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Full-Text Articles in Education

Online Facilitators And Sense Of Community In K-12 Online Learning, Jeffery S. Drysdale Dec 2013

Online Facilitators And Sense Of Community In K-12 Online Learning, Jeffery S. Drysdale

Theses and Dissertations

Despite the continued growth of K-12 online learning, there remains a need for additional research addressing roles of online facilitators and how they can improve the sense of community at K-12 online schools. The first article of this dissertation presents a case study illustrating how online facilitators can provide the same level of support for their students that on-site facilitators provide students in blended environments. Data was gathered from teachers at Mountain Heights Academy (MHA), a fully online high school. MHA implemented a "Shepherding Program" to provide student with online facilitators. Each teacher, or shepherd, was responsible for 20 to ...


The Impact Of Home Spoken Language On Learning To Read Chinese: Comparing Mandarin Monolingual Children And Dialect-Speaking Children In Mainland China, Lingyan Yang Dec 2013

The Impact Of Home Spoken Language On Learning To Read Chinese: Comparing Mandarin Monolingual Children And Dialect-Speaking Children In Mainland China, Lingyan Yang

Theses and Dissertations

The primary goal of the current study was to investigate the impact of different first language backgrounds on early Chinese reading development by comparing a group of children who spoke a dialect at home and learned to speak and read Mandarin as a second language as soon as they attended Mandarin immersion programs with their Mandarin-speaking monolingual counterparts. The comparison involved five variables, two of which were measures of reading outcomes, word reading accuracy and vocabulary knowledge, and the other three were measures related to processing spoken languages, including rapid automatized naming, phonological awareness, and morphological awareness.

The study was ...


The Impact Of Persistent Sexual Side Effects Of Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors After Discontinuing Treatment: A Qualitative Study, Rebecca Diane Stinson Dec 2013

The Impact Of Persistent Sexual Side Effects Of Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors After Discontinuing Treatment: A Qualitative Study, Rebecca Diane Stinson

Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation details a qualitative study that examined nine individuals living with sexual side effects of SSRIs that had persisted after the discontinuation of pharmacological treatment (referred to as post-SSRI sexual dysfunction or PSSD).

The investigation sought to answer the following research questions:

(1) How do individuals with persistent sexual side effects make sense of and meaning from their experience?;

(2) How have these individuals' sense of self or identity changed over the course of their sexual difficulties?; and

(3) What role could a counseling psychologist have had in helping the individual with his or her situation?

Using Interpretative Phenomenological ...


Masculinity And Bystander Helping Behavior: A Study Of The Relationship Between Conformity To Masculine Norms And Bystander Interventions, Jerrod Anthony Koon Dec 2013

Masculinity And Bystander Helping Behavior: A Study Of The Relationship Between Conformity To Masculine Norms And Bystander Interventions, Jerrod Anthony Koon

Theses and Dissertations

Hundreds of research articles have been published about variables related to bystander helping behavior. Although significant gender differences have been found in bystander intervention research, the results have been incongruent with little explanation about the relationship between gender and bystander interventions. This study assessed the relationship between conformity to masculine role norms and bystander intervention behavior.

In this study, 200 college students completed the Conformity to Masculine Norms Inventory-46 (CMNI-46) to determine the relationship between conformity to masculine norms and the level of bystander intervention selected on the Bystander Intervention Measure (BIM). It was hypothesized that a significant main effect ...


Equating Multidimensional Tests Under A Random Groups Design: A Comparison Of Various Equating Procedures, Eunjung Lee Dec 2013

Equating Multidimensional Tests Under A Random Groups Design: A Comparison Of Various Equating Procedures, Eunjung Lee

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this research was to compare the equating performance of various equating procedures for the multidimensional tests. To examine the various equating procedures, simulated data sets were used that were generated based on a multidimensional item response theory (MIRT) framework. Various equating procedures were examined, including both unidimensional and the multidimensional equating procedures based on an IRT framework in addition to traditional equating procedures. Specifically, the performance of the following six equating procedures under the random groups design was compared: (1) unidimensional IRT observed score equating, (2) unidimensional IRT true score equating, (3) full MIRT observed score equating ...


Mixed-Format Test Score Equating: Effect Of Item-Type Multidimensionality, Length And Composition Of Common-Item Set, And Group Ability Difference, Wei Wang Dec 2013

Mixed-Format Test Score Equating: Effect Of Item-Type Multidimensionality, Length And Composition Of Common-Item Set, And Group Ability Difference, Wei Wang

Theses and Dissertations

Mixed-format tests containing both multiple-choice (MC) items and constructed-response (CR) items are now widely used in many testing programs. Mixed-format tests often are considered to be superior to tests containing only MC items although the use of multiple item formats leads to measurement challenges in the context of equating conducted under the common-item nonequivalent groups design (CINEG). The purpose of this dissertation was to investigate how various test characteristics and examinee characteristics influence CINEG mixed-format test score equating results.

Simulated data were used in this dissertation. Simulees' item responses were generated using items selected from one MC item pool and ...


Project Hope: A Career Education Program For Rural Middle School Students, Tina D. Hoffman Dec 2013

Project Hope: A Career Education Program For Rural Middle School Students, Tina D. Hoffman

Theses and Dissertations

A critical psychology perspective (Prilleltensky and Nelson, 2002) advocates for research that focuses on social change, the mutual participation of community stakeholders, and the empowerment of those served. The current study applies this critical psychology perspective to career education programming in a multiculturally diverse rural high school.

This manuscript illustrates the collaborative development, implementation, and evaluation of the "Project HOPE" career education program. Case study methodology is used to examine the effects of the program congruent with a critical psychology paradigm. Social Cognitive Career Theory (Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994; 2000) variables of math/science self-efficacy, vocational skills self-efficacy, math/science outcome expectations ...


Congruent And Incongruent Effects Of Ethnic Music On Ethnic Menu Item Selection, Ryan David Muniz Dec 2013

Congruent And Incongruent Effects Of Ethnic Music On Ethnic Menu Item Selection, Ryan David Muniz

Theses and Dissertations

This study investigated what impact ethnic music had on ethnic menu item selection. College students were randomly divided into three groups and listened to one randomly assigned sound treatment in sensory booths. Three hundred and five participants completed the questionnaire with measures of expected price value and willingness to pay value. One of the groups listened to an Italian folk music, the second group listened to a Thai folk music, and the third group listened to a restaurant background noise in order to examine if the music will impact each participant menu items selection and perceived price values. The result ...


Dropping Out In Southeast Kansas: Why Students Leave School Early, Garon Kent Wire Dec 2013

Dropping Out In Southeast Kansas: Why Students Leave School Early, Garon Kent Wire

Theses and Dissertations

This qualitative study takes a deeper look into the lived experiences of students in southeast Kansas who have dropped out of high school. As a result, school and community leaders are better informed to create effective strategy, policy, and practice in dropout prevention.

Framed as a phenomenology, data was collected by conducting in-depth, face-to-face interviews with 12 participants and a focus-group interview with four participants. The researcher administered a survey/questionnaire to an additional 15 participants. Utilizing the Streamlined Codes-To-Theory Model (Saldana, 2009); organizational, structural, and elaborative coding techniques were implemented to reduce the data into categories, which led to ...


Relationships Between Motivation, Self-Efficacy, Mindsets, Attributions, And Learning Strategies: An Exploratory Study, Christopher Lackey Oct 2013

Relationships Between Motivation, Self-Efficacy, Mindsets, Attributions, And Learning Strategies: An Exploratory Study, Christopher Lackey

Theses and Dissertations

Motivation, self-efficacy, beliefs about intelligence, and attributions about academic performance all play important roles in student success. To determine the relationships between these factors and the influence of demographics upon them, an online quantitative survey was taken of college students measuring their self-perceptions of these factors. The survey was comprised of items from three existing surveys: the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ), the Implicit Theories of Intelligence Scale, and the Revised Causal Dimension Scale. First- and second-year students, generally at the highest risk of attrition, were targeted in order to explore whether these factors could shed light on persistence ...


The Effects Of School Type On Kindergarten Reading Achievement: Comparing Multiple Regression To Propensity Score Matching, Farrin Denise Bridgewater Aug 2013

The Effects Of School Type On Kindergarten Reading Achievement: Comparing Multiple Regression To Propensity Score Matching, Farrin Denise Bridgewater

Theses and Dissertations

BACKGROUND: Students taught at private schools by and large attain higher marks on reading achievement tests than do students taught at public schools. This difference is further aggravated by race, socioeconomic status, and reading ability at the entry of kindergarten.

PURPOSE: The goal of this nonexperimental study was to investigate whether students in either school type vary in reading achievement when they are measured on similar confounding variables (i.e., race, SES, and reading scores at the entrance of kindergarten).

METHODS: Propensity score matching, a method used to estimate causal treatment effect, was used to analyze the original sample of ...


The Effects Of Parental Literacy Involvement And Child Reading Interest On The Development Of Emergent Literacy Skills, Crystal Jayne Carroll Aug 2013

The Effects Of Parental Literacy Involvement And Child Reading Interest On The Development Of Emergent Literacy Skills, Crystal Jayne Carroll

Theses and Dissertations

Acquisition of literacy is best conceptualized as a developmental continuum, with its origins early in the life of a child, rather than an all-or-none phenomenon that begins when children start school. How parents expose their children to literacy even before they enter school is important for the later development of reading. The home environment is an important setting for the acquisition of literacy knowledge because children have unique literacy opportunities at home such as observing literacy activities of others, engaging in joint reading and writing activities with other people, and benefiting from teaching strategies used by family members. Researchers suggest ...


After The "Silent Epidemic": Marital Satisfaction In Long Term Spousal Caregivers Of Individuals With Severe Traumatic Brain Injury, Joanna Lynn Arguello Jul 2013

After The "Silent Epidemic": Marital Satisfaction In Long Term Spousal Caregivers Of Individuals With Severe Traumatic Brain Injury, Joanna Lynn Arguello

Theses and Dissertations

Severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a pervasive and devastating condition, often resulting in permanent alterations in cognition, behavior, and personality. As such, survivors of severe TBI usually rely on the assistance of caregivers to navigate situations of daily living throughout their life span. Spouses of individuals with TBI have been shown to experience greater levels of burden than parental caregivers of TBI survivors (Kreutzer et al., 1994; Mauss-Clum & Ryan, 1981) and subsequently rates of divorce and separation have been documented within the research literature to be high (Thomsen, 1984; Wood et al., 2005). Although marital breakdown has been frequently studied, research on marital satisfaction and coping within long-term marriages where one spouse has survived a severe TBI remains insufficient.

The ...


Development And Psychometric Validation Of The Perceived Classism Scales: Measures Of Perceived Social Class Discrimination, Jovan Omar Hernandez Jul 2013

Development And Psychometric Validation Of The Perceived Classism Scales: Measures Of Perceived Social Class Discrimination, Jovan Omar Hernandez

Theses and Dissertations

This paper discusses the development of the Perceived Classism Scales. Three separate studies were conducted to create and validate scales designed to measure Liu, Soleck, Hopps, Dunston, and Pickett's (2004) upward, downward, and lateral classism constructs in their Modern Classism Theory. An initial pool of 51-items was created to assess each of the three classism domains. Three hundred and three individuals participated in the first study, which consisted of an exploratory factor analysis of the 51 items. Results from the first study provided preliminary support for the measurement of two factors. The 51 items were pared down to two ...


The Career Development Of Asian American Female Visual Artists, Sharon Yih-Chih Lee Jul 2013

The Career Development Of Asian American Female Visual Artists, Sharon Yih-Chih Lee

Theses and Dissertations

The Asian American population is one of the fastest growing racial groups within the United States, and will soon become a significant proportion of the nations' work force (Census, 2008). It is important for counselors and other helping professional to better understand the needs of this population in order to better prepare them for the nation's workforce. Given the limitations of the current knowledge pertaining to Asian American career development, researchers have called for additional studies examining the career development process for Asian Americans (Flores et al., 2006; Leong & Serifica, 1995).

A notable gap in today's Asian American vocational literature is on the career development process for those who pursue underrepresented occupations, such as work in the humanities and arts. Researchers have noted that Asian American vocational research has predominantly focused on occupations in which there are more representation, such as Investigative or Enterprising fields (Escueta & O'brien, 1991), the unique career concerns of specific ethnic groups (Kim, 1993; Yang, 1991), familial involvement in career (Tang, Fouad, & Smith, 2004), or provides a broad conceptualization of career development of Asian Americans (Leong, 1986; Leong, 1991 ...


Effects Of Motivating Operations On Academic Performance And Problem Behavior Maintained By Escape From Academic Tasks, Kelly Michele Schieltz Jul 2013

Effects Of Motivating Operations On Academic Performance And Problem Behavior Maintained By Escape From Academic Tasks, Kelly Michele Schieltz

Theses and Dissertations

At least three general subgroups of students display problems with their overall academic achievement: students with motivational deficits, students with academic performance deficits, and students with a combination of both types of deficits. The prevalence of students with both behavioral and learning problems has been reported to be between 10% and 25% and as high as 50%. The current study evaluated the effects of positive reinforcement and instructional strategies on the co-occurrence of motivational and academic deficits within three experiments. Experiments 1 and 2 were conducted with four school-aged children in a behavioral outpatient clinic. Experiment 3 was conducted with ...


Effect Of Violating Unidimensional Item Response Theory Vertical Scaling Assumptions On Developmental Score Scales, Anna Marie Topczewski Jul 2013

Effect Of Violating Unidimensional Item Response Theory Vertical Scaling Assumptions On Developmental Score Scales, Anna Marie Topczewski

Theses and Dissertations

Developmental score scales represent the performance of students along a continuum, where as students learn more they move higher along that continuum. Unidimensional item response theory (UIRT) vertical scaling has become a commonly used method to create developmental score scales. Research has shown that UIRT vertical scaling methods can be inconsistent in estimating grade-to-grade growth, within-grade variability, and separation of grade distributions (effect size) of developmental score scale. In particular the finding of scale shrinkage (decreasing within-grade score variability as grade-level increases) has led to concerns about and criticism of IRT vertical scales. The causes of scale shrinkage have yet ...


Improving Implicit Learning And Explicit Instruction Of Adult And Child Learners Of Chinese, Li-Hui Kuo Jun 2013

Improving Implicit Learning And Explicit Instruction Of Adult And Child Learners Of Chinese, Li-Hui Kuo

Theses and Dissertations

This study explored the main effects and interaction effects of implicit learning and explicit instructional approaches on the language acquisition of beginning adult and child learners of Chinese and analyzed the successful adult and child learners' learning styles in their information processing time, second language acquisition techniques, and cognitive strategies. Volunteers from Brigham Young University and Wasatch Elementary School were randomly assigned to either an Explicit Instruction Treatment (EIT) or an Implicit Learning Treatment (ILT). Following the treatment, the participants completed an online survey and a vocabulary application test. Results from a 2 x 2 factorial ANOVA indicated that adults ...


Types, Subjects, And Purposes Of K-12 Online Learning Interaction, Jered A. Borup Jun 2013

Types, Subjects, And Purposes Of K-12 Online Learning Interaction, Jered A. Borup

Theses and Dissertations

Although K-12 online learning has experienced exceptional growth, research in the area has lagged behind. This dissertation addressed this gap in the literature using a multiple article dissertation format. The first article used survey data from two online English courses at the Open High School of Utah (OHSU) to examine students' reported interactions with content, peers, and instructors. The large majority of students viewed all investigated types of interaction as educational and motivational. Students perceived learner--instructor and learner--content interactions to have significantly higher educational value than learner--learner interactions, and viewed learner--instructor interaction to be significantly more motivational than learner--content interaction ...


Exploring The Narrative-Oriented Qualities Of The Learner's Encounter With Unfamiliarity, Jonathan S. Spackman Jun 2013

Exploring The Narrative-Oriented Qualities Of The Learner's Encounter With Unfamiliarity, Jonathan S. Spackman

Theses and Dissertations

Learning, as embodied familiarization, is described as an embodied, non-representational, and non-mechanistic experience. Within this theoretical framework, a qualitative study is presented that offers a deeper understanding of the learner's encounter with unfamiliarity -- a key lived experience of embodied familiarization. Assertions related to encounters with unfamiliarity are made through a multiple case study analysis and a deeper understanding of the assertions is offered by way of a narrative-oriented framework. From this perspective, agentive, concernful, dispositional and meaningful aspects of learning are discernible.


Resiliency Factors Among Transgender People Of Color, Maureen Grace White May 2013

Resiliency Factors Among Transgender People Of Color, Maureen Grace White

Theses and Dissertations

Much of the research on transgender individuals has been geared towards identifying risk factors including suicide, HIV, and poverty. Little to no research has been conducted on resiliency factors within the transgender community. The few research studies that have focused on transgender individuals have made little or no reference to transgender people of color. This study utilized the Consensual Qualitative Research (CQR) approach to examine resiliency factors among eleven transgender people of color. The data analysis process yielded a total of eleven domains including: (1) Adverse Conditions, (2) Coping Mechanisms, (3) Support, (4) Community Resources, (5) Perceptions of the LGBT ...


Males Experiencing Childhood Sexual Abuse And Their Associations With Psychological Distress, Brittney Holcomb May 2013

Males Experiencing Childhood Sexual Abuse And Their Associations With Psychological Distress, Brittney Holcomb

Theses and Dissertations

Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is an important issue relatively recently beginning to gain attention from professionals. Studies show that males are underrepresented in the literature, although CSA is a prevalent problem for males as well as females. This study was developed to add to the existing literature on males and CSA, obtain prevalence rates from a nationally representative, epidemiological study, and find correlates between CSA and psychological distress factors. The epidemiological study used was the National Comorbidity Study-Replication (NCS-R). This was a large survey of U.S. households investigating correlates and comorbidities of psychological disorders. Secondary analyses were completed on ...


Cognitive Diagnostic Analysis Using Hierarchically Structured Skills, Yu-Lan Su May 2013

Cognitive Diagnostic Analysis Using Hierarchically Structured Skills, Yu-Lan Su

Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation proposes two modified cognitive diagnostic models (CDMs), the deterministic, inputs, noisy, "and" gate with hierarchy (DINA-H) model and the deterministic, inputs, noisy, "or" gate with hierarchy (DINO-H) model. Both models incorporate the hierarchical structures of the cognitive skills in the model estimation process, and can be used for situations where the attributes are ordered hierarchically. The Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2003 data are analyzed to illustrate the proposed approaches. The simulation study evaluates the effectiveness of the proposed approaches under various conditions (e.g., various numbers of attributes, test lengths, sample sizes, and hierarchical ...


Testing Accommodations For Ell Students On An Achievement Test Battery, Lori Lee Dockery May 2013

Testing Accommodations For Ell Students On An Achievement Test Battery, Lori Lee Dockery

Theses and Dissertations

How well students perform on standardized tests can affect their educational paths and the rest of their lives. In addition, students' performances on state assessments will affect their schools due to the No Child Left Behind Act. For English language learners (ELLs), the success on tests may be diminished due to their inability to completely understand what they are reading on a test. Because ELLs are a growing proportion of the population and have greater risk of not performing well in school, dropping out, and not moving on to have a job, it is very important to address their educational ...


Effects Of Age And Schooling On 22 Ability And Achievement Tests, James Lamar Gambrell May 2013

Effects Of Age And Schooling On 22 Ability And Achievement Tests, James Lamar Gambrell

Theses and Dissertations

Although much educational research has investigated the relative effectiveness of different educational interventions and policies, little is known about the absolute net benefits of K-12 schooling independent of growth due to chronological age and out-of-school experience. The nearly universal policy of age tracking in schools makes this a difficult topic to investigate. However, a quasi-experimental regression discontinuity design can be used to separate observed test score differences between grades into independent age and schooling components, yielding an estimate of the net effects of school exposure at each grade level. In this study, a multilevel version of this design was applied ...


Linking Across Forms In Vertical Scaling Under The Common-Item Nonequvalent Groups Design, Xuan Wang May 2013

Linking Across Forms In Vertical Scaling Under The Common-Item Nonequvalent Groups Design, Xuan Wang

Theses and Dissertations

The purposes of this dissertation are to compare how different the resulting proficiency estimates are by using two scale maintenance approaches, the horizontal and vertical approaches, in supporting scale stability across grade within form, within grade across forms, and across grades and across forms, and to thus investigate under which conditions of within-grade variability patterns and examinee sample characteristics one approach is preferable to the other.

Since there is no universally accepted growth model in the literature, three different distribution sets were specified and generated with regard to within-grade variability patterns in the simulation data: constant across grades, decreasing variability ...


Supporting Students' Motivation In College Online Courses, Jae-Eun Lee Russell May 2013

Supporting Students' Motivation In College Online Courses, Jae-Eun Lee Russell

Theses and Dissertations

Students' motivation has been identified as a critical factor for meaningful engagement and positive academic achievement in various educational settings. In particular, self-regulation strategies have been identified as important skills in online learning environments. However, applying self-regulation strategies, such as goal setting, strategic planning, and reflect performance takes significant effort. Without motivation, students will not enact these types of strategies. Autonomous self-regulation has been investigated in traditional classroom settings and there is ample empirical evidence of a significant relationship between autonomous self-regulation and engagement and academic achievement. However, such research was limited in online learning environments.

The purpose of this ...


Investigating Prompt Difficulty In An Automatically Scored Speaking Performance Assessment, Troy L. Cox Mar 2013

Investigating Prompt Difficulty In An Automatically Scored Speaking Performance Assessment, Troy L. Cox

Theses and Dissertations

Speaking assessments for second language learners have traditionally been expensive to administer because of the cost of rating the speech samples. To reduce the cost, many researchers are investigating the potential of using automatic speech recognition (ASR) as a means to score examinee responses to open-ended prompts. This study examined the potential of using ASR timing fluency features to predict speech ratings and the effect of prompt difficulty in that process. A speaking test with ten prompts representing five different intended difficulty levels was administered to 201 subjects. The speech samples obtained were then (a) rated by human raters holistically ...


An Examination Of Rater Agreement: The Behavioral Functioning Of Children Engaged In A Wraparound Model Of Care, Ebony Holliday Jan 2013

An Examination Of Rater Agreement: The Behavioral Functioning Of Children Engaged In A Wraparound Model Of Care, Ebony Holliday

Theses and Dissertations

No abstract provided.


The Relationship Of South Carolina Teachers' Work-Related Stress With Years Of Experience, Feelings And Coping Strategy, Michelle Munnell Jan 2013

The Relationship Of South Carolina Teachers' Work-Related Stress With Years Of Experience, Feelings And Coping Strategy, Michelle Munnell

Theses and Dissertations

Background. Stress has been found to affect workers in various occupations, and teaching appears particularly stressful. Work-Related Stress (WRS) affects teachers and people with whom they interact. Previous research suggests WRS may be related to characteristics including teaching experience, feelings, and coping strategy. Objective. The purpose of this study was to investigate further the relationship of teacher stress, while expanding the investigation in several areas: utilizing a different geographic population, broadening the focus to generic WRS, and including teachers with less experience. Current model builds on Kyriacou and Sutcliffe's (1978) and Tolbert's (2007) teacher stress models. This study ...