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Full-Text Articles in Education

Signaling The Competencies Of High School Students To Employers, John H. Bishop Oct 2009

Signaling The Competencies Of High School Students To Employers, John H. Bishop

John H Bishop

[Excerpt] The fundamental cause of the low effort level of American students, parents, and voters in school elections is the absence of good signals of effort and accomplishment and the consequent lack of rewards for learning. In most other advanced countries mastery of the curriculum is assessed by examinations that are set and graded at the national or regional level. Grades on these exams signal the student's achievement to employers and colleges and influence the jobs that graduates get and the universities and programs to which they are admitted. Exam results also influence school reputations and in some countries ...


Are National Exit Examinations Important For Educational Efficiency?, John H. Bishop Oct 2009

Are National Exit Examinations Important For Educational Efficiency?, John H. Bishop

John H Bishop

“This paper analyses effects of national or provincial exit examinations on education quality. On theoretical grounds, the paper argues that such examinations should increase high school achievement, particularly in examination subjects, and that teachers and students and parents and school administrators should focus more on academic achievement when making school-quality decisions. On the negative side, exit examinations may lead to a tendency to concentrate on learning facts, rather than understanding contexts.”


Secondary Education In The United States: What Can Others Learn From Our Mistakes?, John H. Bishop , Ferran Mane, Michael Bishop Oct 2009

Secondary Education In The United States: What Can Others Learn From Our Mistakes?, John H. Bishop , Ferran Mane, Michael Bishop

John H Bishop

Secondary schools are the least successful component of the U.S. education system. Students learn considerably less than in other industrialized nations and dropout rates are significantly higher. This paper provides an explanation for this failure, describes the standards based reforms strategies that many states are implementing to attack these problems, and evaluates the success of these efforts.


The Impacts Of School-Business Partnerships On The Early Labor-Market Success Of Students, John H. Bishop, Ferran Mane Oct 2009

The Impacts Of School-Business Partnerships On The Early Labor-Market Success Of Students, John H. Bishop, Ferran Mane

John H Bishop

[Excerpt] This chapter examines the effects of improved signaling of student achievement in high school on the labor market success of recent high-school graduates. The chapter is organized into three sections. In the first section, we reproduce the argument that Bishop put forth in 1985 that better signaling of student achievement to employers would improve the quality of the jobs that recent high-school graduates could obtain and strengthen incentives to learn. In the second section, we analyze longitudinal data on eight graders in 1988 and attempt to measure the effect of school-employer partnerships on their subsequent success in the labor ...


Student, Staff, And Employer Incentives For Improved Student Achievement And Work Readiness, John H. Bishop Oct 2009

Student, Staff, And Employer Incentives For Improved Student Achievement And Work Readiness, John H. Bishop

John H Bishop

“This article proposes a strategy for banishing mediocrity and building in its place an excellent American system of secondary education. Before a cure can be prescribed, however, a diagnosis must be made.”


Is The Test Score Decline Responsible For The Productivity Growth Decline?, John H. Bishop Oct 2009

Is The Test Score Decline Responsible For The Productivity Growth Decline?, John H. Bishop

John H Bishop

[Excerpt] The test score decline between 1967 and 1980 was large (about 1.25 grade-level equivalents) and historically unprecedented. New estimates of trend in academic achievement, of the effect of academic achievement on productivity and of trend in the quality of the work force are developed. They imply that if test scores had continued to grow after 1967 at the rate that prevailed in the previous quarter century, labor quality would now be 2.9 percent higher and 1987 GNP $86 billion higher.


High School Exit Examinations: When Do Learning Effects Generalize?, John H. Bishop Oct 2009

High School Exit Examinations: When Do Learning Effects Generalize?, John H. Bishop

John H Bishop

This paper reviews international and domestic evidence on the effects of three types of high school exit exam systems: voluntary curriculum-based external exit exams, universal curriculum-based external exit exam systems and minimum competency tests that must be passed to receive a regular high school diploma. The nations and provinces that use Universal CBEEES (and typically teacher grades as well) to signal student achievement have significantly higher achievement levels and smaller differentials by family background than otherwise comparable jurisdictions that base high stakes decisions on voluntary college admissions tests and/or teacher grades. The introduction of Universal CBEEES in New York ...


Some Thoughts On The Cost Effectiveness Of Graduate Education Subsidies, John H. Bishop Oct 2009

Some Thoughts On The Cost Effectiveness Of Graduate Education Subsidies, John H. Bishop

John H Bishop

[Excerpt] How much should doctorate training be subsidized? The answer proposed is, "Doctorate training should be subsidized to the extent and only to the extent that it produces externality or public benefits – i.e. benefits received by people other than the one receiving the diploma." This value judgment derives from three propositions: (1) In general, an adult knows better than anyone else what is best for himself; (2) the price (measured in both time and money) he is willing to pay for graduate education is the best measure of how much he values it relative to other offerings; and (3 ...


The Effect Of National Standard And Curriculum-Based Exams On Achievement, John H. Bishop Oct 2009

The Effect Of National Standard And Curriculum-Based Exams On Achievement, John H. Bishop

John H Bishop

[Excerpt] Two presidents, the National Governors Association and numerous blue ribbon panels have called for the development of state or national content standards for core subjects and examinations that assess the achievement of these standards. The Competitiveness Policy Council, for example, advocates that "external assessments be given to individual students at the secondary level and that the results should be a major but not exclusive factor qualifying for college and better jobs at better wages (1993, p. 30)." It is claimed that curriculum-based external exit exam systems (CBEEEs) based on world class content standards will improve teaching and learning of ...


In Search Of A Niche, John H. Bishop Oct 2009

In Search Of A Niche, John H. Bishop

John H Bishop

"As enrollment in secondary vocational education programs declines and employers re-evaluate the attributes needed for success in today’s job market, some observers of the U.S. education system have called for schools to limit – or even eliminate – the teaching of occupational skills. Does this mean employers don’t reward such training?"


The Role Of End-Of-Course Exams And Minimum Competency Exams In Standards-Based Reforms, John H. Bishop, Ferran Mane, Michael Bishop, Joan Moriarty Oct 2009

The Role Of End-Of-Course Exams And Minimum Competency Exams In Standards-Based Reforms, John H. Bishop, Ferran Mane, Michael Bishop, Joan Moriarty

John H Bishop

[Excerpt] Educational reformers and most of the American public believe that most teachers ask too little of their pupils. These low expectations, they believe, result in watered down curricula and a tolerance of mediocre teaching and inappropriate student behavior. The result is that the prophecy of low achievement becomes self-fulfilling. Although research has shown that learning gains are substantially larger when students take more demanding courses2, only a minority of students enroll in these courses. There are several reasons for this. Guidance counselors in many schools allow only a select few into the most challenging courses. While most schools give ...


Vocational And Academic Education In High School: Complements Or Substitutes, Suk Kang, John H. Bishop Oct 2009

Vocational And Academic Education In High School: Complements Or Substitutes, Suk Kang, John H. Bishop

John H Bishop

[Excerpt] A number of blue ribbon-panels have called for increases in the number academic courses required for graduation from high school and for lengthening the school day and the school year. Most states have adopted the first of these recommendations but not the second. With the amount of time a student spends in school remaining constant, increases in the number of required academic courses force reductions elsewhere. Which activities should be reduced? Should the reduction be made in study halls, music and fine arts,physical education, and life skills courses or should it come in vocational education? The answer to ...


Making Vocational Education More Effective For At-Risk Youth, John H. Bishop Oct 2009

Making Vocational Education More Effective For At-Risk Youth, John H. Bishop

John H Bishop

"Occupationally specific vocational training pays off for disadvantaged students, but only if graduates work in the jobs they were trained for. Implication: Vocational educators must help make sure that the skills they teach are used."


Do Curriculum-Based External Exit Exam Systems Enhance Student Achievement?, John H. Bishop Oct 2009

Do Curriculum-Based External Exit Exam Systems Enhance Student Achievement?, John H. Bishop

John H Bishop

[Excerpt] It is claimed that 'curriculum-based external exit exam systems', CBEEES, based on world class content standards will improve teaching and learning of core subjects. What evidence is there for this claim? New York's Regents Exams are an example of such a system. Do New York students outperform students with similar socio-economic backgrounds from other states? Outside the United States such systems are the rule, not the exception. What impacts have such systems had on school policies, teaching and student learning?


The Impact Of Curriculum-Based External Examinations On School Priorities And Student Learning, John H. Bishop Oct 2009

The Impact Of Curriculum-Based External Examinations On School Priorities And Student Learning, John H. Bishop

John H Bishop

[Excerpt] The first major prediction of the theory is that an increase in the extrinsic rewards for learning will cause student effort and achievement to increase. The primary extrinsic reward for achievement in high school is a higher probability of completing college. Thus the extrinsic rewards for learning in high school depend on the size of the payoff to college and on how contingent college admissions decisions are on achievement in high school. Time series data suggests that changes in college selectivity and payoff may have contributed to the ups and downs of student achievement during the postwar period. The ...


The Effect Of Curriculum-Based Exit Exam Systems On Student Achievement, John H. Bishop Oct 2009

The Effect Of Curriculum-Based Exit Exam Systems On Student Achievement, John H. Bishop

John H Bishop

[Excerpt] Two presidents, the National Governors Association and numerous blue ribbon panels have called for the development of state or national content standards for core subjects and examinations that assess the achievement of these standards. The Competitiveness Policy Council, for example, advocates that "external assessments be given to individual students at the secondary level and that the results should be a major but not exclusive factor qualifying for college and better jobs at better wages (1993, p. 30)." It is claimed that 'curriculum-based external exit exam systems', CBEEES, based on world class content standards will improve teaching and learning of ...


Drinking From The Fountain Of Knowledge: Student Incentive To Study And Learn-Externalities, Information Problems And Peer Pressure, John H. Bishop Oct 2009

Drinking From The Fountain Of Knowledge: Student Incentive To Study And Learn-Externalities, Information Problems And Peer Pressure, John H. Bishop

John H Bishop

Students face four decision margins: (a) How many years to spend in school, (b) What to study. (c) How much effort to devote to learning per year and (d) Whether to disrupt or assist the learning of classmates. This paper reviews an emerging economic literature on the effects of and determinants of student effort and cooperativeness (c and d above) and how putting student motivation and behavior at center of one’s theoretical framework changes one’s view of how schools operate and how they might be made more effective. In this new framework students have a dual role. They ...


Incentives For Learning: Why American High School Students Compare So Poorly To Their Counterparts Overseas, John H. Bishop Oct 2009

Incentives For Learning: Why American High School Students Compare So Poorly To Their Counterparts Overseas, John H. Bishop

John H Bishop

[Excerpt] The scientific and mathematical competence of American high school students is generally recognized to be very low. The National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) reports that only 7.5 percent of 17 year old students can "integrate specialized scientific information" (NAEP 1988a p.51) and 6.4 percent "demonstrated the capacity to apply mathematical operations in a variety of problem settings." (NAEP 1988b p. 42) There is a large gap between the science and math competence of young Americans and their counterparts overseas. In the 1960s, the low ranking of American high school students in such comparisons was attributed ...


Vocational Education And At-Risk Youth In The United States, John H. Bishop Oct 2009

Vocational Education And At-Risk Youth In The United States, John H. Bishop

John H Bishop

[Excerpt] Educationally disadvantaged youth in the United States have great difficulty finding steady jobs providing real training and advancement opportunities. In October 1994 only 43 percent of the young people who had dropped out of high school the previous year were employed. Of recent (previous spring) graduates who had not gone college, only 64 percent were employed (BLS 1995). Those who obtained employment accepted jobs paying 10 to 15 percent less than in 1980.


La Educación Secundaria En Los Estados Unidos. ¿Qué Pueden Aprender Otros De Nuestros Errores?, John H. Bishop, Ferran Mane, Michael Bishop Oct 2009

La Educación Secundaria En Los Estados Unidos. ¿Qué Pueden Aprender Otros De Nuestros Errores?, John H. Bishop, Ferran Mane, Michael Bishop

John H Bishop

[Excerpt] El ritmo de los estudiantes estadounidenses para adquirir nuevas habilidades se desacelera durante la educación secundaria.