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2015

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Articles 331 - 343 of 343

Full-Text Articles in Education

Broadening Campus Threat Assessment Beyond Mass Shootings, Brandon A. Hollister, Mario Scalora Jan 2015

Broadening Campus Threat Assessment Beyond Mass Shootings, Brandon A. Hollister, Mario Scalora

Faculty Publications, Department of Psychology

Record reviews of public figure, primary/secondary school, and workplace threateners and attackers displayed the importance of noticing pre-incident behaviors and intervening to prevent violence. General crime prevention strategies did not appear applicable. Similarly, campus threat assessment research has considered targeted violence as distinctive and unable to be reviewed within general collegiate samples, which has related to questions about the prevalence, predictiveness, applicability, and reporting of pre-incident behaviors. This article applies general criminological and crime prevention findings to these questions and presents campus threat assessment methodologies informed by these fields. With college student surveys, pre-incident behaviors have appeared predictive of ...


Assessment Of Phonological And Orthographic Differences In Adults With Reading Disabilities, Christina P. Hyers Mrs. Jan 2015

Assessment Of Phonological And Orthographic Differences In Adults With Reading Disabilities, Christina P. Hyers Mrs.

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

There is debate surrounding how to effectively identify and distinguish reading disabilities from other deficits in college populations. Although several theories have proposed a positive relationship between nonword decoding weaknesses and higher intelligence levels, currently there is no conclusive evidence supporting these claims. The primary purpose of the current study was to determine if individuals of diverging levels of verbal intellectual functioning display profile differences with regard to accuracy for spelling and single word reading of regular words and nonwords. Identifying the specific deficits displayed in populations with reading disabilities assists in formulating interventions targeted at areas of weakness and ...


Expectancy-Value, Gender And Socioeconomic Background As Predictors Of Achievement [Accepted Manuscript], Jiesi Guo, Herbert W. Marsh, Philip D. Parker, Alexandre J. S. Morin Jan 2015

Expectancy-Value, Gender And Socioeconomic Background As Predictors Of Achievement [Accepted Manuscript], Jiesi Guo, Herbert W. Marsh, Philip D. Parker, Alexandre J. S. Morin

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

This study examined the relationship between mathematics expectancy (self-concept), value and student background variables in predicting educational outcomes. In particular, we investigated the effects of the interaction between expectancy and value on outcome variables and the mediating roles of expectancy and value. The research used data from the TIMSS database across three cohorts (1999, 2003, and 2007) to test an hypothesized model in Hong Kong, where the education system has experienced considerable changes over the period of these studies, and thus to provide a strong test of the generalizability of the findings. The results suggested that (a) gender difference in ...


Same-Sex Peer Influence On Female Undergraduate Body Image Perception, Caitlyn Buchanan Jan 2015

Same-Sex Peer Influence On Female Undergraduate Body Image Perception, Caitlyn Buchanan

Masters Theses

Regardless of age, race, or socioeconomic class, women throughout western cultures are well documented for having body image related insecurities. These insecurities can be the result of pressure to look and behave a certain way from a variety of sources including media and peers. This study explored the role that same-sex peers play in undergraduate women's perception of body image. Four undergraduate women at a public, Midwestern university who lived within campus housing were interviewed. Results of the study showed that same-sex peers did not play a significant role in the women's perception of body image. The results ...


Burnout Does Not Help Predict Depression In French Schoolteachers, Renzo Bianchi, Irvin Sam Schonfeld, Eric Laurent Jan 2015

Burnout Does Not Help Predict Depression In French Schoolteachers, Renzo Bianchi, Irvin Sam Schonfeld, Eric Laurent

Publications and Research

Objectives: Burnout has been viewed as a phase in the development of depression. However, supportive research is scarce. We examined whether burnout predicted depression among French school teachers.

Methods: We conducted a 2-wave, 21-month study involving 627 teachers (73% female) working in French primary and secondary schools. Burnout was assessed with the Maslach Burnout Inventory and depression with the 9-item depression module of the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). The PHQ-9 grades depressive symptom severity and provides a provisional diagnosis of major depression. Depression was treated both as a continuous and categorical variable using linear and logistic regression analyses. We controlled ...


Types And Frequency Of Bullying, Victimization, And Defending Behaviors Among Special And Regular Education Students, Ashley Ann Potocki Jan 2015

Types And Frequency Of Bullying, Victimization, And Defending Behaviors Among Special And Regular Education Students, Ashley Ann Potocki

Masters Theses

Bullying and victimization can have a negative impact on all students. This study compared frequency and types of bully, victim, and defending behaviors that occur in general education and special education. The three types of bullying and victimization include verbal, physical, and relational bullying, while the three types of defending include reporting, confronting, and helping. Due to the fact that the majority of research in the past has focused on the general education population of students, little is known about bullying, victimization, and defending behaviors among children in special education. An additional goal of this study was to compare the ...


Is Burnout Separable From Depression In Cluster Analysis? A Longitudinal Study, Renzo Bianchi, Irvin Sam Schonfeld, Eric Laurent Jan 2015

Is Burnout Separable From Depression In Cluster Analysis? A Longitudinal Study, Renzo Bianchi, Irvin Sam Schonfeld, Eric Laurent

Publications and Research

Purpose: Whether burnout and depression represent distinct pathologies is unclear. The aim of this study was to examine whether burnout and depressive symptoms manifest themselves separately from each other or are so closely intertwined as to reflect the same phenomenon.

Methods: A two-wave longitudinal study involving 627 French schoolteachers (73 % female) was conducted. Burnout was assessed with the Maslach Burnout Inventory and depression with the 9-item depression module of the Patient Health Questionnaire.

Results: Burnout and depressive symptoms clustered both at baseline and follow-up. Cluster membership at time 1 (T1) predicted cases of burnout and depression at time 2 (T2 ...


Construct Validity Of The Learning Behaviors Scale And The Academic Competence Evaluation Scales, Taryn L. Smith Jan 2015

Construct Validity Of The Learning Behaviors Scale And The Academic Competence Evaluation Scales, Taryn L. Smith

Masters Theses

This research examined the convergent and discriminant validity of the Academic Competence Evaluation Scales (ACES; DiPerna & Elliott, 2000) and the Learning Behaviors Scale (LBS; McDermott, Green, Francis, & Stott, 2001). The Adjustment Scales for Children and Adolescents (ASCA; McDermott, Stott, & Marston, 1993) was compared with the ACES and LBS to examine discriminant validity. Pearson product moment correlations were obtained to examine convergent and discriminant validity. Paired samples t-tests were conducted on the ACES and LBS total and subscale scores to compare the mean scores. The ACES Academic Enabler (ACES-AE) total score was significantly, positively correlated with the LBS total score (r =0.88) and shared 77% variance. Paired samples t-test analyses indicated that the ACES-AE Total T ...


Building Skills, Knowledge And Confidence In Eating And Exercise Behaviour Change: Brief Motivational Interviewing Training For Healthcare Providers, Peta Stapleton, Elizabeth Edwards, Kelly Williams, Lauren Ball Dec 2014

Building Skills, Knowledge And Confidence In Eating And Exercise Behaviour Change: Brief Motivational Interviewing Training For Healthcare Providers, Peta Stapleton, Elizabeth Edwards, Kelly Williams, Lauren Ball

Peta B. Stapleton

Obesity related health problems affect individuals, families, communities and the broader health care system, however few healthcare providers (e.g., doctors, nurses, social workers, psychologists, counselors) receive formal training in obesity prevention interventions. We examined the effectiveness of training healthcare providers in brief motivational interviewing (brief MI) targeting eating and exercise behavior change. METHODS: 163 healthcare providers participated. 128 participants completed a one-day experiential brief MI training workshop followed by electronic peer-support and a further 35 matched controls did not receive the training. RESULTS: Participant's knowledge of brief MI and confidence in their ability to counsel patients using brief ...


Mentoring In The Social Context: Mentors' Experiences With Mentees' Peers In A Site-Based Program, Julia Pryce Dec 2014

Mentoring In The Social Context: Mentors' Experiences With Mentees' Peers In A Site-Based Program, Julia Pryce

Julia Pryce

The primary mechanism by which mentoring promotes positive outcomes is typically considered to be the one- to-one relationship between mentor and youth. However, many mentoring relationships, particularly those in site-based programs, unfold within and are influenced by the larger contexts in which mentoring takes place. In the present study, we examined 161 first-person accounts written by college students serving as Lunch Buddy mentors in an elementary school-based mentoring program. This examination aims to glean insights into mentors' experiences of and responses to their mentees' peers as they carried out the mentoring relationship in a school cafeteria setting, and the ways ...


What Is The Attraction? Pornography Use Motives In Relation To Bystander Intervention, John D. Foubert, Ana J. Bridges Dec 2014

What Is The Attraction? Pornography Use Motives In Relation To Bystander Intervention, John D. Foubert, Ana J. Bridges

John D. Foubert

Use of pornography is common among adolescents and young adults, with most men and a growing number of women viewing regularly. A vast body of research suggests pornography use is associated with multiple attitudinal and behavioral variables. One of those associations, for both men and women, is higher pornography use is correlated with a lower likelihood of intervening to prevent sexual assault. The present study explored how motives for viewing pornography related to male (n = 139) and female (n = 290) college students’ willingness and efficacy to intervene to help prevent a sexual assault from occurring. We found that several motivations ...


Meta-Analytic Study: Student Connectedness Across On-Ground, Fully Online, And Hybrid Contexts, Hannah L. Smith, An H. Dang, R. M. Mueller Dec 2014

Meta-Analytic Study: Student Connectedness Across On-Ground, Fully Online, And Hybrid Contexts, Hannah L. Smith, An H. Dang, R. M. Mueller

Reed M. Mueller, Ph.D.

This meta-analysis was conducted to assess student sense of classroom community across three class contexts in post-secondary education settings: On-ground (OG), Hybrid (Hy), and Fully Online (FO). The group comparison of OG versus FO resulted in a significant difference (Hedge’s g = 0.749, p < 0.001), representing a relatively large effect size. The outcome of the student connectedness and overall SOC in the OG versus Hy condition resulted in a smaller effect size, which was not statistically significant (g = -.0158, p = 0.566). When results from OL and Hy conditions were aggregated, a significant difference between them and OG ...


A Meta-Analysis On Involvement In Learning Outcomes Across On-Ground, Online, And Hybrid Classroom Settings, An H. Dang, Hannah L. Smith, R. M. Mueller Dec 2014

A Meta-Analysis On Involvement In Learning Outcomes Across On-Ground, Online, And Hybrid Classroom Settings, An H. Dang, Hannah L. Smith, R. M. Mueller

Reed M. Mueller, Ph.D.

In this meta-analysis we investigate the influence of psychological sense of community (PSOC) on post-secondary students’ outcomes. When comparing the OG and FO settings, the Hedges’s g of .343 (p = .003) indicated that on-ground courses have a moderate, positive effect on student involvement in learning outcomes when measured by CCS than those in fully online courses. The When comparing the OG and Hy settings, there was no significant difference between students in these groups with regard to self-reported student involvement in learning [Hedges’s g = .164, p = .362)].