Iowa, Melvin E. Fatimehin

Capstone Collection

Over the last few decades, internationalization has become an important topic in higher education. More institutions are incorporating global learning into their mission and vision plans and increasing internationalization initiatives at their respective institutions. This capstone focuses on the internationalization efforts of the University of Northern Iowa (UNI), a large four-year public university in Cedar Falls, Iowa. The capstone analyzes internationalization at UNI using the American Council on Education’s (2012) Center for Internationalization and Global Engagement Model for Comprehensive Internationalization. This capstone highlights existing strengths and weakness of internationalization at the University of Northern Iowa and sheds light on ...


Cross-Cultural Confidence: A Program Design For Accessible Intercultural Competence On Campus, Erika Clement Aug 2016

Cross-Cultural Confidence: A Program Design For Accessible Intercultural Competence On Campus, Erika Clement

Capstone Collection

Internationalization is currently one of the greatest issues facing higher education today. Colleges and universities have sought to produce graduates who are globally ready and capable of effectively navigating intercultural situations due to increasing diversity in the workplace and globalization; however, it has become apparent that efforts towards this end have not paid off as well as it was assumed they would. Now that US universities are admitting greater numbers of international students, intercultural competence and programs which build connections across cultural groups have become increasingly important on campus.

This capstone seeks to fashion an accessible, effective, on-campus program for ...


Law And Order: Lawsuit, Regulations And Implementation Of S.T.E.M. O.P.T. At The University Of Arkansas, Alexandra M. Wallace Jul 2016

Law And Order: Lawsuit, Regulations And Implementation Of S.T.E.M. O.P.T. At The University Of Arkansas, Alexandra M. Wallace

Capstone Collection

In 2015, Student and Exchange Visitor Program (SEVP) reported that over 1,054,000 international students were studying in the United States in F-1 student status (SEVP, 2015). F-1 status comes with many regulations and benefits, such as Optional Practical Training (OPT), which allows students with F-1 status to work after they complete a degree from an American higher education institution. Students in the Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) fields are allowed an additional 24-months of OPT, called STEM OPT. While this is a benefit in many senses, it is accompanied by a lot of responsibility for the student ...