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Full-Text Articles in Education

Alternative Service Delivery Models For Students With Learning Disabilities, Evelyn Johnson, Carrie Semmelroth Aug 2015

Alternative Service Delivery Models For Students With Learning Disabilities, Evelyn Johnson, Carrie Semmelroth

Carrie Semmelroth

More than 40 years of intervention research describes effective interventions for increasing the academic performance of students with learning disabilities. However, the performance and outcomes for students with learning disabilities remain discouraging, especially in light of the increasing cost to provide special education services. Between 60 – 70 percent of students with learning disabilities are unable to meet grade level performance standards in the basic academic areas of reading, writing and mathematics. The disconnect between research and practice suggests a need for rethinking special education service delivery. This paper reports the results of a program evaluation of a not-for-profit center specializing ...


The Technical Properties Of Science Content Maze Passages For Middle School Students, Evelyn S. Johnson, Carrie Semmelroth, Jennifer Allison, Teresa Fritsch Aug 2015

The Technical Properties Of Science Content Maze Passages For Middle School Students, Evelyn S. Johnson, Carrie Semmelroth, Jennifer Allison, Teresa Fritsch

Carrie Semmelroth

The use of Curriculum-Based Measures is rapidly expanding to the middle school level, where maze passages are frequently used to monitor progress in reading. At secondary grade levels, the focus of reading is on reading to learn, especially in the content areas. Therefore, we were interested in developing maze passages based on grade-level science texts to determine whether maze passages constructed from expository texts would have sufficient reliability and validity to serve as reading and science benchmarking tools. Participants included 367 seventh-grade students from three states. Students completed eight maze passages over three testing periods, a reading measure at two ...


Response To Intervention At The Secondary Level: Identifying Students At Risk For High School Dropout, Carrie Lisa Semmelroth Aug 2015

Response To Intervention At The Secondary Level: Identifying Students At Risk For High School Dropout, Carrie Lisa Semmelroth

Carrie Semmelroth

Using the basic premise of RTI, which is to identify those students at risk, in order to provide timely intervention, this study contributes to the development of a universal screening measure to identify high school at risk of drop out. This study was designed to apply the Early Warning System (EWS) tool developed by the National High School Center as a possible Tier 1 universal screening measure to identify students at risk as part of an RTI framework for the secondary school level. Freshmen data from one high school from the 2004-2005 school year was entered into the EWS tool ...


Introduction To Aei’S Special Issue On Special Education Teacher Evaluations, Evelyn Johnson, Carrie Lisa Semmelroth Aug 2015

Introduction To Aei’S Special Issue On Special Education Teacher Evaluations, Evelyn Johnson, Carrie Lisa Semmelroth

Carrie Semmelroth

The purpose of this introductory article is to provide an overview to the special issue on special education teacher evaluation. This special issue features five articles that collectively present a comprehensive review of the current state of understanding about the issues concerning devising and implementing special education teacher evaluation systems. Within this special issue are articles that provide a discussion of some of the primary challenges associated with evaluating special education teachers; an overview of the issues associated with using observation tools to measure special education teachers; and three studies that each feature a unique approach to special education teacher ...


Using Generalizability Theory To Measure Sources Of Variance On A Special Education Teacher Observation Tool, Carrie Lisa Semmelroth Aug 2015

Using Generalizability Theory To Measure Sources Of Variance On A Special Education Teacher Observation Tool, Carrie Lisa Semmelroth

Carrie Semmelroth

This study used generalizability theory to identify sources of variance on a pilot observation tool designed to evaluate special education teacher effectiveness, and was guided by the question: How many occasions and raters are needed for acceptable levels of reliability when using the pilot RESET observation tool to evaluate special education teachers? At the time of this study, the pilot Recognizing Effective Special Education Teachers (RESET) observation tool included three evidence-based instructional practices (direct, explicit instruction, whole-group instruction, and discrete trial teaching) as the basis for special education teacher evaluation. Eight teachers (raters) were invited to attend two sessions (October ...


Measuring Rater Reliability On A Special Education Observation Tool, Carrie Lisa Semmelroth, Evelyn Johnson Aug 2015

Measuring Rater Reliability On A Special Education Observation Tool, Carrie Lisa Semmelroth, Evelyn Johnson

Carrie Semmelroth

This study used generalizability theory to measure reliability on the Recognizing Effective Special Education Teachers (RESET) observation tool designed to evaluate special education teacher effectiveness. At the time of this study, the RESET tool included three evidence-based instructional practices (direct, explicit instruction; whole-group instruction; and discrete trial teaching) as the basis for special education teacher evaluation. Five raters participated in two sessions to evaluate special education classroom instruction collected from two school years, via the Teachscape 360-degree video system. Data collected from raters were analyzed in a two-facet “partially” nested design where occasions (o) were nested within teachers (t), o ...


Examining Interrater Agreement Analyses Of A Pilot Special Education Observation Tool, Evelyn S. Johnson, Carrie L. Semmelroth Aug 2015

Examining Interrater Agreement Analyses Of A Pilot Special Education Observation Tool, Evelyn S. Johnson, Carrie L. Semmelroth

Carrie Semmelroth

This paper reports the results of interrater agreement analyses on a pilot special education teacher evaluation instrument, the Recognizing Effective Special Education Teachers (RESET) Observation Tool (OT). Using evidence-based instructional practices as the basis for the evaluation, the RESET OT is designed for the spectrum of different instructional needs found within special education classrooms. The RESET OT informs what Danielson (2011) maintains are the two features of a teacher evaluation system 1) ensuring teacher quality and 2) promoting professional development. In June 2012, six special education teachers participated in a data coding session using the pilot RESET OT to evaluate ...


Special Education Teacher Evaluation: Why It Matters, What Makes It Challenging, And How To Address These Challenges, Evelyn Johnson, Carrie Lisa Semmelroth Aug 2015

Special Education Teacher Evaluation: Why It Matters, What Makes It Challenging, And How To Address These Challenges, Evelyn Johnson, Carrie Lisa Semmelroth

Carrie Semmelroth

There is currently little consensus on how special education teachers should be evaluated. The lack of consensus may be due to several reasons. Special education teachers work under a variety of complex conditions, with a very heterogeneous population, and support student progress toward a very individualized set of goals. In addition, special education is marked by historical rates of attrition, with a lack of highly qualified teachers entering the field, and a number of special education teachers completing alternate certification programs, leading to a combined effect that impacts overall professional quality. In this article, we first review the challenges associated ...


Special Educator Evaluation: Cautions, Concerns And Considerations, Carrie Semmelroth, Evelyn Johnson, Keith Allred Aug 2015

Special Educator Evaluation: Cautions, Concerns And Considerations, Carrie Semmelroth, Evelyn Johnson, Keith Allred

Carrie Semmelroth

There is currently little consensus on how special education teachers should be evaluated in a way that is effective, fair and responsive to their unique teaching responsibilities. In this paper, we explain several of the current approaches to teacher evaluation under consideration, and then provide an overview of the challenges associated with the use of these models for special education teachers. We describe a model currently under development that is designed to better meet the unique characteristics of special education teacher evaluation. Our alternative approach proposes to evaluate special education teacher effectiveness through two primary components: observations of the special ...


The Predictive Validity Of The Early Warning System Tool, Evelyn Johnson, Carrie Semmelroth Aug 2015

The Predictive Validity Of The Early Warning System Tool, Evelyn Johnson, Carrie Semmelroth

Carrie Semmelroth

The Early Warning System (EWS) is a tool developed by the National High School Center to collect data on indicators including attendance, GPA, course failures and credits earned. These indicators have been found to be highly predictive of a student’s likelihood of dropping out of high school in large, urban areas. The EWS tool was studied in two suburban schools. With the exception of attendance data, findings suggest that the indicators and suggested threshold for risk determination are predictive in suburban contexts.