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Outrageous State, Sectarianized Citizens: Deconstructing The ‘Textbook Controversy’ In The Northern Areas, Pakistan, Nosheen Ali Jan 2008

Outrageous State, Sectarianized Citizens: Deconstructing The ‘Textbook Controversy’ In The Northern Areas, Pakistan, Nosheen Ali

Institute for Educational Development, Karachi

This paper examines the ‘textbook controversy’ (2000-2005) that arose when the Pakistan state introduced new, overtly Sunni textbooks in the Northern Areas, and the local Shia population began to agitate for a more balanced curriculum. The conflict reached an acute stage during 2004-2005, as violent confrontations took place between Shia and Sunni communities, and a constant curfew paralyzed daily life in Gilgit for eleven months. I argue that the Shia mobilization against textbook Islam was not just a form of “sectarian” outrage; rather, it symbolized a broader political claim to inclusion in a context of long-standing regional subordination and religious ...


Implementation Of Generic Skills In The Curriculum, Sulaiman Yassin, Fauziah Abu Hasan, Wan Amin, Nur Amiruddin Jan 2008

Implementation Of Generic Skills In The Curriculum, Sulaiman Yassin, Fauziah Abu Hasan, Wan Amin, Nur Amiruddin

EDU-COM International Conference

In many cultures and countries including Malaysia, the issue of incorporating generic skills into the curriculum taught to students in higher learning institutions has gained momentum in recent years. The raison d'être to inculcate generic skills among students is to enable the country to meet human resource requirements which will be more competitive in the advent of a borderless world. Growing concerns of the employability of graduates and the expansion in the size and diversity of student populations also form the basis to implement the generic skills program in universities. All undergraduate programs offered in public higher learning institutions ...