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Full-Text Articles in Education

Pre-Service Teachers’ Beliefs And Knowledge About Multiculturalism, Emmanuel Acquah, Nancy Commins Oct 2015

Pre-Service Teachers’ Beliefs And Knowledge About Multiculturalism, Emmanuel Acquah, Nancy Commins

Nancy L. Commins

The present study examined pre-service teachers’ knowledge of issues related to multiculturalism and diversity before and after taking a multicultural education course. Data from 38 degree students in an urban university in the southwest of Finland were analysed using a mixed method approach. The results indicate that pre-service teachers’ knowledge levels increased with respect to diversity and multicultural education after taking the course. In addition, pre-service teachers felt more competent and prepared to teach students with diverse backgrounds after the exposure. The implications of the findings for teacher education programmes and teacher educators are discussed.


Language And Affect: Bilingual Students At Home And At School, Nancy Commins Oct 2015

Language And Affect: Bilingual Students At Home And At School, Nancy Commins

Nancy L. Commins

No abstract provided.


Addressing Linguistic Diversity From The Outset, Nancy Commins, Ofelia Miramontes Oct 2015

Addressing Linguistic Diversity From The Outset, Nancy Commins, Ofelia Miramontes

Nancy L. Commins

Schools of education typically prepare their prospective teachers to work with amorphous “average students”—who are by implication middle class, native, English speaking, and White. They are then given some limited opportunities to adapt these understandings to students with diverging profiles—children of poverty, second language learners, and students of color. The authors argue that given the changing demographics of public schools, initial teacher education should be based on the understandings that teachers typically do not receive until the end of their programs or in add-on endorsements. They should be prepared from the outset to work with the wide diversity ...


Supporting Bilingual Learners And Their Families: Key Understandings For Pre-Service Teachers And The Institutions That Prepare Them, Nancy Commins Oct 2015

Supporting Bilingual Learners And Their Families: Key Understandings For Pre-Service Teachers And The Institutions That Prepare Them, Nancy Commins

Nancy L. Commins

An essential component of successful schooling in linguistically and culturally diverse settings is the active involvement of parents and community members. This is made possible when teachers honor families’ languages and cultural traditions and build upon them. Teacher preparation programs play a critical role in helping preservice teachers reject deficit views and recognize that issues of status, power, and economic circumstances all play a role in shaping outcomes for students. Part of the asset orientation that must be fostered in new teachers is the understanding that primary or home language development contributes to both the academic success of children and ...


Perceived And Actual Linguistic Competence: A Descriptive Study Of Four Low–Achieving Hispanic Bilingual Students, Nancy L. Commins, Ofelia B. Miramontes Oct 2015

Perceived And Actual Linguistic Competence: A Descriptive Study Of Four Low–Achieving Hispanic Bilingual Students, Nancy L. Commins, Ofelia B. Miramontes

Nancy L. Commins

This ethnographic study investigated the linguistic performance of four Hispanic bilingual students perceived to have limited language abilities in Spanish and English. The study provided data on the students' language use and abilities, in both languages, in a variety of school and nonschool settings. Data were analyzed qualitatively for evidence of students' linguistic, discourse, and narrative competencies. Performance was compared across settings and across languages for each student, as well as across students. All students displayed different strengths across settings in both languages. The data indicated that the organization of instruction limited the students' abilities to demonstrate their full range ...


Whole Language: Reform And Resistance, Nancy Commins Oct 2015

Whole Language: Reform And Resistance, Nancy Commins

Nancy L. Commins

The issue of educational reform and the role of the teacher in the reform process is discussed, using whole language as an example. It is argued that whole-language teachers must develop a theoretical framework that not only informs their views but also provides an understanding of systems and systems change.


Factors Influencing Title Vii Bilingual Program Institutionalization, G. Lewis, L. Baca, J. Bransford, Nancy Commins Oct 2015

Factors Influencing Title Vii Bilingual Program Institutionalization, G. Lewis, L. Baca, J. Bransford, Nancy Commins

Nancy L. Commins

This study of the primary restraining and driving forces that influence Title VII bilingual education programs found the external environment, the local community, to be the main factor influencing institutionalization and self-renewal. The internal environment--the local school, and the local school's organization or central office, school board, and superintendent--are also important forces.


Parents And Public Schools: The Experiences Of Four Mexican Immigrant Families, Nancy Commins Oct 2015

Parents And Public Schools: The Experiences Of Four Mexican Immigrant Families, Nancy Commins

Nancy L. Commins

Relates the results of a study of four Mexican-American immigrant families and the public school system. Describes communication problems between these families and schools and special fears and barriers that immigrants experience. Interviews found that parents were interested in their children's education but unsure how to contribute.


Smiling Faces And Colored Spaces: The Experiences Of Faculty Of Color Pursing Tenure In The Academy, Gregory Diggs, Dorothy Garrison-Wade, Diane Estrada, Rene Galindo Sep 2015

Smiling Faces And Colored Spaces: The Experiences Of Faculty Of Color Pursing Tenure In The Academy, Gregory Diggs, Dorothy Garrison-Wade, Diane Estrada, Rene Galindo

Dorothy Garrison-Wade

Through a comprehensive literature review, this article identifies and discusses barriers to recruitment and retention of faculty of color. Marginalization, racism and sexism manifested as unintended barriers are presented as a few of the barriers faculty of color face in successfully navigating the tenure process. Informed by this literature review, we conducted a self-study that presents the experiences of four faculty of color navigating the tenure process in a predominately white Research Institution. The purpose of this study was to share the experiences of three junior faculty of color as they navigate the tenure process, and one tenured faculty of ...


Listening To Their Voices: Factors That Inhibit Or Enhance Postsecondary Outcomes For Students' With Disabilities, Dorothy Garrison-Wade Sep 2015

Listening To Their Voices: Factors That Inhibit Or Enhance Postsecondary Outcomes For Students' With Disabilities, Dorothy Garrison-Wade

Dorothy Garrison-Wade

Although an increasing number of students with disabilities are considering postsecondary educational opportunities, many of these students find the challenges daunting as compared to their secondary educational experiences. The purpose of the qualitative case study reported herein was to learn more about students' perceptions of services received in college in order to develop a clearer understand of how to better ensure positive outcomes. Fifty nine students with various disabilities and six disability resource coordinators from five two year community colleges and three four-year universities participated in the study. Three major themes emerged from the data, including: (a) capitalizing on student ...


Inclusive Leadership: Preparing Principals For The Role That Awaits Them, Dorothy Garrison-Wade, Donna Sobel, Connie Fulmer Sep 2015

Inclusive Leadership: Preparing Principals For The Role That Awaits Them, Dorothy Garrison-Wade, Donna Sobel, Connie Fulmer

Dorothy Garrison-Wade

Preparing administrators with the capacity to improve instruction for all learners is critical for recruiting and retaining special education teachers. However, recent research points out the need to improve skills of current and future administrators for this role. To address these concerns the special education and administrator preparation programs at a western university designed and conducted research to determine how well preservice principals were being prepared to improve instruction for all learners. To determine program improvement and training needs, researchers collected focus group and survey data from current and alumni students from both programs. Findings of this research are organized ...


Lift Every Voice And Sing: Faculty Of Color Face The Challenges Of The Tenure Track, Dorothy Garrison-Wade, Gregory Diggs, Diane Estrada, Rene Galindo Sep 2015

Lift Every Voice And Sing: Faculty Of Color Face The Challenges Of The Tenure Track, Dorothy Garrison-Wade, Gregory Diggs, Diane Estrada, Rene Galindo

Dorothy Garrison-Wade

This article highlights some of the obstacles facing tenure-track faculty of color in academia. Through the perspective of Critical Race Theory (CRT) and by using a counterstories method, four faculty of color share their experiences as they explore diversity issues through engaging in a 1-year self-study. Findings of this qualitative study provide important insights from the perspectives of faculty of color to address ways in which to identify supports that lever barriers during the tenure process.


Preparing Principals For Leadership In Special Education: Applying Isllc Standards, Donna Cooner, Suzanne Tochterman, Dorothy Garrison-Wade Sep 2015

Preparing Principals For Leadership In Special Education: Applying Isllc Standards, Donna Cooner, Suzanne Tochterman, Dorothy Garrison-Wade

Dorothy Garrison-Wade

Educational leadership is ranked as the key variable associated with effective schools, but the principal of an effective school must be the leader for all programs within the school--including special education services. Over the next 5 years, districts may replace more than 60% of all principals. The result is that many schools will be led by inexperienced leaders without any legal or practical expertise when it comes to special education. This article examines the Interstate School Leaders Licensure Consortium (ISLLC) standards in relation to special education leadership and recommends an integrated preparation program.


Cultural Vibrancy: Exploring The Preferences Of African American Children Toward Culturally Relevant And Non-Culturally Relevant Lessons, Darlene Sampson, Dorothy Garrison-Wade Sep 2015

Cultural Vibrancy: Exploring The Preferences Of African American Children Toward Culturally Relevant And Non-Culturally Relevant Lessons, Darlene Sampson, Dorothy Garrison-Wade

Dorothy Garrison-Wade

Despite the laudable intent of various educational initiatives in raising the achievement level of all children, limited progress has been made. In an effort to diminish the achievement gap of students of color, some researchers have examined the cultural relevancy of the curriculum in promoting student achievement. The purpose of this mixed methods study was to explore the preferences of African American children toward culturally relevant and non-culturally relevant lessons, through a six-week series of lessons in an American History classroom. Critical Race Theory and Racial Identity Development provided the theoretical underpinnings of this study. This study takes place in ...


Students’ Perceptions About Successfully Transitioning To Postsecondary Institutions, Dorothy Garrison-Wade, Jean P. Lehmann Sep 2015

Students’ Perceptions About Successfully Transitioning To Postsecondary Institutions, Dorothy Garrison-Wade, Jean P. Lehmann

Dorothy Garrison-Wade

Through the auspices of federal legislation, students with disabilities are gaining access to higher education. Still for many students with disabilities, the paramount barriers facing them in their transition to postsecondary education are overwhelming. This paper reports the findings of a qualitative study of 59 postsecondary students with disabilities on factors students perceived to inhibit or contribute to their successful transition into college. The study examines support services and access to reasonable accommodations available to students with disabilities. Students reported the major barriers to accessing college and succeeding in college were societal attitudes, lack of preparation, and financial constraints. The ...


Affirmative Action: History And Analysis, Dorothy Garrison-Wade, Chance Lewis Sep 2015

Affirmative Action: History And Analysis, Dorothy Garrison-Wade, Chance Lewis

Dorothy Garrison-Wade

From its inception, affirmative action policies were created to improve the employment and/or educational opportunities for members of minority groups and women. Even today, however, the debate continues over the future of affirmative action. Proponents offer empirical evidence illustrating that affirmative action has been favorable in aiding minorities and/or women to achieve parity in seeking education at the most elite institutions in this country. This empirical evidence has focused on descriptive statistics such as increasing enrollment for minorities (NCES, 2001). Research supports that affirmative action promotes academic and social development for all students; diverse classrooms do not weaken ...


Culturally Responsive Practices As Whole School Reform, V. Mayfield, Dorothy Garrison-Wade Sep 2015

Culturally Responsive Practices As Whole School Reform, V. Mayfield, Dorothy Garrison-Wade

Dorothy Garrison-Wade

Despite our best efforts, black children still lag behind white children in academic performance on standardized academic measures. Unconscious racism and our lack of ability to confront it present the most salient reason for the indefatigable prevalence of inequitable opportunities for children of color which undeniably result in achievement gaps. This study identified specific culturally responsive practices schoolwide in a middle school that is successfully closing academic opportunity gaps between White and Black students. The findings indicate professional development served as a conduit for ongoing discussions on race and building the cultural competency of staff. These discussions served to promote ...


The Impact Of White Teachers On The Academic Achievement Of Black Students: An Exploratory Qualitative Analysis, Bruce Douglas, Chance Lewis, Adrian Douglas, Malcom Scott, Dorothy Garrison-Wade Sep 2015

The Impact Of White Teachers On The Academic Achievement Of Black Students: An Exploratory Qualitative Analysis, Bruce Douglas, Chance Lewis, Adrian Douglas, Malcom Scott, Dorothy Garrison-Wade

Dorothy Garrison-Wade

In today's school systems, students of color, particularly in urban settings, represent the majority student populations (Lewis, Hancock, James, & Larke, in press). Interestingly, the educators--teachers and administrators--that comprise these settings are predominately White, and, in turn, the students of color commonly face pressures that students who do not share the racial and cultural background of the educators do not (Landsman & Lewis, 2006). This study on black student perceptions of their White teachers is grounded in Milner's (2006) theoretical assumptions, which focus on problems that White teachers commonly experience when teaching students of color, particularly African American students in K-12 educational settings. The following research questions guided this study: (1) What role do White teachers play in facilitating Black students' success or contributing to their academic failure?; (2) Do White teachers' views of Black students allow them to address the educational needs of these Black students?; and (3) Do Black students have perceptions of White teachers' ideas, beliefs, and values that get in the way of their academic achievement? For the purpose of this study, a qualitative research design utilizing retrospective interviews was employed (Reiff, Gerber, & Ginsberg, 1997). The eight Black students in this study included five females and three males. Based on the data collected during the interviews, four themes emerged that characterized the experiences of the Black in this study. These themes included: (a) Respect: I Need Respect; (b) Stereotypes: Don't Pass Judgment on Me; (c) The Administrators Need to Check Themselves; and (d) We Like This Environment ...


A Conceptual Framework For Understanding Students' With Disabilities Transition To Community College, Dorothy Garrison-Wade, Jean Lehmann Sep 2015

A Conceptual Framework For Understanding Students' With Disabilities Transition To Community College, Dorothy Garrison-Wade, Jean Lehmann

Dorothy Garrison-Wade

Students with disabilities are significantly underrepresented in the nation's community college population for multiple reasons. These include low expectations, poor high school preparation and transition planning, lack of communication or support services, and ineffective or poor support from school services personnel and faculty. This paper presents a literature synthesis. Its purpose is to inform an initial framework for building towards a conceptual framework for understanding the transition to community college by students with disabilities. The framework was developed from an earlier mixed methods study involving 100 college students with disabilities and 10 disability resource counselors in eight universities and ...


School Culture For Students With Significant Support Needs: Belonging Is Not Enough, Diane Carroll, Connie Fulmer, Donna Sobel, Dorothy Garrison-Wade, Lorenso Aragon, Lisa Coval Sep 2015

School Culture For Students With Significant Support Needs: Belonging Is Not Enough, Diane Carroll, Connie Fulmer, Donna Sobel, Dorothy Garrison-Wade, Lorenso Aragon, Lisa Coval

Dorothy Garrison-Wade

This qualitative study examined the influence of school culture on services for students with significant support needs. Students with significant support needs are defined as those who typically have cognitive impairments, often paired with sensory and physical challenges, and who require substantial supports to receive benefit from education. Using Schein's (1988) definition of culture, ethnographic methods, including observations, interviews and artifacts, were used to collect data related to artifacts, values, and assumptions. Results of this study indicate a strong sense of family, community and belonging. However, belonging did not include critical components of instruction as described as best practice ...


Gifted Girls: Gender Bias In Gifted Referrals, Margarita Bianco, Bryn Harris, Dorothy Garrison-Wade, Nancy Leech Sep 2015

Gifted Girls: Gender Bias In Gifted Referrals, Margarita Bianco, Bryn Harris, Dorothy Garrison-Wade, Nancy Leech

Dorothy Garrison-Wade

The goal of this mixed-methods study was to explore the effect of gender on teachers' willingness to refer students to a gifted and talented program. Teachers (N = 28) were provided with one of two profiles (i.e., female or male) describing a gifted student. Results indicated that teachers' decisions for referral to gifted programs were significantly influenced by the student's gender; teachers were much less willing to refer a female student than an identically described male student to gifted programs. Further, qualitative analysis revealed that teachers' descriptions of students and reasons for their referral decisions differed considerably based on ...


“Push It Real Good!”: The Challenge Of Disrupting Dominant Discourses Regarding Race In Teacher Education, Kara Viesca, Cheryl Matias, Dorothy Garrison-Wade, Madhavi Tandon, Rene Galindo Sep 2015

“Push It Real Good!”: The Challenge Of Disrupting Dominant Discourses Regarding Race In Teacher Education, Kara Viesca, Cheryl Matias, Dorothy Garrison-Wade, Madhavi Tandon, Rene Galindo

Dorothy Garrison-Wade

Despite efforts to redesign an urban teacher education program for social justice and equity, faculty became aware of racialized issues teacher candidates of color faced in the program. Therefore, this study examined the perspectives of teacher candidates to learn about how race is impacting teaching and learning for pre-service teachers. Overall, we discovered the dominant narratives, often called majoritarian stories (Love, 2004), were extremely difficult to disrupt and essentially remained largely intact for teacher candidates in our program. In addition, we found that majoritarian stories helped to maintain a level of superficiality for teacher candidates regarding issues of race. For ...


“What Is Critical Whiteness Doing In Our Nice Field Like Critical Race Theory?” Applying Crt And Cws To Understand The White Imaginations Of White Teacher Candidates, Cheryl Matias, Kara Mitchell, Dorothy Garrison-Wade, Rene Galindo, Madhavi Tandon Sep 2015

“What Is Critical Whiteness Doing In Our Nice Field Like Critical Race Theory?” Applying Crt And Cws To Understand The White Imaginations Of White Teacher Candidates, Cheryl Matias, Kara Mitchell, Dorothy Garrison-Wade, Rene Galindo, Madhavi Tandon

Dorothy Garrison-Wade

Critical Race Theory (CRT) revolutionized how we investigate race in education. Centralizing counter-stories from people of color becomes essential for decentralizing white normative discourse—a process we refer to as realities within the Black imagination. Yet, few studies examine how whites respond to centering the Black imagination, especially since their white imagination goes unrecognized. We propose utilizing Critical Whiteness Studies (CWS) to support CRT to aid in deconstructing the dimensions of white imaginations. Our findings describe how the white imagination operates inside the minds of white teacher candidates, namely through their (a) emotional disinvestment, (b) lack of critical understanding of ...


Dirty Dancing With Race And Class: Microaggressions Toward First-Generation And Low Income College Students Of Color, Geneva Sarcedo, Cheryl Matias, Roberto Montoya, Naomi Nishi Sep 2015

Dirty Dancing With Race And Class: Microaggressions Toward First-Generation And Low Income College Students Of Color, Geneva Sarcedo, Cheryl Matias, Roberto Montoya, Naomi Nishi

Cheryl Matias

No abstract provided.


“Tending To The Heart Of Communities Of Color: Towards Critical Race Teacher Activism”, Cheryl E. Matias Sep 2015

“Tending To The Heart Of Communities Of Color: Towards Critical Race Teacher Activism”, Cheryl E. Matias

Cheryl Matias

No abstract provided.


On The "Flip" Side: A Teacher Educator Of Color Unveiling The Dangerous Minds Of White Teacher Candidates, Cheryl E. Matias Sep 2015

On The "Flip" Side: A Teacher Educator Of Color Unveiling The Dangerous Minds Of White Teacher Candidates, Cheryl E. Matias

Cheryl Matias

No abstract provided.


Beyond The Face Of Race: Emo-Cognitive Explorations Of White Neurosis And Racial Cray-Cray, Cheryl E. Matias, Robin Diangelo Sep 2015

Beyond The Face Of Race: Emo-Cognitive Explorations Of White Neurosis And Racial Cray-Cray, Cheryl E. Matias, Robin Diangelo

Cheryl Matias

The article discusses the term emo-cognitions which is use to capture the interplay between cognitions and emotions, and implicate the behavior of People of Color such as the White people. Topics include the term racial cray-cray, the studies on how White people response to racial material and racialization, and describing White supremacy as the unnamed political system. Also mentioned are African Americans' consciousness on White norms and racial ignorance.


White Face, Black Friend: A Fanonian Application To Theorize Racial Fetish In Teacher Education, Cheryl Matias Sep 2015

White Face, Black Friend: A Fanonian Application To Theorize Racial Fetish In Teacher Education, Cheryl Matias

Cheryl Matias

In Black Skin, white masks (1967, Grove Press) , Franz Fanon uses a psychoanalytic framework to theorize the inferiority-dependency complex of Black men in response to thecolonial racism of white men. Applying his framework in reverse, this theoretical article psychoanalyzes the white psyche and emotionality with respect to the racialization process of whites and their racial attachment to Blackness. Positing that such a process is interconnected with narcissism, humanistic emptiness, and psychosis, this article presents how racial attach-ment becomes racial fetish . Such a fetish reifies whiteness by accumulating fictive kinshipswith friends of color; hence, the common parlance of ‘But I have ...


Check Yo’Self Before You Wreck Yo’Self And Our Kids: Culturally Responsive White Teachers?, Cheryl E. Matias Sep 2015

Check Yo’Self Before You Wreck Yo’Self And Our Kids: Culturally Responsive White Teachers?, Cheryl E. Matias

Cheryl Matias

Numerous studies show the effectiveness of culturally responsive teaching with urban students of color. Yet few articulate the dynamics of how whiteness impacts the delivery of culturally responsive teaching. Using critical whiteness studies, critical race theory, and Black feminist concepts, this article interrogates the effectiveness of White teachers who engage in culturally responsive teaching without first interrogating their whiteness. Counterstories are used as well as responses from White teacher candidates who matriculated in an urban-focused teacher education program that explicitly focuses on culturally responsive teaching to provide answers to three poignant questions - What happens when cultural responsiveness is co-opted by ...


Who You Callin’ White? A Critical Counterstory Of Colouring White Identity”, Cheryl E. Matias Sep 2015

Who You Callin’ White? A Critical Counterstory Of Colouring White Identity”, Cheryl E. Matias

Cheryl Matias

This action research, which utilizes critical race theory's counter-storytelling, analyses a process of debunking White students' epistemology of ignorance in a history course at an urban public high school. After piloting a raced curriculum that deliberately re-centers marginalized counter-stories of students of colour, I document its impacts on White students' understanding of history. Ultimately, such a process problematizes White students' sense of identity. I employ the analytic tools of Whiteness as power to understand how White students responded to curriculum on race and racism. The analysis silences White dominant Discourse while activating counter-stories by modelling critical consciousness and colourscence ...