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Full-Text Articles in Education

Reification, Resistance, And Transformation? The Impact Of Migration And Demographics On Linguistic, Racial, And Ethnic Identity And Equity In Educational Systems: An Applied Approach, Rebecca Ann Campbell Nov 2016

Reification, Resistance, And Transformation? The Impact Of Migration And Demographics On Linguistic, Racial, And Ethnic Identity And Equity In Educational Systems: An Applied Approach, Rebecca Ann Campbell

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Using an applied anthropological approach focused on language, this study investigates the relationship between linguistic, racial, and ethnic identities and school resource access in the context of migration. This project examines how these identities are established, experienced, reified, and resisted by various school actors. Exposing power at its roots through a multi-level analysis, this research informs on how people negotiate socialization into particular identities, propelling them toward positions in school and society of varying opportunity.

Focused on two elementary schools in a central Florida county that has been and is undergoing demographic changes, this work offers applications for educational institutions ...


Attitudes Toward Adult Education Among Adult Learners Without A High School Diploma Or Ged, Andrea Rose Bennett Nov 2016

Attitudes Toward Adult Education Among Adult Learners Without A High School Diploma Or Ged, Andrea Rose Bennett

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to explore attitudes toward adult education among adult learners without a high school diploma or the General Educational Development (GED). In this study, adult learners without a high school diploma or GED completed the Attitudes Toward Adult Education Scale (AACES) and selected respondents volunteered to participate in a face-to-face interview in conjunction with the mixed methods section of the study. For this study, I used a 5-point Likert scale to measure the responses on the 22-item AACES survey.

Three hundred and fifty respondents participated in the study. Descriptive statistics and a three-way ANOVA revealed ...


The Debt Burden Of Entry-Level Physical Therapists In Florida, Steven Benton Ambler Nov 2016

The Debt Burden Of Entry-Level Physical Therapists In Florida, Steven Benton Ambler

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Despite the education, autonomy, and high demand for physical therapists both nationally and in Florida, recent graduates have seen steadily rising education costs with disproportionate changes in income once they have graduated and entered the workforce. The growing debt burden of physical therapists entering the workforce, coupled with the growth in projected need and stagnant wages, raises concern about where and how entry-level physical therapists will practice and if these choices will be affected by their debt burden. The purpose of this quantitative, cross-sectional survey study was to identify the debt profile of entry-level physical therapists and explore the relationship ...


Teachers’ Third Eye: Using Video Elicitation Interviews To Facilitate Kuwaiti Early Childhood Preservice Teachers’ Reflections, Hessa Alsuhail Nov 2016

Teachers’ Third Eye: Using Video Elicitation Interviews To Facilitate Kuwaiti Early Childhood Preservice Teachers’ Reflections, Hessa Alsuhail

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This qualitative descriptive study explored the experiences of three Kuwaiti pre-service teachers with guided reflection and the extent to which video technology facilitates reflection. The data sources were semi-structured and video-elicited interviews, field notes, and researcher reflective journals. The study was guided by two research questions: In what ways does video elicitation facilitate Kuwaiti pre-service teachers’ reflections? What do Kuwaiti pre-service teachers reflect about? I used Rogoff’s Sociocultural Theory (2003; 1995) as my conceptual lens for this study which stresses the importance of cultural contexts in all areas of education. I developed a concept I call “third-eye” thinking to ...


Self-Study Of A Supervisor Making Connections In An Integrated Instructional Third Space In Elementary Mathematics And Field Experience, Katie Arndt Nov 2016

Self-Study Of A Supervisor Making Connections In An Integrated Instructional Third Space In Elementary Mathematics And Field Experience, Katie Arndt

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Too often teachers see mathematics as a culturally neutral subject. Teacher educators need to be aware of their own practice and how it impacts the facilitation of preservice teacher learning, in particular in relation to elementary mathematics and culturally responsive teaching. This qualitative self-study focused on understanding a teacher educator’s enactment of an espoused platform in an integrated instructional third space of an elementary field experience and an elementary mathematics methods course in relation to culturally responsive teaching and mathematics. The research questions guiding this self-study were: (1) In the context of the selfstudy, to what extent do I ...


Continuing The Career: An Oral History Of An Emeritus Professor, Kimberly Read Nov 2016

Continuing The Career: An Oral History Of An Emeritus Professor, Kimberly Read

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to describe and explain the perspectives of a professor emeritus regarding his life experiences in the discipline of chemistry and in a career dedicated to research, service and teaching. Another purpose, interwoven within the perspective of this one individual, was to explore the potential influence a professor emeritus can have on his institution, and the impact the institution, its changing culture, and its shifting priorities may have on a member of the professoriate dedicated to this chosen career path. The research guiding questions for this study were: (a) What elements of this professor emeritus ...


The Self-Directed Learning Actions Of Women Regarding The Menopause Transition, Jamie Johnson Cooper Nov 2016

The Self-Directed Learning Actions Of Women Regarding The Menopause Transition, Jamie Johnson Cooper

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Research indicates that increased knowledge about the menopause transition positively impacts a woman’s attitude about this stage in her life, and a more positive attitude leads to less distress during the transition. However, there has been no research regarding how women gain this knowledge about menopause, what factors in her environment may hinder or assist her, or how women’s knowledge of menopause is leveraged by health care providers to help facilitate her menopause transition.

The purpose of this research was to explore the self-directed learning actions of women regarding their search for information about menopause, and to understand ...


Promoting L2 Motivation Via Motivational Teaching Practice: A Mixed-Methods Study In The Turkish Efl Context, Zeynep Erdil Oct 2016

Promoting L2 Motivation Via Motivational Teaching Practice: A Mixed-Methods Study In The Turkish Efl Context, Zeynep Erdil

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The shift toward bilingualism and multilingualism in historically monolingual societies resulting from globalization has positioned second/foreign language (L2) learning research as a significant field. Extensive research in L2 motivation over decades has demonstrated motivation to be a significant determiner of L2 learning achievement and has yielded many sound L2 motivation theories and frameworks. The latest L2 motivation framework is the L2 Motivational Self System (L2MSS) offered by Dörnyei (2005, 2009). Numerous studies have been conducted to validate this theory in different English as a foreign language (EFL) contexts (e.g., in China, Iran and Japan: (Taguchi, Magid & Papi, 2009); in Hungary ...


The Relationship Between The Utilization Of Student Support Services And Overall Satisfaction In Medical School, Suzette S. Sookdeo Oct 2016

The Relationship Between The Utilization Of Student Support Services And Overall Satisfaction In Medical School, Suzette S. Sookdeo

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the utilization of student support services and overall satisfaction in medical school. Utilization of services, and overall satisfaction were analyzed by gender, race/ethnicity, and medical specialty choice. In addition, the study identified the most utilized support service, and explored whether utilization of services and overall satisfaction were correlated with academic performance.

Two medical schools in the state of Florida were used for the study, University of South Florida Morsani College of Medicine (USF MCOM), and Florida State University College of Medicine (FSU CoM). Separate anonymous, three-part, on-line surveys ...


Emotional Self-Regulation: Voices And Perspectives Of Teachers Within Diverse Socio-Cultural Contexts, Anna Paula Peixoto Da Silva Aug 2016

Emotional Self-Regulation: Voices And Perspectives Of Teachers Within Diverse Socio-Cultural Contexts, Anna Paula Peixoto Da Silva

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Given the importance of emotional self-regulation to a child’s ability to develop social competence and prosocial behavior, and the significant role early childhood teachers play in supporting young children’s emotional self-regulation, it is important to explore the concept from the perspective of teachers, or from the socio-cultural context through which they (i.e., teachers) make sense of the world.

This study used an exploratory case study methodology to explore the understandings of emotional self-regulation among three Head Start teachers working with varying socio-cultural contexts and to identify the socio-cultural perspectives that influenced their ability to effectively apply their ...


Teaching Students With Down Syndrome: Mothers' Perspectives On The Most Appropriate Educational Environments For Their Children, Stacey Mulrenin Aug 2016

Teaching Students With Down Syndrome: Mothers' Perspectives On The Most Appropriate Educational Environments For Their Children, Stacey Mulrenin

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This study examined the perspectives that mothers of children with Down syndrome (Ds) hold regarding the most appropriate educational environments for their children. Environments for students with Ds may be classified as inclusive (fully included within a general education classroom with complete access to the general curriculum and typical peers), integrated (self-contained within a general education school, with some interaction with typical peers), or segregated (separate school for students with intellectual disabilities, or InD). A qualitative research design using semi-structured interviews and a follow-up focus group was used to gather thick, rich descriptions of mothers’ perspectives of these different types ...


Influence Of Language Arts Instructional Practices On Early Adolescents’ Motivation To Read: Measuring Student And Teacher Perceptions, Sarah E. Pennington Aug 2016

Influence Of Language Arts Instructional Practices On Early Adolescents’ Motivation To Read: Measuring Student And Teacher Perceptions, Sarah E. Pennington

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Early adolescence is a critical time for examining academic motivation, specifically motivation to read (Hervey, 2013). In order to support self-determined motivation to read, students’ needs for competence, autonomy, and relatedness must be met within the classroom context (Miller & Faircloth, 2014). Since classroom instructional practices are a key component of adolescents’ daily experiences in the classroom, research which investigates the influence of these practices on students’ self-determined motivation to read is needed. In addition, the perceptions of students and teachers regarding the degree to which classroom instructional practices meet students’ needs as well as the influence of classroom instructional practices on students’ self-determined motivation to read must be considered as the perceptions of these two groups of classroom stakeholders rarely fully converge (Delaney et al., 2014; Wang & Eccles, 2014). However, the field is lacking an established measure of both groups’ perceptions of classroom instructional practices and the degree to which they support students’ needs (i.e., competence, autonomy, relatedness) and self-determined (intrinsic) motivation to read. Therefore, this study sought to address this gap in the literature by developing and validating a measure with parallel teacher and student ...


Teacher Child Interaction Therapy: An Ecological Approach To Intervening With Young Children Who Display Disruptive Behaviors, Sara Marie Hinojosa Jul 2016

Teacher Child Interaction Therapy: An Ecological Approach To Intervening With Young Children Who Display Disruptive Behaviors, Sara Marie Hinojosa

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

A model of Teacher Child Interaction Therapy (TCIT) was implemented in two kindergarten classrooms of students (n = 2) who successfully completed Parent Child Interaction Therapy, but continued to demonstrate disruptive behaviors in the classroom. The current study first indicated that TCIT was implemented with integrity by both the therapists and teacher participants. Next, the effects of this intervention on the teacher’s skills, students’ disruptive behaviors, teacher’s stress, and teacher-child relationships were investigated. The treatment acceptability was also examined. Both visual and statistical analyses found a treatment effect in both cases was seen for both teachers’ increased use of ...


Exploring The Transition Experiences Of Successful International Undergraduate Students At A Public Research University In The Usa: The Impact On International Student Success And Retention, Laurie-Ann M. Spencer Jul 2016

Exploring The Transition Experiences Of Successful International Undergraduate Students At A Public Research University In The Usa: The Impact On International Student Success And Retention, Laurie-Ann M. Spencer

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This qualitative study utilized surveys, interviews and document review to explore the transition experiences of international students at a large, public research university, specifically as it relates to their persistence and success. Within the context of challenges that they face, the study examined factors that the students perceived as jeopardizing their success and further explored both institutional and personal factors these students perceived as enhancing their success and persistence.

Findings revealed that academic challenges tended to occur during the first year and included teaching styles, course-load/assignments, language issues, time management and understanding the US academic system. Social and cultural ...


Writing Groups In Eighth-Grade Honors Language Arts: Student And Teacher Perceptions, Jennifer Sara Meister Denmon Jul 2016

Writing Groups In Eighth-Grade Honors Language Arts: Student And Teacher Perceptions, Jennifer Sara Meister Denmon

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

In this qualitative case study, I investigated eighth-grade honors students’ and their language arts teacher’s perceptions of the support provided in writing groups, the climate in writing groups, and student and teacher support that enhanced students’ motivation to write in writing groups. Eleven study participants engaged in the inquiry, 10 middle school students and one language arts teacher. I collected data during the fall semester of 2014. Data were individual interviews, classroom observations of participants in writing groups, and program-related documents. The main aim in this investigation is to discover middle school students’ and their teacher’s perceptions of ...


Examinees' Perceptions Of The Physical Aspects Of The Testing Environment During The National Physical Therapy Examination, Ellen Kroog Donald Jul 2016

Examinees' Perceptions Of The Physical Aspects Of The Testing Environment During The National Physical Therapy Examination, Ellen Kroog Donald

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Despite the increasing number of individuals taking computer-based tests, little is known about how examinees perceive computer-based testing environments and the extent to which these testing environments are perceived to affect test performance. The purpose of the present study was to assess the testing environment as perceived by individuals taking the National Physical Therapy Examination (NPTE), a high-stakes licensure examination. Perceptions of the testing environments were assessed using an examinee self-report questionnaire. The questionnaire included items that measured individuals’ preference and perception of specific characteristics of the environment, along with demographic information and one open-ended item. Questionnaires were distributed by ...


White Teachers’ Experiences Of Working With Black Students Within A Response To Intervention Framework: The Role Of Racialized Deficit Thinking, Sujay Sabnis Jul 2016

White Teachers’ Experiences Of Working With Black Students Within A Response To Intervention Framework: The Role Of Racialized Deficit Thinking, Sujay Sabnis

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Response to Intervention (RTI) is a data-based decision-making framework of service delivery that has the potential to improve educational outcomes for all students. Preliminary data appear to bolster this claim. However, it is as yet unclear whether RTI will be able to close the gap in educational outcomes that exists between students of different racial groups. Drawing on theories such as culture of policy (Stein, 2004) and deficit thinking (Valencia, 2010), this study explored the experiences of six White elementary teachers using RTI while working with Black students receiving Tier 2 or Tier 3 instructional supports. Using theoretically driven constant-comparative ...


Faculty Perceptions Of Online Student Disruptive Behavior, Kenneth J. Posner Jun 2016

Faculty Perceptions Of Online Student Disruptive Behavior, Kenneth J. Posner

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Limited research and literature address online student disruptive behavior and the effectiveness of conflict management strategies to address these inappropriate behaviors. Through expanded offerings of online education, higher education institutions need to prepare strategically and intentionally for increased instances of online student disruptive behavior. This research study developed and administered an online survey to obtain quantitative and qualitative data. Utilizing the Qualtrics Research Suite and the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) for quantitative data analysis and MAXQDA for coding the qualitative data this research study examined five research questions identifying online student disruptive behaviors, observed frequencies, and effective ...


Statistical Analysis Of A Risk Factor In Finance And Environmental Models For Belize, Sherlene Enriquez-Savery Jun 2016

Statistical Analysis Of A Risk Factor In Finance And Environmental Models For Belize, Sherlene Enriquez-Savery

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The objectives of the study are to review and evaluate four basic risk models that are commonly used in investment science; statistically investigate the risk factor in Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) that is used to reflect the safety of an investment decision in stocks; explore the statistical distribution of monthly precipitation in Belize and to forecast tourist arrivals using statistical time series modelling techniques.

The risk models are the Capital Asset Pricing Model (Sharpe-Linter Version), Capital Asset Pricing Model (Conditional Version), Arbitrage Pricing Theory, and Fama–French three-factor model adopted in empirical investigations of asset pricing. The underlying assumptions ...


An Analysis Of The Formal And Informal Professional Learning Practices Of Middle And High School Mathematics Teachers, Kelly Elizabeth Mccarthy Jun 2016

An Analysis Of The Formal And Informal Professional Learning Practices Of Middle And High School Mathematics Teachers, Kelly Elizabeth Mccarthy

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Although there has been a substantial amount of research on the topic of teacher professional development, few studies adequately captured the types and frequency of formal and informal professional learning teachers undertake to improve as educators. The purpose of this study was to examine the types of activities middle and high school mathematics teachers engaged in to improve their abilities as educators, analyzed by the participants’ school setting, years of teaching experience, level of education, degree major, certificate type, and their school’s Title I status.

Teachers from two large school districts in Florida participated. The Teachers’ Opportunity to Learn ...


Preservice Teachers Engaged In Professional Learning Community To Explore Critical Literacy, Vanessa Casciola Jun 2016

Preservice Teachers Engaged In Professional Learning Community To Explore Critical Literacy, Vanessa Casciola

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

As demographics change, our school populations are ever changing. Preservice teachers (PSTs) need to be aware of how to meet the needs of all of their future students. Teacher education programs have been charged with the duty of preparing these PSTs for the diverse school population they will encounter. This qualitative multiple case study focused on the influence of specific work with PSTs in the inquiry process within a learning community to make sense of critical literacy. The following research questions guided this study: (1) How do elementary PSTs engaged in practitioner inquiry make meaning of critical literacy instruction within ...


Urban English Language Arts Teachers’ Stories Of Technology Use: A Narrative Inquiry, Bridget Abbas Jun 2016

Urban English Language Arts Teachers’ Stories Of Technology Use: A Narrative Inquiry, Bridget Abbas

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Technology use in high-minority, low-income middle school ELA classrooms is defined by traditional instructional practices (Applebee & Langer, 2013; Attewell, 2001; Boser, 2013; Cuban, 2001; Lankshear & Knobel, 2008), barriers to access (O’Dwyer et al., 2005; Purcell et al., 2013; Warschauer & Matuchniak, 2010), and inequalities in use (Banister & Reinhart, 2011; Beers, 2004; Gorski, 2009; Makinen, 2006; Powell, 2007; Reinhart et al., 2011; Dijk, 2003, 2006; Warschauer et al., 2004). This characterization, or grand narrative, of technology use is echoed and challenged by this narrative inquiry. Here the stories of two ELA teachers frequently using technology in instruction and working in a high-minority, low-income middle school are examined, guided by the following research puzzle:

What might I learn about teaching with technology from ...


Subtext Of Decisions: Literacy Practices In The Context Of Coding, Julia Hagge Jun 2016

Subtext Of Decisions: Literacy Practices In The Context Of Coding, Julia Hagge

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

In this dissertation I present findings from a qualitative case study of five early adolescents engaged in an online programming community. As a researcher, I was interested in how early adolescents designed digital media as they learned how to code within an online programming community known as Scratch. My research was guided by two questions: (1) What are the literacy practices and processes embedded in the design and collaboration of products created within an online programming community? (2) In what ways do participants make decisions in the design of their projects created in Scratch? The data collected for this descriptive ...


A Comparative Analysis Of Demographics And Reported Preferential Learning Modes Of Florida And Non-Florida Osher Lifelong Learning Institutes Members, Jung Min Lee Jun 2016

A Comparative Analysis Of Demographics And Reported Preferential Learning Modes Of Florida And Non-Florida Osher Lifelong Learning Institutes Members, Jung Min Lee

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This research examined demographic factors and reported preferential learning mode among a sample of Florida Osher Lifelong Learning Institute (OLLI) members compared to a national sample profile of OLLI members. This study was prompted by an earlier study of OLLI members conducted by the National Resource Center (NRC) for OLLIs, which produced a national profile describing OLLI members. Although there was a national profile for OLLI members, there were no existing profiles of Florida OLLI members that could be used by OLLI administrators and instructors.

This study employed an online survey to compare data between the national OLLI member profile ...


Graduate Student Perceptions Of Multi-Modal Tablet Use In Academic Environments, Ezzard C. Bryant Jr Apr 2016

Graduate Student Perceptions Of Multi-Modal Tablet Use In Academic Environments, Ezzard C. Bryant Jr

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to explore graduate student perceptions of use and the ease of use of multi-modal tablets to access electronic course materials, and the perceived differences based on students’ gender, age, college of enrollment, and previous experience.

This study used the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology to identify the constructs that may explain a graduate student’s intention to use a multi-modal tablet in graduate course work. This study administered the UTAUT to 224 graduate students from four different colleges at a regional university. The models developed from the UTAUT explained 80% of ...


Predictors Of Adult Community College Students' Intent To Transfer From The Community College With The Associate In Science, Associate In Applied Science, Or Associate In Arts Degree To A Public University In Florida, Anthony Gemart Hill Apr 2016

Predictors Of Adult Community College Students' Intent To Transfer From The Community College With The Associate In Science, Associate In Applied Science, Or Associate In Arts Degree To A Public University In Florida, Anthony Gemart Hill

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to examine the predictors and pre-transfer navigation experiences of community college students enrolled in Associate of Arts (AA), Associate in Science (AS), or Associate in Applied Science (AAS) degrees with transfer intent to Florida’s public universities. The population included adult students aged 26 and above enrolled in Florida state/community college AA, AS, or AAS programs. One hundred and seventy-five students from two community colleges participated in this study with a response rate of 10%. The valid data set included 101 respondents, AA (n =17), AS (n =76), AAS (n =4), other (n ...


Foreign Language College Achievement And The Infusion Of Three Selected Web 2.0 Technologies: A Mixed Method Case Study, Eulises Avellaneda Apr 2016

Foreign Language College Achievement And The Infusion Of Three Selected Web 2.0 Technologies: A Mixed Method Case Study, Eulises Avellaneda

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Web 2.0 technologies such as blogs, Google Docs, and YouTube have become ubiquitous in today’s world of second and foreign language learning and have been the object of study (Wang & Vásquez, 2012), yet there is still a need to examine quantitatively and qualitatively how these tools impact the proficiency achievement levels of learners who use them. The purpose of this study was to explore the impact that blogs, Google Docs, and YouTube had on the achievement of college learners of Spanish as a foreign language. A mixed methods design was adopted.

The quantitative data were collected from students ...


When Maps Ignore The Territory: An Examination Of Gendered Language In Cancer Patient Literature, Joanna Bartell Apr 2016

When Maps Ignore The Territory: An Examination Of Gendered Language In Cancer Patient Literature, Joanna Bartell

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Cancer patients report having a high need for cancer information. Several studies show that the majority of patients surveyed report preferring information from the American Cancer Society (ACS). Ranging up to 129 pages, the ACS’ Detailed Guides (DG) are widely distributed throughout the United States, and offer patients an authoritative guide to help patients navigate the difficult terrain of the cancer journey. This dissertation examines the ACS’ cervical, endometrial, ovarian, penile, prostate, testicular, and vaginal cancer guides. Through a rhetorical analysis of the 7 guides, it was shown that the ACS DGs in question foster gendered narratives that strictly limit ...


From Misdiagnosis To Prognosis: Autoethnographic Layered Accounts Of Life With Mastocytosis, Gianina Shamarr Hayes Apr 2016

From Misdiagnosis To Prognosis: Autoethnographic Layered Accounts Of Life With Mastocytosis, Gianina Shamarr Hayes

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This study was an autoethnography authored in the form of layered accounts. It was based on my journey toward a correct diagnosis with the rare, orphan disease known as mastocytosis. The purpose of the study was to utilize my experiences to investigate mastocytosis from the perspective of an individual diagnosed with the disease. Furthermore, I investigated what ways and how much adult education philosophies and principles (e.g., humanistic, behaviorist, and adults’ involvement in learning) may have been salient in my being correctly diagnosed to examine not only the disparities, but also the similarities in the way each physician I ...


Perceptions Of University Faculty Regarding Accreditation In A College Of Education, Sabrina Lewis Apr 2016

Perceptions Of University Faculty Regarding Accreditation In A College Of Education, Sabrina Lewis

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This study was designed to examine tenured faculty perceptions of accreditation. This qualitative study utilized interviews and document analysis to gather the perspective of faculty in a college of education. While there are quantitative and qualitative studies that have addressed accreditation and faculty, the extant literature lacked the perceptions of faculty involved in the accreditation process. This qualitative study offers an in-depth analysis of the perceptions of faculty particularly tenured faculty in a college of education regarding accreditation.

The inclusion criteria for faculty were: experience in higher education for a minimum of 10 years, involved in curriculum development, and tenured ...