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Full-Text Articles in Education

Youth Participatory Action Research And The Future Of Education Reform, Oiyan Poon, Jacob Cohen Oct 2015

Youth Participatory Action Research And The Future Of Education Reform, Oiyan Poon, Jacob Cohen

OiYan Poon

This article presents a youth participatory action research (YPAR) study, which was conducted through a theoretical lens incorporating the social justice youth policy framework and Critical Race Theory. Led by youth from the Vietnamese American Young Leaders Association (VAYLA), the study explored the impacts of post-Katrina school reforms on student experiences at six New Orleans high schools. The findings from the study exposed troubling educational disparities by race, class, limited English status, and geography. The YPAR project’s results counter neoliberal reform advocates’ narrative of a post-Katrina New Orleans school “miracle.” This article illuminates YPAR as both research method and ...


Urban Education Reform- Case Study: North Forest Independent School District, Jay Aiyer, Michael Adams, Subria Lapps Sep 2015

Urban Education Reform- Case Study: North Forest Independent School District, Jay Aiyer, Michael Adams, Subria Lapps

Jay K Aiyer

Education reformers and advocates have conducted extensive studies and produced significant research around various models of school turnaround and reform. As a case study for policy in relation to models for school district turnaround, we will explore Houston’s North Forest Independent School District (NFISD). The purpose of this paper is threefold. First, as a study of policy we will retroactively explore the key factors that led to the proposed closure of NFISD. Second, using existing strategies of school turnaround, we will explore potential models of reform that may be applied to NFISD. Third, we will discuss biases and recommendations ...


Community Education: Processes And Programs, Theodore J. Kowalski Aug 2015

Community Education: Processes And Programs, Theodore J. Kowalski

Theodore J. Kowalski

"Community education is on the threshold of a major breakthrough. It has captured the imagination of both educational and lay leaders throughout the U.S." Although these words are an appropriate description of community education today, they were written by V. M. Kerensky 14 years ago. An idea that never took hold to the degree its advocates predicted, community education, nevertheless, refuses to die. Over the past two or three years, the interest of educationalleaders has been stimulated once again by this proposal for expanding the mission and decision-making processes of public schools. In 49 of the 50 states (Hawaii ...


The Organization And Planning Of Adult Education, Theodore J. Kowalski Aug 2015

The Organization And Planning Of Adult Education, Theodore J. Kowalski

Theodore J. Kowalski

The heightened interest in and the rapid expansion of adult education has become a trend in a variety of environments. In order to serve these developing areas, educators, personnel directors, as well as staff development specialists require improved methods for planning learning activities within their own unique organizational contexts.In The Organization and Planning of Adult Education Kowalski examines the issues created by providing a social service in diverse organizational settings and presents a format for initiating and developing adult education programs. In order to comprehend the complexity of the context of programming within an organization, two novel components are ...


Are Alternative School Leader Preparation Programs Really Needed To Prepare Next-Generation School Leaders?, Thomas Lasley, Emmy Partin, Jamie O'Leary, Theodore Kowalski Aug 2015

Are Alternative School Leader Preparation Programs Really Needed To Prepare Next-Generation School Leaders?, Thomas Lasley, Emmy Partin, Jamie O'Leary, Theodore Kowalski

Theodore J. Kowalski

The essays in th is chapter focus on the issue of how best to recruit the very best administrative talent to leadership positions in schools. For years, the accepted practice has been for school leaders to be prepared through traditional school administration programs with higher education institutions. These programs, almost exclusively housed within colleges and schools of education, consisted of a range of courses from school law to sc hool finance, often with associated and embedded field and clini cal components. The focus on school leader preparation has emerged in partial response to the No Child Left Behind legislation. Clearly ...


Planning And Managing School Facilities, Theodore J. Kowalski Aug 2015

Planning And Managing School Facilities, Theodore J. Kowalski

Theodore J. Kowalski

Nearly half of the nation's school buildings need to be renovated or replaced. This book provides a knowledge base for administrators to plan and manage construction projects, and addresses specific planning tasks including public opinion polling, enrollment projections, financial planning, selecting architects and other professionals, and managing facilities once they are operational.Theodore Kowalski addresses the administrative procedures associated with planning and managing school facilities. As noted at the outset, practitioner interest in school facilities has been growing rapidly in recent years because decades of neglect, poor planning, and cost cutting have created a situation in which large numbers ...


Case Studies Of Beginning Teachers, Theodore J. Kowalski, Roy A. Weaver, Kenneth T. Henson Aug 2015

Case Studies Of Beginning Teachers, Theodore J. Kowalski, Roy A. Weaver, Kenneth T. Henson

Theodore J. Kowalski

Case Studies of Beginning Teachers offers a collection of 35 case studies of first-year teaching experiences — a mixture of true dilemmas and best solution scenarios — that bridge educational theory and practice to shed light on actual problems and challenges new teachers most often confront.


Facing An Uncertain Future: An Investigation Of The Preparation And Readiness Of First-Time Superintendents To Lead In A Democratic Society, Theodore J. Kowalski, George J. Peterson, Lance D. Fusarelli Aug 2015

Facing An Uncertain Future: An Investigation Of The Preparation And Readiness Of First-Time Superintendents To Lead In A Democratic Society, Theodore J. Kowalski, George J. Peterson, Lance D. Fusarelli

Theodore J. Kowalski

The preparation of superintendents is a critical component, an essential element, of systemic education reform, although as (Cooper, Fusarelli, Jackson, & Poster, 2002) observed, “the process is rife with difficulties,” including synchronization of preparation and actual practice, the theory-practice disconnect, the need for life-long learning, and development of an adequate knowledge base (Cooper et al., 2002, p. 242). The vast majority of research on the efficacy of administrator preparation programs focuses on principals. Most doctoral programs in educational administration serve as de facto preparation programs for superintendents, even though some contain little coursework specifically tailored for the position (Andrews & Grogan, 2002). A number of scathing reports critical of university-based preparation programs for school administrators, coupled with increasingly conservative state legislatures, have produced some significant changes in licensure for school administrators. Licensing requirements for superintendents have been eliminated or lowered in a growing number of states. For example, 9 states no longer require a license; among the remaining 41 states, 54% grant waivers or emergency licenses and 37% allow or sanction alternative routes to licensure (Feistritzer, 2003). In addition, recommendations to make administrative licensing voluntary across all states (Broad Foundation and Thomas B. Fordham Institute, 2003; Hess, 2003) and to discontinue doctoral programs for practitioners (Levine, 2005) have received an inordinate amount of national media attention. Recognizing that efforts to lower the qualifications and stature of school superintendents are gaining momentum, Kowalski (2004) has recommended ...


School Reform Strategies And Normative Expectations For Democratic Leadership In The Superintendency, George J. Peterson, Theodore J. Kowalski Aug 2015

School Reform Strategies And Normative Expectations For Democratic Leadership In The Superintendency, George J. Peterson, Theodore J. Kowalski

Theodore J. Kowalski

The concept of democratic leadership emerged in the early decades of the twentieth century in response to the effects of social change on schools and to growing dissatisfaction with autocratic management. One of its most prominent advocates was John Dewey, an eminent philosopher who viewed scientific management’s obsession with efficiency to be detrimental to a well-balanced social interest (Razik & Swanson, 2001). Democratic school administration was not practiced widely, however, until America had suffered a great economic depression circa 1930. After many successful businesses failed, classical theory and scientific management, the philosophical pillars of the Industrial Revolution, lost much of their glitter (Callahan, 1962; 1966). Seizing the moment, prominent education philosophers described the infusion of business values into public education as undemocratic. They contended that citizen control over public education had been eroded incrementally by superintendents who had pursued technical efficiency at the expense ...


Student Motives For Taking Online Courses In Educational Administration, Theodore J. Kowalski, David Alan Dolph, Ila Phillip Young Aug 2015

Student Motives For Taking Online Courses In Educational Administration, Theodore J. Kowalski, David Alan Dolph, Ila Phillip Young

Theodore J. Kowalski

This study was conducted with students enrolled in a master’s degree program in educational administration at a private research university that offered all required courses in both online and in-class formats. The purposes were to determine (a) the extent to which online courses were selected, (b) the level of importance students placed on four common motives for taking online courses, and (c) levels of association between the importance of values and two demographic variables (employment level and years of teaching experience). The extent to which students took online courses varied considerably. Convenience and flexibility were the most important motives ...


Rehired After Retired, Theodore J. Kowalski Aug 2015

Rehired After Retired, Theodore J. Kowalski

Theodore J. Kowalski

Slightly more than one in 10 superintendents participating in the "2012 AASA Superintendents Salary and Benefits Study" indicated they have been rehired as a superintendent after retiring from one state or another. This contrasts with a finding in AASP


Case Studies On Educational Administration, Theodore J. Kowalski Aug 2015

Case Studies On Educational Administration, Theodore J. Kowalski

Theodore J. Kowalski

This book immerses prospective administrators in the realities of practice and decision-making through the use of a wide range of open-ended case studies. Effective practice in school administration involves making decisions about management of schools and reform, including state deregulation, district decentralization, and school restructuring. Leaders need to think beyond management and consider how to affect school culture, professional development, and changing populations. The cases in this book will help leaders address those issues by honing three key skills: (1) How to identify and solve problems; (2) How to develop and evaluate alternative solutions; (3) How to continuously refine professional ...


The School Superintendent: Roles, Challenges, And Issues, Theodore J. Kowalski, C. Cryss Brunner Aug 2015

The School Superintendent: Roles, Challenges, And Issues, Theodore J. Kowalski, C. Cryss Brunner

Theodore J. Kowalski

The purposes of this chapter are to detail the development of the office of school superintendent, to examine issues of gender and race, to identify contemporary issues affecting practice, and to identify future research topics. The first two sections provide historical perspectives summarizing how the position has evolved over the past 150 years at three different levels-state, intermediate district, and local district. A discussion of the position's history produces five role conceptualizations; having evolved over the past 150 years, these characterizations provide a mosaic of contemporary expectations. Next, considerable attention is given to the causes and implications of race ...


Is The School Board Evaluated Formally?, Theodore J. Kowalski Aug 2015

Is The School Board Evaluated Formally?, Theodore J. Kowalski

Theodore J. Kowalski

Little progress has been made with respect to evaluating the performance of local boards of education, according to the most recent decennial, nationwide study of superintendents. Seven in 10 boards do not receive any form of formal evaluation, and among the 30 percent that do, almost all engage only in self-evaluation.


The School Superintendent: Theory, Practice, And Cases, Theodore J. Kowalski Aug 2015

The School Superintendent: Theory, Practice, And Cases, Theodore J. Kowalski

Theodore J. Kowalski

The School Superintendent: Theory, Practice, and Cases is the essential guide to succeeding as a superintendent or as an administrator in another district-level position. Comprehensive in both theory and practice, this textbook and reference guide examines the role and responsibilities of school district administration in professional, social, philosophical, and political frames, while balancing perspectives of rewards and challenges commonly expressed by school superintendents. Important topics covered include the emerging role of superintendent as communicator, the changing conditions in districts and schools, inadequate funding for public schools, and the treatment of policy administration, leadership roles, and community involvement.


Chasing The Wolves From The Schoolhouse Door, Theodore J. Kowalski Aug 2015

Chasing The Wolves From The Schoolhouse Door, Theodore J. Kowalski

Theodore J. Kowalski

Interestingly, warnings about the deterioration of America's schoolhouses have generated only limited public reaction. State legislators, governors, federal officials, and corporate executives — all of whom were exceedingly eager to react to earlier education reports such as A Nation at Risk- have been amazingly silent. Where are the legislative proposals to eradicate this problem? Where are the creative ideas from managers in private industry? Where are the calls for establishing a national commission to address this crisis? The most likely response to these questions is that the cost of solving the problem is simply too great. Accordingly, neither those who ...


Myths And Poor Policy Affecting The Future Of School Superintendents, Theodore J. Kowalski Aug 2015

Myths And Poor Policy Affecting The Future Of School Superintendents, Theodore J. Kowalski

Theodore J. Kowalski

Across the country, state policymakers are acting to weaken professional standards for school superintendents. Nine states no longer require a license for this position and among the remaining 41 states, over half (54%, including Ohio) have provisions for waivers or emergency certificates and 15 states (37%, including Ohio) sanction alternative preparation programs for licensure (Feistritzer, 2003). Sadly, this trend toward de-professionalizing the most influential position in public education is being fueled by myths and unless it is curtailed, it will seriously damage our public education system.


Female Superintendents By Locale, Theodore J. Kowalski Aug 2015

Female Superintendents By Locale, Theodore J. Kowalski

Theodore J. Kowalski

The most recent AASA decennial study of the superintendency reveals the growing presence of female superintendents (24.1 percent nationwide) has not been affected by either district enrollment or the level of a school district's racial or ethnic diversity. Across four district enrollment categories, the range of female representation was 20.4 percent (in the largest districts) to 29.8 percent (in the smallest districts). By comparison, females accounted for 17.7 percent of very small-district superintendents and just 5.4 percent of the largest-district superintendents a decade earlier. Across five district diversity categories, the range of representation was ...


Developing Policy For Part-Time School Administration Faculty, Theodore Kowalski Aug 2015

Developing Policy For Part-Time School Administration Faculty, Theodore Kowalski

Theodore J. Kowalski

This inquiry is an analysis of the trend toward infusing practitioners into the preparation of school administrators. Motives for increasing the number of part-time employees in higher education are identified and specific problems associated with the deployment of these instructors are discussed. The argument is made that the merits of this trend depend on the extent to which department policy addresses adjunct faculty employment, deployment and development in relation to a reform vision and strategy. Essential policy considerations related to involving practitioners are recommended.


Public Relations In Educational Organizations: Practice In An Age Of Information And Reform, Theodore J. Kowalski Aug 2015

Public Relations In Educational Organizations: Practice In An Age Of Information And Reform, Theodore J. Kowalski

Theodore J. Kowalski

This collection of readings addresses the greatest demand being placed upon educational administrators in this, the Age of Information — using technology to create two-way communication systems within their organizations and between their organizations and their communities. The author integrates theories and techniques taken from a wide variety of leading theorists and practitioners in both public relations and educational administration to provide an interdisciplinary, contemporary foundation for practice.


Hesitancy About The Job, Theodore J. Kowalski Aug 2015

Hesitancy About The Job, Theodore J. Kowalski

Theodore J. Kowalski

Potential candidates hesitate to apply for their first superintendency for several, reasons. Foremost among them are the job's broad scope and their own school-age children.


Public-Private Partnerships, Civic Engagement, And School Reform, Theodore J. Kowalski Aug 2015

Public-Private Partnerships, Civic Engagement, And School Reform, Theodore J. Kowalski

Theodore J. Kowalski

The number of partnerships between public schools and private organizations increased dramatically after the National Commission on Excellence in Education (1983) issued its report "A Nation at Risk." ... In this essay, I propose an uncommon perspective of public-private partnerships in the United States—one that calls for direct citizen involvement to ensure that collaboration is linked to and compatible with reform efforts carried out at the local (school district) level. The need for a new conceptualization is framed by three convictions: public-private partnerships have been largely ineffective in terms of improving instruction and student learning; democratic deficits in these ventures ...


Principal Dispositions Regarding The Ohio Teacher Evaluation System, Theodore J. Kowalski, David Alan Dolph Aug 2015

Principal Dispositions Regarding The Ohio Teacher Evaluation System, Theodore J. Kowalski, David Alan Dolph

Theodore J. Kowalski

The Ohio Teacher Evaluation System (OTES) was first implemented during the 2013-14 school term. This study examined principals’ dispositions at the end of this school term. Findings revealed several major concerns. The most prominent were (a) not having sufficient time to implement the program properly, (b) basing a teacher’s performance heavily on student value-added data, and (c) being required to assist teachers in developing their annual improvement plans. Three independent variables, teaching experience, administrative experience, and level of school assignment, were found to have only a low level of association with principal dispositions. With respect to teacher evaluation generally ...


The Ongoing War For The Soul Of School Administration, Theodore J. Kowalski Aug 2015

The Ongoing War For The Soul Of School Administration, Theodore J. Kowalski

Theodore J. Kowalski

The volume in which this essay appears was a response to the book Better Leaders for America’s Schools: A Manifesto, published in 2003 by the the Broad Foundation and the Thomas B. Fordham Foundation. It was created around the premise that America's schools face a crisis in leadership. For America to have the great schools it needs, it contended, schools and their school systems must have great leaders. The material to which Dr. Kowalski's essay responds is available online here>>>.


Factors Accounting For Variability In Superintendent Ratings Of Academic Preparation, Theodore J. Kowalski, Ila Phillip Young, Robert S. Mccord Aug 2015

Factors Accounting For Variability In Superintendent Ratings Of Academic Preparation, Theodore J. Kowalski, Ila Phillip Young, Robert S. Mccord

Theodore J. Kowalski

This study utilized findings from the 2010 decennial study of the school superintendent to determine the extent to which four predictor variables (courses, professor credibility, size [enrollment of employing school district], and gender) accounted for variability in superintendent overall ratings of their academic preparation. The standardized regression coefficients indicate that most of the variance accounted for in the linear equation was due to ratings of professor credibility and ratings of the perceived value of courses. Neither the institutional variable, school district size, nor the personal variable, gender, accounted for meaningful variance in the overall ratings. Recommendations are made for extending ...


Age Entering The Field, Theodore J. Kowalski Aug 2015

Age Entering The Field, Theodore J. Kowalski

Theodore J. Kowalski

Over time, the typical career span of superintendents (in that position only) has been about 15 to 20 years. In large measure, this relatively short period is explained by the fact most superintendents enter the position in mid-career. Data collected and analyzed by AASA in 2010 revealed nearly two-thirds of superintendents (62 percent) first entered the position when they were 41 to 55 years old. Outside this age range, novices were twice as likely to be younger than 41 than older than 55. Only 8 percent of superintendents first entered the position after age 55.


The School District Superintendent In The United States Of America, Lars G. Björk, Theodore J. Kowalski, Tricia Browne-Ferrigno Aug 2015

The School District Superintendent In The United States Of America, Lars G. Björk, Theodore J. Kowalski, Tricia Browne-Ferrigno

Theodore J. Kowalski

Public education is one of the main forces that make a healthy and democratic society. It strives to educate and to provide the younger generation knowledge and skills that allow children to become contributing citizens in their society. Public education is considered highly significant in consolidating the society and establishing its cultural and economic strength. For those reasons, governments choose to invest a significant portion of the state’s national resources in public schooling. Taking into account the costs and political significance attributed to public education, it is not surprising that governments establish some formal mechanism responsible for the monitoring ...


Preparing Teachers To Be Leaders: Barriers In The Workplace, Theodore Kowalski Aug 2015

Preparing Teachers To Be Leaders: Barriers In The Workplace, Theodore Kowalski

Theodore J. Kowalski

Efforts to prepare teachers to be leaders are often impeded by a number of barriers in society and schools. Obstacles in the workplace are largely products of organizational cultures and climates that place teachers in subordinate roles. The argument is made that consideration of these barriers must be incorporated into revisions of teacher education curricula.


Cultural Change Paradigms And Administrator Communication, Theodore Kowalski Aug 2015

Cultural Change Paradigms And Administrator Communication, Theodore Kowalski

Theodore J. Kowalski

Public school reform has taken three distinct turns over the past two decades. In the early 1980s, most policymakers blamed a lack of educational productivity on lazy students. Influenced by this argument, virtually every state legislature enacted laws lengthening the school year, lengthening the school day, and increasing high school graduation requirements. Within a relatively short period of time, however, the would-be reformers concluded that intensification of student experiences was insufficient to produce significant improvements. While not abandoning their original conviction, they shifted their attention to a second target-educators. The result was a flurry of proposals to revise or eliminate ...


Examining Variability In Superintendent Community Involvement, Theodore Kowalski, Ila Young, George Petersen Aug 2015

Examining Variability In Superintendent Community Involvement, Theodore Kowalski, Ila Young, George Petersen

Theodore J. Kowalski

This study examined the extent to which four independent variables (age, gender, education level, and district type) accounted for variability in superintendent community involvement. Two covariates associated with levels of community involvement (disposition toward community involvement and district enrollment) were infused to assess the impact of the independent variables. Analysis revealed that the model accounted for 8% of the variance as indicated both by R2 and by adjusted R2. Given the number of respondents (1,867), this is considered a medium effect having practical implications in the applied setting. Among the four independent variables, only a single main effect (district ...