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Full-Text Articles in Education

Continued High Risk Sexual Behavior Following Diagnosis With Acute Hiv Infection In South Africa And Malawi: Implications For Prevention, Audrey Pettifor, Catherine L. Mac Phail, Amy Corneli, Jabu Sibeko, Gift Kamanga, Nora Rosenberg, William Miller, Irving Hoffman, Helen Rees, Myron Cohen Jan 2011

Continued High Risk Sexual Behavior Following Diagnosis With Acute Hiv Infection In South Africa And Malawi: Implications For Prevention, Audrey Pettifor, Catherine L. Mac Phail, Amy Corneli, Jabu Sibeko, Gift Kamanga, Nora Rosenberg, William Miller, Irving Hoffman, Helen Rees, Myron Cohen

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Understanding sexual behavior following diagnosis of acute HIV infection (AHI) is key to developing prevention programs targeting individuals diagnosed with AHI. We conducted separate qualitative and quantitative interviews with individuals newly diagnosed (n = 19) with AHI at 1-, 4- and 12-weeks post-diagnosis and one qualitative interview with individuals who had previously been diagnosed with AHI (n = 18) in Lilongwe, Malawi and Johannesburg, South Africa between October 2007 and June 2008. The majority of participants reported engaging in sexual activity following diagnosis with AHI with a significant minority reporting unprotected sex during this time. Most participants perceived to have changed their ...


Social Experience Does Not Abolish Cultural Diversity In Eye Movements, David J. Kelly, Rachael Jack, Sebastien R. Miellet, Emanuele De, Kay Foreman, Roberto Caldara Jan 2011

Social Experience Does Not Abolish Cultural Diversity In Eye Movements, David J. Kelly, Rachael Jack, Sebastien R. Miellet, Emanuele De, Kay Foreman, Roberto Caldara

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Adults from Eastern (e.g., China) and Western (e.g., USA) cultural groups display pronounced differences in a range of visual processing tasks. For example, the eye movement strategies used for information extraction during a variety of face processing tasks (e.g., identification and facial expressions of emotion categorization) differs across cultural groups. Currently, many of the differences reported in previous studies have asserted that culture itself is responsible for shaping the way we process visual information, yet this has never been directly investigated. In the current study, we assessed the relative contribution of genetic and cultural factors by testing ...


A Climate Of Ill Health, Noel Castree Jan 2011

A Climate Of Ill Health, Noel Castree

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Book review of: CHANGING PLANET, CHANGING HEALTH: How the Climate Crisis Threatens Our Health and What We Can Do about It. Paul R. Epstein and Dan Ferber. xii + 355 pp. University of California Press, 2011. $29.95.


A Proposed Adaptation Of The European Foundation For Quality Management Excellence Model To Physical Activity Programmes For The Elderly - Development Of A Quality Self-Assessment Tool Using A Modified Delphi Process, Ana I. Marques, Leonel Santos, Pedro Soares, Rute Santos, Antonio Oliveira-Tavares, Jorge Mota, Joana Carvalho Jan 2011

A Proposed Adaptation Of The European Foundation For Quality Management Excellence Model To Physical Activity Programmes For The Elderly - Development Of A Quality Self-Assessment Tool Using A Modified Delphi Process, Ana I. Marques, Leonel Santos, Pedro Soares, Rute Santos, Antonio Oliveira-Tavares, Jorge Mota, Joana Carvalho

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Background There has been a growing concern in designing physical activity (PA) programmes for elderly people, since evidence suggests that such health promotion interventions may reduce the deleterious effects of the ageing process. Complete programme evaluations are a necessary prerequisite to continuous quality improvements. Being able to refine, adapt and create tools that are suited to the realities and contexts of PA programmes for the elderly in order to support its continuous improvement is, therefore, crucial. Thus, the aim of this study was to develop a self-assessment tool for PA programmes for the elderly. Methods A 3-round Delphi process was ...


Consent And Public Engagement In An Era Of Expanded Childhood Immunisation, Julie Leask, Annette J. Braunack-Mayer, Ian Kerridge Jan 2011

Consent And Public Engagement In An Era Of Expanded Childhood Immunisation, Julie Leask, Annette J. Braunack-Mayer, Ian Kerridge

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Childhood immunisation programmes have seen well‐heralded successes in disease control. An increasing number of scheduled vaccines, narrowing risk–benefit ratios and public attention to vaccine safety raise new questions about consent. We first explore the challenges that this highly dynamic environment poses for valid consent. Then, we broaden this discussion to wider public engagement by suggesting how the public – the bearers of vaccine risk and benefit – can be better involved in immunisation policy.


Balance, Balancing And Health, Wendy Lipworth, Claire Hooker, Stacy M. Carter Jan 2011

Balance, Balancing And Health, Wendy Lipworth, Claire Hooker, Stacy M. Carter

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

In this article we explore the concept of balance in the context of health. We became interested in balance during a grounded theory study of lay conceptualizations of cancer risk in which participants were concerned with having a good life, which relied heavily on balancing processes. This led us to the qualitative literature about balance in the context of health, which was large and in need of synthesis. We identified 170 relevant studies and used Thomas and Harden's technique of thematic synthesis to identify key balance-related themes and develop these into more abstract analytic categories. We found that balance ...


Journal Peer Review In Context: A Qualitative Study Of The Social And Subjective Dimensions Of Manuscript Review In Biomedical Publishing, Wendy Lipworth, Ian Kerridge, Stacy M. Carter, Miles Little Jan 2011

Journal Peer Review In Context: A Qualitative Study Of The Social And Subjective Dimensions Of Manuscript Review In Biomedical Publishing, Wendy Lipworth, Ian Kerridge, Stacy M. Carter, Miles Little

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Peer- and editorial review of research submitted to biomedical journals ('manuscript review') is frequently argued to be essential for ensuring scientific quality and the dissemination of important ideas, but there is also broad agreement that manuscript review is often unsuccessful in achieving its goals. Problems with manuscript review are frequently attributed to the social and subjective dimensions of the process (e.g. bias and conflict of interest). While there have been numerous efforts to improve the process, these have had limited success. This may be because these efforts do not account sufficiently for all of the social and subjective dimensions ...


Should Biomedical Publishing Be 'Opened-Up'? Towards A Values-Based Peer-Review Process, Wendy Lipworth, Ian Kerridge, Stacy M. Carter, Miles Little Jan 2011

Should Biomedical Publishing Be 'Opened-Up'? Towards A Values-Based Peer-Review Process, Wendy Lipworth, Ian Kerridge, Stacy M. Carter, Miles Little

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Peer review of manuscripts for biomedical journals has become a subject of intense ethical debate. One of the most contentious issues is whether or not peer review should be anonymous. This study aimed to generate a rich, empirically-grounded understanding of the values held by journal editors and peer reviewers with a view to informing journal policy. Qualitative methods were used to carry out an inductive analysis of biomedical reviewers' and editors' values. Data was derived from in-depth, open-ended interviews with journal editors and peer reviewers. Data was "read for" themes relevant to reviewer anonymisation and interactions among editors, reviewers, and ...


The Appeal To Nature Implicit In Certain Restrictions On Public Funding For Assisted Reproductive Technology, Drew Carter, Annette J. Braunack-Mayer Jan 2011

The Appeal To Nature Implicit In Certain Restrictions On Public Funding For Assisted Reproductive Technology, Drew Carter, Annette J. Braunack-Mayer

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Certain restrictions on public funding for assisted reproductive technology (ART) are articulated and defended by recourse to a distinction between medical infertility and social infertility. We propose that underlying the prioritization of medical infertility is a vision of medicine whose proper role is to restore but not to improve upon nature. We go on to mark moral responses that speak of investments many continue to make in nature as properly an object of reverence and gratitude and therein (sometimes) a source of moral guidance. We draw on the work of Ludwig Wittgenstein in arguing for the plausibility of an appeal ...


Early Years Research And Policy, Edward Melhuish Jan 2011

Early Years Research And Policy, Edward Melhuish

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Presentation made at The 9th Meeting of the OECD Network on Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) - "Family and Community Engagement", 4-5 July 2011, Paris, France.


Teacher Knowledge Activated In The Context Of Designing Problems, Barbara Butterfield, Mohan Chinnappan Jan 2011

Teacher Knowledge Activated In The Context Of Designing Problems, Barbara Butterfield, Mohan Chinnappan

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

The investigation of teachers' knowledge that informs practice in the mathematics classroom is an important area for research. This issue is addressed in our larger research program which is aimed at characterising the complexity and multi-dimensionality of this knowledge. A report on an earlier phase of this program (Butterfield & Chinnappan, 2010) showed that pre-service teachers tended to activate more common content knowledge than content that is required for teaching. We build on this previous work by examining the kinds of knowledge that a cohort of pre-service teachers activated in the context of designing a learning task.


It’S Time For Ronald Mcdonald To Hang Up The Red Wig, Sandra C. Jones Jan 2011

It’S Time For Ronald Mcdonald To Hang Up The Red Wig, Sandra C. Jones

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

More than 550 international health professionals and organisations have signed a letter to McDonald’s calling for the Ronald McDonald icon to be shelved.


Don’T Panic, Mobile Phones Are Still Only As Carcinogenic As Pickles, Rodney J. Croft Jan 2011

Don’T Panic, Mobile Phones Are Still Only As Carcinogenic As Pickles, Rodney J. Croft

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

The World Health Organisation’s cancer agency, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), has classed mobile phones as Group 2B or “possibly carcinogenic” in a new report. In this Q+A Rodney Croft, Professor of Health Physiology at University of Wollongong, explains why we don’t need to panic.


The Promise And Potential Of Botulinum Toxin-A: National Survey Of Therapy Practices, Bianca Kinnear, N Lannin, Anne Cusick Jan 2011

The Promise And Potential Of Botulinum Toxin-A: National Survey Of Therapy Practices, Bianca Kinnear, N Lannin, Anne Cusick

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Abstract from the 22nd Stroke Society of Australasia Annual Scientific Meeting, 14-16 September 2011, Adelaide, Australia.


Fast Food Loses Tick But Can The Heart Foundation Regain Its Credibility?, Sandra C. Jones Jan 2011

Fast Food Loses Tick But Can The Heart Foundation Regain Its Credibility?, Sandra C. Jones

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

The Heart Foundation today announced plans to dump its tick from takeaway foods, citing unfair advantage for companies such as McDonalds over small takeaway outlets that can’t afford the accreditation fees. The tick will still be available to supermarket food manufacturers. So what does the tick actually mean? And does it improve consumer decisions? Professor Sandra Jones, the Director of the Centre for Health Initiatives at the University of Wollongong, explains: The Heart Foundation tick is perceived by consumers to mean a product is healthy. But it’s more complicated than that. The tick means a product is healthier ...


Differential Effect Of Contrast Polarity Reversals In Closed Squares And Open L-Junctions, Mark M. Schira, Branka Spehar Jan 2011

Differential Effect Of Contrast Polarity Reversals In Closed Squares And Open L-Junctions, Mark M. Schira, Branka Spehar

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Scene segmentation depends on interaction between geometrical and photometric factors. It has been shown that reversals in contrast polarity at points of highest orientation discontinuity along closed contours significantly impair shape discrimination performance, while changes in contrast polarity at straight(er) contour segments do not have such deleterious effects (Spehar, 2002). Here we employ (semi) high resolution fMRI (1.5 mm x 1.5 mm x 1.5 mm) to investigate the neuronal substrate underlying these perception effects. Stimuli consisted of simple elements (a) squares with contrast reversals along straight segments; (b) squares with contrast reversals in the corner (highest ...


Examining The Protective Effects Of Brand Equity In The Keepin' It Real Substance Use Prevention Curriculum, Jeong Kyu Lee, Michael L. Hecht Jan 2011

Examining The Protective Effects Of Brand Equity In The Keepin' It Real Substance Use Prevention Curriculum, Jeong Kyu Lee, Michael L. Hecht

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

While branding appears to be an effective health prevention strategy, it is less clear how successful brands have protective effects. To better understand the role of branding in health prevention and promotion, it is necessary to examine how the persuasive mechanisms of branding function in health campaigns (e.g., modeling socially desirable behaviors). Using a cross-sectional data (N = 709), the current study uncovered the mechanisms explaining branding's effects on adolescent substance use in a school-based substance use intervention, keepin' it REAL (kiR) curriculum. Consistent with our predictions, a confirmatory factor analysis suggested that kiR brand equity had a higher-order ...


It's Not Just Researchers Who Need A New Agenda, Sandra C. Jones Jan 2011

It's Not Just Researchers Who Need A New Agenda, Sandra C. Jones

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

An extensive review of alcohol policy published in the Lancet concluded that: ‘Making alcohol more expensive and less available, and banning alcohol advertising, are highly cost effective strategies to reduce harm’. Unfortunately, calls to ban or restrict alcohol advertising (such as calls to increase price) have been rejected by governments in most countries. Thus, as Meier states, there is a need to provide evidence of the effects of alcohol advertising on young people in order to encourage the government to take action to reduce, or eliminate, the most harmful forms of alcohol promotion (which may, or may not, be ‘advertising ...


Combining The Health Belief Model And Social Marketing To Develop A Community-Level Campaign About Asthma For Older Adults, Uwana Kimberley Evers, Sandra C. Jones, Peter Caputi, Donald C. Iverson Jan 2011

Combining The Health Belief Model And Social Marketing To Develop A Community-Level Campaign About Asthma For Older Adults, Uwana Kimberley Evers, Sandra C. Jones, Peter Caputi, Donald C. Iverson

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

This conceptual paper provides a rationale for combining health behaviour theory with a social marketing framework in order to develop a community-level asthma campaign for adults aged 55 years and older. The prevalence of asthma in older adults in Australia is approximately 10%, higher than in many other countries, and asthma mortality increases with age. In addition, older adults’ perceptions of asthma causes and treatments are often inaccurate. Many older adults believe that asthma is a childhood disease and that the effects of the condition are relatively minor and would not impact on daily life. In order to address these ...


Developing Community-Level Social Marketing Messages To Raise Awareness Of Asthma In Older Australians: Preliminary Results, Uwana Kimberley Evers, Sandra C. Jones, Peter Caputi, Donald C. Iverson Jan 2011

Developing Community-Level Social Marketing Messages To Raise Awareness Of Asthma In Older Australians: Preliminary Results, Uwana Kimberley Evers, Sandra C. Jones, Peter Caputi, Donald C. Iverson

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Background: While asthma awareness campaigns are generally aimed at children and their parents, asthma affects a similar proportion of older adults, often with more severe health consequences. Adults aged 55 years and over often have misconceptions about the severity of asthma and their likelihood of developing the disease. A targeted asthma awareness campaign utilising social marketing techniques could benefit the health outcomes and quality of life of this population.

Objective: We aimed to pilot test our survey in the older adult population and to learn more about older adult’s asthma perceptions.

Methods: One-hundred and fifteen adults aged 55 years ...


Research Round-Up 1981-2011, Anne Cusick Jan 2011

Research Round-Up 1981-2011, Anne Cusick

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Closing keynote address from the Occupational Therapy Australia 24th National Conference and Exhibition, 29 June - 1 July 2011, Gold Coast, Australia


Cold Pressor Stimulation Diminishes P50 Amplitude In Normal Subjects, Adam J. Woods, John W. Philbeck, Kenneth Chelette, Robert D. Skinner, Edgar Garcia-Rill, Mark Mennemeier Jan 2011

Cold Pressor Stimulation Diminishes P50 Amplitude In Normal Subjects, Adam J. Woods, John W. Philbeck, Kenneth Chelette, Robert D. Skinner, Edgar Garcia-Rill, Mark Mennemeier

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

The present study examined how cold pressor stimulation influences electrophysiological correlates of arousal. We measured the P50 auditory evoked response potential in two groups of subjects who immersed their foot in either cold (0-2 degreees Celsius) or room temperature (22-24 degreees Celsius) water for 50 seconds. The P50, which was recorded before and after stimulation, is sleep-state dependent and sensitive to states of arousal in clinical populations. We found a significant reduction in P50 amplitude after exposure to cold, but not room temperature water. In comparison with other studies, these results indicate that cold pressor stimulation in normal subjects may ...


The Future Of Geography In English Universities, Noel Castree Jan 2011

The Future Of Geography In English Universities, Noel Castree

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Geography in England is one of many university subjects that will be significantly restructured - with almost immediate effect - because of powerful external drivers altering research and teaching. In this commentary I want to speculate on the likely changes ahead, and to consider how university-based geographers in England might respond to them. Given the considerable international influence that geographers in England exert within the wider subject, this commentary ought to interest those working in other countries. Notwithstanding the perils of futurology, I consider some possible scenarios in the midst of a formative moment for higher education in the UK's largest ...


Attention-Induced Deactivations In Very Low Frequency Eeg Oscillations: Differential Localisation According To Adhd Symptom Status, Samantha J. Broyd, Suzannah K. Helps, Edmund J.S Sonuga-Barke Jan 2011

Attention-Induced Deactivations In Very Low Frequency Eeg Oscillations: Differential Localisation According To Adhd Symptom Status, Samantha J. Broyd, Suzannah K. Helps, Edmund J.S Sonuga-Barke

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Background: The default-mode network (DMN) is characterised by coherent very low frequency (VLF) brain oscillations. The cognitive significance of this VLF profile remains unclear, partly because of the temporally constrained nature of the blood oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) signal. Previously we have identified a VLF EEG network of scalp locations that shares many features of the DMN. Here we explore the intracranial sources of VLF EEG and examine their overlap with the DMN in adults with high and low ADHD ratings. Methodology/Principal Findings: DC-EEG was recorded using an equidistant 66 channel electrode montage in 25 adult participants with high- and ...


The Impact Of Self-Efficacy On Asthma Management Amongst Older Australian Adults, Pippa Burns, Sandra C. Jones, Donald C. Iverson Jan 2011

The Impact Of Self-Efficacy On Asthma Management Amongst Older Australian Adults, Pippa Burns, Sandra C. Jones, Donald C. Iverson

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Rationale: Australian asthma rates are high by international standards causing greatest mortality amongst older adults.

This paper looks at the relationships between perceived self-efficacy (belief in oneself) to manage the physical discomfort or pain caused by asthma and also the emotional distress caused by asthma and: reported health status; asthma quality of life for both mood and breathlessness; asthma management practices; and emergency health care use for asthma in adults aged 55 years and over.

Methods: A 20 page survey exploring the health beliefs, behaviours and attitudes of older Australians, was mailed to 9,000 people, (response rate = 46.8 ...


Dairy Constituents And Neurocognitive Health In Ageing, David A. Camfield, Lauren Owen, Andrew Scholey, Andrew Pipingas, Con Stough Jan 2011

Dairy Constituents And Neurocognitive Health In Ageing, David A. Camfield, Lauren Owen, Andrew Scholey, Andrew Pipingas, Con Stough

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Age-related cognitive decline (ARCD) and dementia are of increasing concern to an ageing population. In recent years, there has been considerable research focused on effective dietary interventions that may prevent or ameliorate ARCD and dementia. While a number of studies have considered the impact that dairy products may have on physiological health, particularly with regard to the metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular health, further research is currently needed in order to establish the impact that dairy products have in the promotion of healthy brain function during ageing. The present review considers the available evidence for the positive effects of dairy products ...


Examining Brain-Cognition Effects Of Ginkgo Biloba Extract: Brain Activation In The Left Temporal And Left Prefrontal Cortex In An Object Working Memory Task, R B. Silberstein, A Pipingas, J Song, David Camfield, P J. Nathan, C Stough Jan 2011

Examining Brain-Cognition Effects Of Ginkgo Biloba Extract: Brain Activation In The Left Temporal And Left Prefrontal Cortex In An Object Working Memory Task, R B. Silberstein, A Pipingas, J Song, David Camfield, P J. Nathan, C Stough

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Ginkgo Biloba extract (GBE) is increasingly used to alleviate symptoms of age related cognitive impairment, with preclinical evidence pointing to a pro-cholinergic effect. While a number of behavioral studies have reported improvements to working memory (WM) associated with GBE, electrophysiological studies of GBE have typically been limited to recordings during a resting state. The current study investigated the chronic effects of GBE on steady state visually evoked potential (SSVEP) topography in nineteen healthy middle-aged (50-61 year old) male participants whilst completing an object WM task. A randomized double-blind crossover design was employed in which participants were allocated to receive 14 ...


Relevance Of The International Prognostic Index In The Rituximab Era, Kevin Tay, David Tai, Miriam Tao, Richard Quek, Tam C. Ha, Soon Thye Lim Jan 2011

Relevance Of The International Prognostic Index In The Rituximab Era, Kevin Tay, David Tai, Miriam Tao, Richard Quek, Tam C. Ha, Soon Thye Lim

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Letter to the editor


Increasing Awareness Of Sun Protection Among Australian Adolescents: Results Of A Community-Based Intervention, Sandra C. Jones, Melinda Williams, Peter Caputi, Donald C. Iverson Jan 2011

Increasing Awareness Of Sun Protection Among Australian Adolescents: Results Of A Community-Based Intervention, Sandra C. Jones, Melinda Williams, Peter Caputi, Donald C. Iverson

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

No abstract provided.


Understanding The Behaviour Of The Target Market: What Do Adolescents Think About When Asked Questions About Their Behaviour In The Sun?, Melinda Williams, Sandra C. Jones, Peter Caputi, Donald C. Iverson Jan 2011

Understanding The Behaviour Of The Target Market: What Do Adolescents Think About When Asked Questions About Their Behaviour In The Sun?, Melinda Williams, Sandra C. Jones, Peter Caputi, Donald C. Iverson

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

We undertook a project to develop a psychometrically sound instrument measuring adolescent sun-related behavior for use in the evaluation of a social marketing program. During the preliminary stages, we conducted a pilot study to test the face validity of the instrument with adolescents. Think-aloud sessions were completed with 24 adolescents. Results identified gaps in our understanding of adolescent sun-related behavior. Adolescents interpreted 'tanning' as specifically lying at the beach in the sun, however also reported behaviours to 'get a bit of sun', suggesting adolescents and researchers have different interpretations of key terms. The study highlights that use of the think-aloud ...