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## Full-Text Articles in Education

The Polygon Game, Kyla Hall

#### The Polygon Game, Kyla Hall

*MAT Exam Expository Papers*

The Polygon Game ‐ Take a regular, n‐sided polygon (i.e. a regular n‐gon) and the set of numbers, {1, 2, 3, …, (2n‐2), (2n‐1), 2n}. Place a dot at each vertex of the polygon and at the midpoint of each side of the polygon. Take the numbers and place one number beside each dot. A side sum is the sum of the number assigned to any midpoint plus the numbers assigned to the vertex on either side of the midpoint. A solution to the game is any polygon with numbers assigned to each dot for which all ...

Nebraska Earth Systems Education Network – Fall 2007

#### Nebraska Earth Systems Education Network – Fall 2007

*Nebraska Earth Systems Education Network*

Content:

Master’s Online Course to Improve Teachers Science Knowledge by Lindsey Mohlman

Teacher Spotlight: Susan Frack by Susan Frack & Lindsey Mohlman

Nebraska View: A Resource for K-16 Educators by Milda Vaitkus

Mueller Planetarium Goes “Fulldome” by Jack Dunn

ANDRILL Antarctic Geological Drilling by Frank Rack

Toyota USA Foundation Grant to UNL will Promote K-12 Science Education by UNL Office of Communications

Evaluation Of An Adult Education Technology Program, Iwasan D. Kejawa Ed.D

#### Evaluation Of An Adult Education Technology Program, Iwasan D. Kejawa Ed.D

*Theses, Student Research, and Creative Activity: Department of Teaching, Learning and Teacher Education*

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the adult education technology program at a chartered alternative adult education center in Florida. The adult education center had a low rate of students passing the Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT). This study examined the impact of the use of computer technology in an effort to improve student learning in mathematics, reading, and science. Computers at the institution were used by all students for tutorials to prepare them for the FCAT and to obtain a high school diploma. The research questions for this study were as follows: 1. Is the education technology ...

The Importance Of Teaching Students How To Read To Comprehend Mathematical Language, Tricia Buchanan

#### The Importance Of Teaching Students How To Read To Comprehend Mathematical Language, Tricia Buchanan

*Action Research Projects*

In this action research study of my classroom of 8th and 9th grade Algebra I students, I investigated if there are any benefits for the students in my class to learn how to read, translate, use, and understand the mathematical language found daily in their math lessons. I discovered that daily use and practice of the mathematical language in both written and verbal form, by not only me but by my students as well, improved their understanding of the textbook instructions, increased their vocabulary and also increased their understanding of their math lessons. I also found that my students remembered ...

Pre-Reading Mathematics Empowers Students, Stacey Aldag

#### Pre-Reading Mathematics Empowers Students, Stacey Aldag

*Action Research Projects*

In this action research study of my 8th grade mathematics classroom, I investigated the improvement of mathematical communication via assigning pre-reading material and requiring students to take notes prior to class discussions. I discovered that students became more active participants during classroom discussions and were able to produce work which illustrated their mathematical understanding. Teacher observations and improved quiz scores provide quantitative evidence, and student survey responses validate student communication. As a result of this research, I plan to assign pre-reading tasks and require students to take notes prior to class discussions with the goal to change classroom presentation from ...

Do Students Progress If They Self-Assess? A Study In Small-Group Work, Cindy Steinkruger

#### Do Students Progress If They Self-Assess? A Study In Small-Group Work, Cindy Steinkruger

*Action Research Projects*

In this action research study of my classroom of 8th grade mathematics, I investigated the effects of self-assessment on student group work. Data was collected to see how self-assessment affected small-group work, usage of precise mathematical vocabulary, and student attitudes toward mathematics. Self-assessment allowed the students to periodically evaluate their own learning and their involvement in math class. I discovered that the vast majority of students enjoy working in small-groups, and they feel they are good group members. Evidence in regard to use of precise mathematical vocabulary showed an increased awareness in the importance of its usage. Student attitudes toward ...

Improving Student Engagement And Verbal Behavior Through Cooperative Learning, Daniel Schaben

#### Improving Student Engagement And Verbal Behavior Through Cooperative Learning, Daniel Schaben

*Action Research Projects*

In this action research study of my classroom of 10th grade Algebra II students, I investigated three related areas. First, I looked at how heterogeneous cooperative groups, where students in the group are responsible to present material, increase the number of students on task and the time on task when compared to individual practice. I noticed that their time on task might have been about the same, but they were communicating with each other mathematically. The second area I examined was the effect heterogeneous cooperative groups had on the teacher’s and the students’ verbal and nonverbal problem solving skills ...

Improving Student Engagement And Verbal Behavior Through Cooperative Learning, Daniel Schaben

#### Improving Student Engagement And Verbal Behavior Through Cooperative Learning, Daniel Schaben

*Action Research Projects*

In this action research study of my classroom of 10th grade Algebra II students, I investigated three related areas. First, I looked at how heterogeneous cooperative groups, where students in the group are responsible to present material, increase the number of students on task and the time on task when compared to individual practice. I noticed that their time on task might have been about the same, but they were communicating with each other mathematically. The second area I examined was the effect heterogeneous cooperative groups had on the teacher’s and the students’ verbal and nonverbal problem solving skills ...

Improving The Effectiveness Of Independent Practice With Corrective Feedback, Greg Vanderbeek

#### Improving The Effectiveness Of Independent Practice With Corrective Feedback, Greg Vanderbeek

*Action Research Projects*

In this action research study of my 8th grade Algebra class, I investigated the effects of teacher-to-student written corrective feedback on student performance and attitude toward mathematics. The corrective feedback was given on solutions for selected independent practice problems assigned as homework. Each problem being assessed was given a score based on a 3- point rubric and additional comments were written. I discovered that providing teacher-to-student written corrective feedback for independent practice problems was beneficial for both students and teachers. The feedback positively affected the attitudes of students and teacher toward independent practice work resulting in an improved quality of ...

Increasing Conceptual Learning Through Student Participation, Janet Timoney

#### Increasing Conceptual Learning Through Student Participation, Janet Timoney

*Action Research Projects*

In this action research study of my 9th grade Algebra I classroom, I investigated the idea of presenting problems at the beginning of class. Data was collected to determine if presenting problems at the beginning of class would have an effect on students’ conceptual learning, verbal communication and confidence. It was also my intention that this project would have a positive impact on my students both academically and mentally with increasing their confidence with mathematical problems. I discovered that presenting problems at the beginning of class did impact my students’ overall abilities and achievement. It seemed to improve their volunteerism ...

Increasing Teacher Involvement With Other Teachers Through Reflective Interaction, Tina Thompson

#### Increasing Teacher Involvement With Other Teachers Through Reflective Interaction, Tina Thompson

*Action Research Projects*

In this action research study of a district’s mathematics teachers, the researcher investigated how teachers interact with other teachers in their building and throughout the district. The researcher wanted to know how deeply teachers thought about teaching mathematics, and if they use other teachers in the district as a resource to help with unknown math problems. The researcher discovered that some teachers are willing to interact with others, but would like to have time supplied to them during the school year’s staff development meetings. The teachers involved were able to observe each other teaching and take valuable strategies ...

Calculators In The Classroom: Help Or Hindrance?, Christina L. Sheets

#### Calculators In The Classroom: Help Or Hindrance?, Christina L. Sheets

*Action Research Projects*

In a world where technology is ever present and ever changing, is too much technology at too young of an age detrimental to a child’s educational success? The purpose of this paper is to share the results of a four-month study that focused on the use of calculators in grade eight. This study was conducted in an eighth grade class, in a small kindergarten through twelfth grade school. This paper will share the findings of a study of a classroom in which calculator use was limited and mental computation was emphasized. The main focus of this study was whether ...

Improving Students’ Story Problem Solving Abilities, Josh Severin

#### Improving Students’ Story Problem Solving Abilities, Josh Severin

*Action Research Projects*

In this action research study of my classroom of 8th grade mathematics students, I investigated if learning different problem solving strategies helped students successfully solve problems. I also investigated if students’ knowledge of the topics involved in story problems had an impact on students’ success rates. I discovered that students were more successful after learning different problem solving strategies and when given problems with which they have experience. I also discovered that students put forth a greater effort when they approach the story problem like a game, instead of just being another math problem that they have to solve. An ...

The Effects Improving Student Discourse Has On Learning Mathematics, Lindsey Thompson

#### The Effects Improving Student Discourse Has On Learning Mathematics, Lindsey Thompson

*Action Research Projects*

In this action research study of my 8th grade mathematics classroom, I investigated how improving student discourse affects learning mathematics. I conducted this study because I wanted to give students more opportunities to develop and share their ideas with their peers as well as with me. My idea was to create a learning environment that encouraged students to voice their opinions. In order to do so, I needed to reassure and model with my students that they were in a classroom where it was safe to take risks, and they should feel comfortable sharing their ideas. By facilitating activities for ...

Effects Of Self-Assessment On Math Homework, Diane Swartzlander

#### Effects Of Self-Assessment On Math Homework, Diane Swartzlander

*Action Research Projects*

In this action research study of my eighth grade differentiated Algebra students, I investigated the effects of students using self-assessment on their homework. Students in my class were unmotivated and failed test objectives consistently. I wanted students to see that they controlled their learning and could be motivated to succeed. Formative assessment tells students how they need to improve. Learning needs to happen before they can be assessed. Self-assessment is one tool that helps students know if they are learning. A rubric scoring guide, daily documentation sheet and feedback on homework and test correlations were used to help students monitor ...

Why Are We Writing? This Is Math Class!, Shana Streeks

#### Why Are We Writing? This Is Math Class!, Shana Streeks

*Action Research Projects*

In this action research study of my classroom of 8th grade mathematics, I investigated writing in the content area. I have realized how important it is for students to be able to communicate mathematical thoughts to help gain a deeper understanding of the content. As a result of this research, I plan to enforce the use of writing thoughts and ideas regarding math problems. Writers develop skills and generate new thoughts and ideas every time they sit down to write. Writing evolves and grows with ongoing practice, and that means thinking skills mature along with it. Writing is a classroom ...

“Let’S Review.” A Look At The Effects Of Re-Teaching Basic Mathematic Skills, Thomas J. Harrington

#### “Let’S Review.” A Look At The Effects Of Re-Teaching Basic Mathematic Skills, Thomas J. Harrington

*Action Research Projects*

In this action research study of my classroom of 8th grade mathematics, I investigated the effect of reviewing basic fraction and decimal skills on student achievement and student readiness for freshman Algebra. I also investigated the effect on the quality of student work, with regards to legibility by having students grade each other’s work anonymously. I discovered that students need basic skill review with fractions and decimals, and by the end of the research their scores improved. However, their handwriting had not. At the end of the research, a majority of the students felt the review was important, and ...

The Importance Of Vocabulary Instruction In Everyday Mathematics, Chad Larson

#### The Importance Of Vocabulary Instruction In Everyday Mathematics, Chad Larson

*Action Research Projects*

In this action research study of my 6th grade math students I try to answer the question of how mathematical vocabulary plays an integral role in the understanding and learning of middle level mathematics. It is my belief that mathematics is a language, and to be fluent in that language one must be able to use and understand vocabulary. With the use of vocabulary quizzes and mathematically-centered vocabulary activities, student scores and understanding of math concepts can be increased. I discovered that many of the students had never been exposed to consistent mathematical terminology in their elementary education, which led ...

Understanding The Mathematical Language, Carmen Melliger

#### Understanding The Mathematical Language, Carmen Melliger

*Action Research Projects*

In this action research study of my calculus classroom consisting of only 12th grade students, I investigated activities that would affect a student’s understanding of mathematical language. The goal in examining these activities in a systematic way was to see if a student’s deeper understanding of math terms and symbols resulted in a better understanding of the mathematical concepts being taught. I discovered that some students will rise to the challenge of understanding mathematics more deeply, and some will not. In the process of expecting more from students, the frustration level of both the students and the teacher ...

Writing For Understanding In Math Class, Linda Moore

#### Writing For Understanding In Math Class, Linda Moore

*Action Research Projects*

In this action research study of my classroom of 10th grade geometry students, I investigated how students learn to communicate mathematics in a written form. The purpose of the study is to encourage students to express their mathematical thinking clearly by developing their communication skills.

I discovered that although students struggled with the writing assignments, they were more comfortable with making comments, writing questions and offering suggestions through their journal rather than vocally in class. I have utilized teaching strategies for English Language Learners, but I had never asked the students if these strategies actually improved their learning. I have ...

Generating Interest In Mathematics Using Discussion In The Middle School Classroom, Jessica Fricke

#### Generating Interest In Mathematics Using Discussion In The Middle School Classroom, Jessica Fricke

*Action Research Projects*

In this action research study of my classroom of 8th grade algebra, I investigated students’ discussion of mathematics and how it relates to interest in the subject. Discussion is a powerful tool in the classroom. By relying too heavily on drill and practice, a teacher may lose any individual student insight into the learning process. However, in order for the discussion to be effective, students must be provided with structure and purpose. It is unrealistic to expect middle school age students to provide their own structure and purpose; a packet was constructed that would allow the students to both show ...

Cooperative Learning As An Effective Way To Interact, Gary Eisenhauer

#### Cooperative Learning As An Effective Way To Interact, Gary Eisenhauer

*Action Research Projects*

In this action research study of my classroom of 8th grade mathematics, I investigated the effects of students’ interactions while cooperatively learning in groups. I discovered that in order to be cooperative, a lesson must be well-defined, open for discussion, and have positive face-toface interaction. The cooperative learning groups should be teacher generated rather than student-selected. When done correctly, cooperative learning tends to promote student relationships, more positive attitudes toward mathematics and the teacher, and greater self-confidence in a student’s mathematics abilities. As a result of this research, I plan to better incorporate cooperative learning into the classroom. Students ...

An Investigation Into Careless Errors Made By 7th Grade Mathematics Students, Andrea Wiens

#### An Investigation Into Careless Errors Made By 7th Grade Mathematics Students, Andrea Wiens

*Summative Projects for MA Degree*

In this action research study, I investigated the careless errors made by my seventh-grade mathematics students on their homework and tests. Beyond analyzing the types of careless errors and the frequency at which they were made, I also analyzed my students’ attitudes toward reviewing their work before they turn it in and self-reflection about the quality of work that they were producing. I found that many students did not know how to review their test before turning it in; no one had ever taught them how to do so. However, when students were given tools to help them with this ...

Here Is The Plan: So What Is The Question?, Dot Snesrud

#### Here Is The Plan: So What Is The Question?, Dot Snesrud

*Summative Projects for MA Degree*

In this action research study of my classroom of 5th grade mathematics students, I investigated their understanding of the mathematical operations by having them write problems to match given equations. I discovered that writing a story to match an equation does provide insight into a student’s understanding of mathematical concepts, however, reading comprehension is a factor in the understanding. Readers who struggle with comprehension do struggle with understanding and writing math story problems. The discussion that follows the writing of a math story problem and the solving of the written problems helps to strengthen the students’ mathematical abilities as ...

Extending A Finite Sequence, Jessica Fricke

#### Extending A Finite Sequence, Jessica Fricke

*MAT Exam Expository Papers*

One of the most common mistakes in school mathematics is to list a few terms of a sequence and ask “What term comes next?” For example, a teacher may write: 1 2 4 … and ask what term comes next? The best answer is “almost anything could be the next term.” But people often find that answer unsatisfying. It helps, instead, to give an example. Perhaps, one might respond by saying: “The next number might be 8, but then again, it might be 7.” This answer might, of course, result in an angry teacher, so you need to be prepared with ...

Evaluating Polynomials, Thomas J. Harrington

#### Evaluating Polynomials, Thomas J. Harrington

*MAT Exam Expository Papers*

Computers use algorithms to evaluate polynomials. This paper will study the efficiency of various algorithms for evaluating polynomials. We do this by counting the number of basic operations needed; since multiplication takes much more time to perform on a computer, we will count only multiplications. This paper addresses the following: a) How many multiplications does it take to evaluate the one-variable polynomial, Σ= + + + + = n i i i n n a a x a x a x a x 0 2 0 1 2 ... when the operations are performed as indicated? (Remember that powers are repeated multiplications and must be counted ...

Ethnomathematics, Chad Larson

#### Ethnomathematics, Chad Larson

*MAT Exam Expository Papers*

When asked to think about a foreign country the first thing that comes to my mind is the language barrier and the customs that accompany that specific country. The culture of the citizens and how it differs from my culture are also things which peak my interest. Things which I view as “normal” may seem very odd to someone who lives thousands of miles away, and likewise, traditions that have been past down from generations of people from distant lands may seem peculiar to me. These customs and cultures of which I speak are also the things that make this ...

How To Graphically Interpret The Complex Roots Of A Quadratic Equation, Carmen Melliger

#### How To Graphically Interpret The Complex Roots Of A Quadratic Equation, Carmen Melliger

*MAT Exam Expository Papers*

As a secondary math teacher I have taught my students to find the roots of a quadratic equation in several ways. One of these ways is to graphically look at the quadratic and see were it crosses the x-axis. For example, the equation of y = x2 – x – 2, as shown in Figure 1, has roots at x = -1 and x = 2. These are the two places in which the sketched graph crosses the x-axis.

Experimentation With Two Formulas By Ramanujan, Daniel Schaben

#### Experimentation With Two Formulas By Ramanujan, Daniel Schaben

*MAT Exam Expository Papers*

Srinivasa Ramanujan was a brilliant mathematician, considered by George Hardy to be in the same class as Euler, Gauss, and Jacobi. His short life, marred by illness and tragic educational events, was unique in the history of mathematics. Mathematical discoveries are still being gleaned from his personal notebooks. Paper was a hard commodity to come by so his notebooks were a cluttered mix of pen over pencil mathematical hieroglyphics. The following highlights Ramanujan’s life in connection with Hardy, his work with ellipses, and his work with the partition function.

Master Of Arts In Teaching (Mat), Josh Severin

#### Master Of Arts In Teaching (Mat), Josh Severin

*MAT Exam Expository Papers*

The number zero is a very powerful tool in mathematics that has many different applications and rules. An interesting fact about the number zero is that according to our calendar (the Gregorian calendar), there is no “year zero” in our history. There is also no “zeroth” century as time is recorded from centuries B.C. to the 1st century A.D. However, certain calendars do have a year zero. In the astronomical year numbering system year zero is defined as year 1 BC. Buddhist and Hindu lunar calendars also have a year zero. In this paper I am going to ...