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Full-Text Articles in Education

Toward Democratic Education: The Importance Of Culturally Responsive Leadership In 21st Century Schools, Donna M. Davis Jan 2002

Toward Democratic Education: The Importance Of Culturally Responsive Leadership In 21st Century Schools, Donna M. Davis

Trotter Review

The author defines culturally responsive leadership as "essentially a process" by which communities create systems that support democratic education. The author explores relevant education scholarship and literary texts to better define "democratic freedom," and the essay examines issues related to democratic education and the role of educators and community members in creating democratic schools. The author argues that humanistic, child-centered, democratic schools are not only essential for the development of the sense of self that enables one to experience true freedom, but democratic schools are also necessary to the goal of changing the conditions that create inequities. Davis outlines barriers ...


Improving The Selection Process For Identifying Gifted Ethnic Minority Children, John Dillard, Nettye R. Brazil Jan 2002

Improving The Selection Process For Identifying Gifted Ethnic Minority Children, John Dillard, Nettye R. Brazil

Trotter Review

Poor and ethnic minority students are underrepresented in programs for the talented and gifted. As the number of public school students from ethnically diverse and low income backgrounds steadily increases, schools need to revise assessment tools that cannot effectively evaluate the academic potential of these populations. The authors examine the definition of giftedness, outline the limitations of current testing methods, and explore the role played by teachers' perceptions of ethnic minority children. The authors explore as well the range of social pressures on gifted African American students which may lead them to adopt behaviors that camouflage their giftedness. Dillard and ...


High-Stakes Tests Require High-Stakes Pedagogy, Randy Lattimore Jan 2002

High-Stakes Tests Require High-Stakes Pedagogy, Randy Lattimore

Trotter Review

High-stakes mathematics tests continue to gain popularity in the United States, with an increasing number of states setting the passing of such tests as a high school graduation requirement. Consequently, instruction and instructional content have changed, with teachers emphasizing materials on the test while neglecting other important aspects of learning. The tests have become all-consuming, taking over many students' lives. Yet students are often ill prepared for these tests. This is even more true for African-American students whose cultural and social circumstances make their preparation for high-stakes tests inadequate and ineffective. The author examines six such students - their hopes for ...


Over-Representation Of African-American Students In Special Education: The Role Of A Developmental Framework In Shaping Teachers' Interpretations Of African-American Students' Behavior, Valerie Maholmes, Fay E. Brown Jan 2002

Over-Representation Of African-American Students In Special Education: The Role Of A Developmental Framework In Shaping Teachers' Interpretations Of African-American Students' Behavior, Valerie Maholmes, Fay E. Brown

Trotter Review

The authors draw on the findings of gestalt psychology to demonstrate how teachers' views of African American learning styles and behavior can determine whether these will be pathologized or supported by the educational system. The disproportionately large numbers of African American youth incorrectly assigned to special education courses indicate a lack of clarity in disability criteria and indicate also the use of a "deficit model" or perceptual lens through which teachers assign negative meanings to the behavior of African American students. Case examples of language used by teachers in describing randomly selected students illustrate teachers' deficit-based focus on student behavior ...


Why Makik Can "Do" Math: Race And Status In Integrated Classrooms, Jacqueline Leonard, Scott Jackson Dantley Jan 2002

Why Makik Can "Do" Math: Race And Status In Integrated Classrooms, Jacqueline Leonard, Scott Jackson Dantley

Trotter Review

This case study reports on the small group interactions and achievements of Malik, an African American sixth grader, who attended a Maryland elementary school in 1997. Student achievement was measured by the Maryland Functional Mathematics Test (MFMT-I), which was given on a pre/post basis. Students' scores on the MFMT-I were analyzed using the ANOVA. The analysis revealed a significant difference (F = 3-330, p < .05) between the scores of Caucasian (M = 342.12) and African American students (M = 323-56). However, Malik's MFMT-I score rose from 293 to 353. A passing score is 340. This study examines Malik's interactions to ascertain what factors influenced his achievement. The findings are that Malik had a positive attitude about mathematics and a strong command of mathematical and scientific language. Recommendations are that teachers become cultural brokers to help all children learn the "language" of mathematics and encourage all students to become self-advocates to overcome negative social dynamics in small groups.


Race, Ethnicity, Class, And School Dropouts: A Policy Perspective, Richard C. Verdugo Jan 2002

Race, Ethnicity, Class, And School Dropouts: A Policy Perspective, Richard C. Verdugo

Trotter Review

The author presents a review of literature on conditions and circumstances that cause youth to drop out before finishing high school. The essay explains the key features of both cultural and structural theories of low academic performance, and the author argues these theories might profitably be fused in order to formulate effective dropout prevention/intervention policies. The author recommends use of the public health model for prevention and intervention and synthesizes the findings of three recent reports on effective dropout programs.


Alternative School Administrators "At Risk": What Does It Mean For Children?, Christopher Dunbar Jr. Jan 2002

Alternative School Administrators "At Risk": What Does It Mean For Children?, Christopher Dunbar Jr.

Trotter Review

Alternative public schools have evolved from their origins in school choice and the progressive education movement of the 1920's into a system of schools that have become the assigned "dumping ground" for a population of ill-prepared, behaviorally disruptive youth, a population that is also disproportionately composed of minority students. Research suggests these schools fall short of providing an optimal educational opportunity for their students. There are multiple factors that place alternative school administrators "at risk" of failing in their charge to educate. Using a case study from a Midwestern alternative school, the author focuses on policy and the role ...


The Impact Of A Culturally Responsive School Environment On Pre-Service Teachers' Willingness To Teach In A School, Delois Maxwell Jan 2002

The Impact Of A Culturally Responsive School Environment On Pre-Service Teachers' Willingness To Teach In A School, Delois Maxwell

Trotter Review

In a climate that acknowledges the need for teacher educators to prepare new teachers for culturally diverse student bodies, the study examines the extent to which selected features of an urban school environment affect a preservice teacher's willingness to teach in the school. A survey was administered to 48 preservice teachers after they completed a 7-week student teaching experience in a large urban school district. The survey sample was drawn from a northeastern university which enrolls 90% Caucasian education students. The study pursues the following research questions: does race/ethnicity, gender, program level, school location and major relate to ...


Commentary, Tammy Hart Jan 2002

Commentary, Tammy Hart

Trotter Review

This interview of Dr. Philip Hart was conducted by his wife, Tanya Hart, an award-winning journalist. Tanya Hart is a graduate of the Michigan State University College of Communications Arts and Sciences. The university honored her as an Outstanding Alumnus in 1982. She also has a Master of Education degree from the Harvard University Graduate School of Education.


Introduction, Philip Hart Jan 2002

Introduction, Philip Hart

Trotter Review

We are pleased to share with our readers this issue of the Trotter Review. The events of September 11, 2001, will forever reshape our world as we know it. In addition to the far-reaching effects of this tragedy, it has revealed our general lack of knowledge about Islam and places in the world where religion and faith shape governmental and civic engagement. In crisis often comes opportunity. This opportunity to learn more about other religions and cultural pluralism is positive. It underscores the continuing importance of education and learning in today's world. So I think it particularly appropriate that ...