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2002

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Articles 1 - 30 of 33

Full-Text Articles in Education

The Organization Of Schools As An Overlooked Source Of Underqualified Teaching, Richard Ingersoll Dec 2002

The Organization Of Schools As An Overlooked Source Of Underqualified Teaching, Richard Ingersoll

CPRE Policy Briefs

Behind the headlines about a looming and large teacher shortage lies another story, one that suggests the problem ought to be addressed within schools as much as by external solutions. The organization of schools and how teachers are used account for a great deal of the underqualified teaching in public schools. Most policy actions, however, stress improved recruitment, teacher training, and certification requirements as the best ways to assure qualified teaching in the nation’s schools.

This study focuses on one aspect of unequal distribution of quality teaching – out-of-field placement. In schools serving primarily low-income and/or minority students, out-of-field ...


Student Task Persistence In The Third International Mathematics And Science Study: A Major Source Of Achievement Differences At The National, Classroom, And Student Levels, Erling E. Boe, Henry May, Robert Boruch Dec 2002

Student Task Persistence In The Third International Mathematics And Science Study: A Major Source Of Achievement Differences At The National, Classroom, And Student Levels, Erling E. Boe, Henry May, Robert Boruch

GSE Publications

Since the release of results from the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) in 1996, scholars have recognized that the central importance of TIMSS lies in its contribution to a better understanding of factors that are responsible for cross-national differences in average student achievement. Among many such factors may be differences in student ability and motivation to perform the task of completing the TIMSS achievement tests in math and science. In fact, national differences in math and science achievement scores may be determined more by differences in student test-taking ability and motivation than by . differences in student knowledge of ...


Cooperative Agent Systems: Artificial Agents Play The Ultimatum Game, Fang Zhong, Steven. O. Kimbrough, D.J. Wu Nov 2002

Cooperative Agent Systems: Artificial Agents Play The Ultimatum Game, Fang Zhong, Steven. O. Kimbrough, D.J. Wu

Operations, Information and Decisions Papers

We explore computational approaches for artificial agents to play the ultimatum game. We compare our agents' behavior with that predicted by classical game theory, as well as behavior found in experimental (or behavioral) economics investigations. In particular, we study the following questions: How do artificial agents perform in playing the ultimatum game against fixed rules, dynamic rules, and rotating rules? How do coevolving artificial agents perform? Will learning software agents do better? What is the value of intelligence? What will happen when smart learning agents play against dumb (no-learning) agents? What will be the impact of agent memory size on ...


What Large-Scale, Survey Research Tells Us About Teacher Effects On Student Achievement: Insights From The Prospectus Study Of Elementary Schools, Brian Rowan, Richard Correnti, Robert J. Miller Nov 2002

What Large-Scale, Survey Research Tells Us About Teacher Effects On Student Achievement: Insights From The Prospectus Study Of Elementary Schools, Brian Rowan, Richard Correnti, Robert J. Miller

CPRE Research Reports

This report is about conceptual and methodological issues that arise when educational researchers use data from large-scale, survey research studies to investigate teacher effects on student achievement. In the report, we illustrate these issues by reporting on a series of analyses we conducted using data from Prospects: The Congressionally Mandated Study of Educational Opportunity. This large-scale, survey research effort gathered a rich store of data on instructional processes and student achievement in a large sample of U.S. elementary schools during the early 1990s as part of the federal government's evaluation of the Title I program. We use data ...


The Limits And Contradictions Of Systemic Reform: The Philadelphia Story, Thomas B. Corcoran, Jolley Bruce Christman Nov 2002

The Limits And Contradictions Of Systemic Reform: The Philadelphia Story, Thomas B. Corcoran, Jolley Bruce Christman

CPRE Research Reports

In Philadelphia, the Annenberg Challenge was known as Children Achieving and was a districtwide systemic reform initiative designed and led by a small core group of District officials and external partners. This report examines the Children Achieving Challenge and the strategies the designers employed to improve teaching and learning in the public schools. Among the conditions associated with the Annenberg Challenge were requirements that two matching dollars be raised for each one received from the Annenberg Foundation and that an independent management structure be created to provide program, fiscal, and evaluation oversight of the grant. In Philadelphia, a business organization ...


Redefining Event Variables For Efficient Modeling Of Continuous-Time Batch Processing, Siqun Wang, Monique Guignard Oct 2002

Redefining Event Variables For Efficient Modeling Of Continuous-Time Batch Processing, Siqun Wang, Monique Guignard

Operations, Information and Decisions Papers

We define events so as to reduce the number of events and decision variables needed for modeling batch-scheduling problems such as described in. We propose a new MILP formulation based on this concept, defining non-uniform time periods as needed and decision variables that are not time-indexed. It can handle complicated multi-product/multi-stage machine processes, with production lines merging and diverging, and with minimum and maximum batch sizes. We compare it with earlier models and show that it can solve problems with small to medium demands relative to batch sizes in reasonable computer times.


Health Insurance And The Growth In Pharmaceutical Expenditures*, Patricia. M. Danzon, Mark V. Pauly Oct 2002

Health Insurance And The Growth In Pharmaceutical Expenditures*, Patricia. M. Danzon, Mark V. Pauly

Health Care Management Papers

This paper examines the contribution of insurance coverage to the recent unprecedented growth in spending on pharmaceuticals. Trends in drug spending over time closely paralleled the growth in drug coverage. Most of the coverage growth reflects an increase in the number of people with coverage, 65 percent from 1987 to 1996, rather than increased depth of coverage. The direct moral hazard effect of this insurance growth accounts for between one‐fourth and one‐half of the increase in drug spending. Technological change contributed to these changes, because both the flow of new drugs increased the demand for insurance and information ...


Impact Of America's Choice On Student Performance In Duval County, Florida, Jonathan A. Supovitz, Brooke Snyder Taylor, Henry May Oct 2002

Impact Of America's Choice On Student Performance In Duval County, Florida, Jonathan A. Supovitz, Brooke Snyder Taylor, Henry May

CPRE Research Reports

This study, conducted by the Consortium for Policy Research in Education (CPRE), reports on the impact of the America's Choice school design on student standardized test performance in Duval County, Florida. We present the results of the first two years of the impact of America's Choice in Duval County in elementary and middle schools in writing, reading, and mathematics using test data from 1999-2001.

To detect the effects of America's Choice on student learning, we compared the gains in performance of students in America's Choice schools to those of students in other schools in the district ...


The Varieties Of Knowledge And Skill-Based Pay Design: A Comparison Of Seven New Pay Systems For K-12 Teachers, Anthony Milanowski Oct 2002

The Varieties Of Knowledge And Skill-Based Pay Design: A Comparison Of Seven New Pay Systems For K-12 Teachers, Anthony Milanowski

CPRE Research Reports

A number of lines of research (e.g., National Commission on Teaching and America's Future, 1996; Slavin & Fashola, 1998; Wright, Horn, & Sanders, 1997; Bembry, Jordan, Gomez, Anderson, & Mendro, 1998; Ferguson & Ladd, 1996) have identified teacher instructional capacity as a key variable in the success of educational reforms in improving student achievement. Since 2000, the Consortium for Policy Research in Education has been studying a new form of teacher compensation that may have the potential to support improvements in the capacity of teachers to deliver instruction that would enable all children to achieve to high academic standards, as well as to respond to the growing public ...


An Assessment Of Basic Computer Proficiency Among Active Internet Users: Test Construction, Calibration, Antecedents And Consequences, Eric T. Bradlow, Stephen J. Hoch, J. W. Hutchinson Sep 2002

An Assessment Of Basic Computer Proficiency Among Active Internet Users: Test Construction, Calibration, Antecedents And Consequences, Eric T. Bradlow, Stephen J. Hoch, J. W. Hutchinson

Marketing Papers

The purpose of this article is to describe our efforts to create a test of basic computer proficiency, examine its properties using parametric test scoring methods, and identify some antecedents and consequences that accompany differences in performance. We also consider how much insight people have into their level of knowledge by examining the relationship between our tested measure of computer knowledge and self-rated knowledge scores collected at the same time. This research also adds to the large body of existing empirical work on computer literacy in the student population, by looking at computer literacy in a more general sample of ...


Second Language Learners' Theories On The Use Of English Articles: An Analysis Of The Metalinguistic Knowledge Used By Japanese Students In Acquiring The English Article System., Yuko Goto Butler Sep 2002

Second Language Learners' Theories On The Use Of English Articles: An Analysis Of The Metalinguistic Knowledge Used By Japanese Students In Acquiring The English Article System., Yuko Goto Butler

GSE Publications

Although it is well known that many second language (L2) learners have trouble using articles “properly,” the primary causes of their difficulties remain unclear. This study addresses this problem by examining the metalinguistic knowledge of the English article system that learners employ when selecting articles in a given situation. By doing this, the present study attempts to better understand the process of “making sense” of the English article system by learners who are at different stages in their interlanguage development. Eighty Japanese college students with varying levels of English proficiency participated in this study. Immediately after completing a fill-in-thearticle test ...


Retaining African Americans In Higher Education: Challenging Paradigms For Retaining Students, Faculty, And Administrators (Review), Laura W. Perna Sep 2002

Retaining African Americans In Higher Education: Challenging Paradigms For Retaining Students, Faculty, And Administrators (Review), Laura W. Perna

GSE Publications

Retaining African Americans in Higher Education is a timely and novel approach to a critical topic. Edited by Lee Jones, associate dean for academic affairs and instruction in the College of Education and associate professor in Educational Leadership at Florida State University, the volume contains 14 chapters, a preface, a conclusion, and two personal reflections that describe issues related to the retention of African American students, administrators, and faculty at predominantly white colleges and universities. “Written about African Americans, by African Americans” (p. xii), this book is recommended by a white woman for higher education administrators, faculty, researchers, and policymakers ...


Civic Engagement And Urban School Improvement: Hard-To-Learn Lessons From Philadelphia, Jolley Bruce Christman, Amy Rhodes Jun 2002

Civic Engagement And Urban School Improvement: Hard-To-Learn Lessons From Philadelphia, Jolley Bruce Christman, Amy Rhodes

CPRE Research Reports

Philadelphia’s Children Achieving was a sweeping systemic reform initiative. Systemic reform eschews a school-byschool approach to reform and relies on coherent policy, improved coordination of resources and services, content and performance standards, decentralization of decision-making, and accountability mechanisms to transform entire school systems. Led by a dynamic superintendent and central office personnel, Children Achieving was the first attempt by an urban district to test systemic reform in practice.

In 1996, the Consortium for Policy Research in Education (CPRE) at the University of Pennsylvania and its partner, Research for Action (RFA), were charged by the Children Achieving Challenge with the ...


A Review Of The Research On Charter Schools, Katrina Bulkley, Jennifer Fisler Jun 2002

A Review Of The Research On Charter Schools, Katrina Bulkley, Jennifer Fisler

CPRE Research Reports

The major research areas over the last decade have focused largely on assessing how the implementation of charter schools compares with the original theory. This review examines whether charter schools are autonomous, innovative, accountable, and equitable. The review looks at existing evidence about outcomes of students enrolled in charter schools and the broader effects of charter schools on public education. The review provides a foundation for future work that will examine in greater depth the role charter schools may play in educational reform.


Biliteracy And Schooling For Multilingual Populations, Nancy H. Hornberger Jun 2002

Biliteracy And Schooling For Multilingual Populations, Nancy H. Hornberger

GSE Publications

No abstract provided.


A Case Study Of Professional Development Expenditures At A Restructured High School, Sarah Archibald, H. Alix Gallagher May 2002

A Case Study Of Professional Development Expenditures At A Restructured High School, Sarah Archibald, H. Alix Gallagher

CPRE Journal Articles

This article is an analysis of professional development spending in a recently restructured urban high school. This study describes the school's restructuring effort, the ways in which professional development in the school supports the effort, and the ways in which the school reallocated resources to create funds for professional development spending. We then apply the framework of professional development costs proposed by Odden, Archibald, Fermanich and Gallagher (forthcoming) to the professional development expenditures in the school. Information regarding professional development expenditures was obtained from budget and planning documents as well as interviews with school and district personnel. These data ...


Using Timss To Inform Policy And Practice At The Local Level, Deborah Nelson May 2002

Using Timss To Inform Policy And Practice At The Local Level, Deborah Nelson

CPRE Policy Briefs

The Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS)-1995 and its successor, TIMSS-1999, provide education researchers, policymakers, and practitioners with rich, comparative data designed to help better understand the performance of educational systems. As such, TIMSS is a valuable tool in current efforts to improve mathematics and science instruction and to educate students in the United States to global standards of excellence. What can we learn from this ambitious and unprecedented international effort to provide meaningful, useful data for the reform of mathematics and science instruction? It is important to reflect on this question as we assess the promise and ...


Mayoral Influences, New Regimes, And Public School Governance, Michael W. Kirst May 2002

Mayoral Influences, New Regimes, And Public School Governance, Michael W. Kirst

CPRE Research Reports

In recent years, a spate of cities -- including Boston, Chicago, and Cleveland -- have shifted governance structures to give more control to mayors in the hope that such changes would ultimately lead to improved school quality and student achievement, as well as to diminished scandal and turmoil in the school systems. A closer look at these instances, however, shows that these governance changes have to be understood within the broader context of a particular city, and the particular frustration and challenges that led to the willingness to alter the top levels of educational control. The ways in which mayors have become ...


Reassessing Parental Involvement: Involving Language Minority Parents In School Work At Home, Kimberly Daniel-White Apr 2002

Reassessing Parental Involvement: Involving Language Minority Parents In School Work At Home, Kimberly Daniel-White

Working Papers in Educational Linguistics (WPEL)

No abstract provided.


What Is Missing In Interlanguage? Acquisition Of Determiners By Korean Learners Of English, Hyun-Sook Kang Apr 2002

What Is Missing In Interlanguage? Acquisition Of Determiners By Korean Learners Of English, Hyun-Sook Kang

Working Papers in Educational Linguistics (WPEL)

No abstract provided.


Negative Evidence In Language Classroom Activities: A Study Of Its Availability And Accessibility To Language Learners, Teresa Pica, Gay Washburn Apr 2002

Negative Evidence In Language Classroom Activities: A Study Of Its Availability And Accessibility To Language Learners, Teresa Pica, Gay Washburn

Working Papers in Educational Linguistics (WPEL)

No abstract provided.


A Study Of Closing Sessions In Japanese Telephone Conversations, Tomoko Takami Apr 2002

A Study Of Closing Sessions In Japanese Telephone Conversations, Tomoko Takami

Working Papers in Educational Linguistics (WPEL)

No abstract provided.


Literacy Assessment Practices (Lap) In Selected Developing Countries: Analytic Review Of Four Lap Country Case Studies, Daniel A. Wagner Apr 2002

Literacy Assessment Practices (Lap) In Selected Developing Countries: Analytic Review Of Four Lap Country Case Studies, Daniel A. Wagner

Working Papers (Literacy.org)

The present paper provides an analytic review of four country case studies that were prepared for the Literacy Assessment Practices (LAP) project, undertaken jointly by the International Literacy Institute (ILI) and UNESCO, in collaboration with UIS and UIE. This report attempts to provide a summary of key issues, as well as to identify lessons learned and areas that are in need of further investigation. Examples are drawn from the four cases in the light of the present context of the field of adult literacy, and various conclusions and new directions are drawn from this material. Overall, in the context for ...


Implementation Of The America's Choice Literacy Workshops, Jonathan A. Supovitz, Susan M. Poglinco, Amy J. Bach Apr 2002

Implementation Of The America's Choice Literacy Workshops, Jonathan A. Supovitz, Susan M. Poglinco, Amy J. Bach

CPRE Research Reports

Fostering literacy is at the heart of the America’s Choice Comprehensive School Reform Design. Strong reading and writing skills are viewed as cornerstones of successful student performance in all subject areas. The readers and writers workshops, which together we call the literacy workshops, play a central role in moving all children toward high standards of performance. The workshops are designed to provide students with a rich immersion into the numerous skills and habits necessary to become fluent readers and writers. The structures of the literacy workshops are intended to facilitate teachers’ analyses of student skills (as represented by their ...


A Decade Of Charter Schools: From Theory To Practice, Katrina Bulkley, Jennifer Fisher Apr 2002

A Decade Of Charter Schools: From Theory To Practice, Katrina Bulkley, Jennifer Fisher

CPRE Policy Briefs

The number of schools operating under charter school laws has soared over the last decade, from a small number operating in just a few states to more than 2,300 schools serving over 575,000 students in 34 states and the District of Columbia. More than half of these schools are concentrated in a few states — Arizona has over 400 charter schools, and California, Florida, Michigan, and Texas each has more than 150.

Charter schools are relatively autonomous schools of choice that operate under a charter or contract issued by a public entity such as a local school board, public ...


Multilingual Language Policies And The Continua Of Biliteracy: An Ecological Approach, Nancy H. Hornberger Mar 2002

Multilingual Language Policies And The Continua Of Biliteracy: An Ecological Approach, Nancy H. Hornberger

GSE Publications

The one language-one nation ideology of language policy and national identity is no longer the only available one worldwide (if it ever was). Multilingual language policies which recognize ethnic and linguistic pluralism as resources for nation-building are increasingly in evidence. These policies, many of which envision implementation through bilingual intercultural education, open up new worlds of possibility for oppressed indigenous and immigrant languages and their speakers, transforming former homogenizing and assimilationist policy discourses into discourses about diversity and emancipation. This paper uses the metaphor of ecology of language to explore the ideologies underlying multilingual language policies, and the continua of ...


An Analysis Of The Effects Of Children Achieving On Student Achievement In Philadelphia Elementary Schools, Erin Tighe, Aubrey Wang, Ellen Foley Feb 2002

An Analysis Of The Effects Of Children Achieving On Student Achievement In Philadelphia Elementary Schools, Erin Tighe, Aubrey Wang, Ellen Foley

CPRE Research Reports

Philadelphia’s Children Achieving was a sweeping systemic reform initiative. Systemic reform eschews a school-byschool approach to reform and relies on coherent policy, improved coordination of resources and services, content and performance standards, decentralization of decision-making, and accountability mechanisms to transform entire school systems. Led by a dynamic superintendent and central office personnel, Children Achieving was the first attempt by an urban district to test systemic reform in practice.

In 1996, the Consortium for Policy Research in Education (CPRE) at the University of Pennsylvania and its partner, Research for Action (RFA), were charged by the Children Achieving Challenge with the ...


Predictors Of National Differences In Mathematics And Science Achievement: Data From Timss For Eighth Grade Students, Erling E. Boe, Henry May, Gema Barkanic, Robert Boruch Feb 2002

Predictors Of National Differences In Mathematics And Science Achievement: Data From Timss For Eighth Grade Students, Erling E. Boe, Henry May, Gema Barkanic, Robert Boruch

GSE Publications

There is widespread belief that national economic productivity is related to student performance in mathematics and science. With the advent in the 1960s of international surveys of student achievement in math and science, cross-national comparisons have become possible and nations have aspired to become "world class" in this respect. A major national policy issue in the U.S. and elsewhere is to identify and implement actions to attain and maintain a high level of student achievement in math and science in international comparisons.

The math and science project reported here was designed to capitalize on the potential for cross-national research ...


Out-Of-Field Teaching, Educational Inequality, And The Organization Of Schools: An Exploratory Analysis, Richard Ingersoll Jan 2002

Out-Of-Field Teaching, Educational Inequality, And The Organization Of Schools: An Exploratory Analysis, Richard Ingersoll

CPRE Research Reports

Contemporary educational theory holds that one of the pivotal causes of inadequate student achievement, especially in disadvantaged schools, is the inability of schools to adequately staff classrooms with qualified teachers. Deficits in the quantity of teachers produced and in the quality of preparation prospective teachers receive have long been singled out as primary explanations for underqualified teaching. In this study, I hypothesize that the manner in which schools are organized and in which teachers are utilized can account for as much of the problem of underqualified teaching as do inadequacies in teacher training or the supply of teachers. This analysis ...


Subject-Matter Content: How Does It Assist The Interactional And Linguistic Needs Of Classroom Language Learners?, Teresa Pica Jan 2002

Subject-Matter Content: How Does It Assist The Interactional And Linguistic Needs Of Classroom Language Learners?, Teresa Pica

GSE Publications

This study focused on the role of subject-matter content in second language (L2) learning. It sought to identify ways in which teachers modified classroom interaction about subject-matter content in order to assist the input, feedback, and production needs of L2 learners, and to promote their attention to developmentally difficult relationships of L2 form and meaning that they had not fully acquired. Data were collected from 6 preacademic English L2 classes, whose content consisted of thematic units on film and literature. Each class was composed of 10-15 high intermediate English L2 students and their teachers. Analysis of the data focused on ...