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1994

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Full-Text Articles in Education

Caught In The Middle: The Challenge Of Middle Level Education, Charles C. Robinson Dec 1994

Caught In The Middle: The Challenge Of Middle Level Education, Charles C. Robinson

Bridgewater Review

There is widespread evidence that a mismatch exists between what middle level schools offer and what 10 to 14 year olds need. More and more of these “early adolescents” are experimenting with drugs and alcohol, becoming pregnant, and dropping out. These issues and the increased incidents of violence at this age cause many parents to view with anxiety their children's transition from the relatively safe elementary school to the unknown, often maligned middle or junior high school. Prospective teachers most often choose not to work in the middle grades because they don’t think they can work with “those ...


Reading Horizons Vol. 35, No. 2 Dec 1994

Reading Horizons Vol. 35, No. 2

Reading Horizons: A Journal of Literacy and Language Arts

Complete issue of Reading Horizons volume 35, issue 2.


Using Storybooks To Teach Science Themes, Sandra Moser Dec 1994

Using Storybooks To Teach Science Themes, Sandra Moser

Reading Horizons: A Journal of Literacy and Language Arts

Sympathy, empathy, respect, admiration, affection: These are not words normally found in the science texts of primary level classrooms, and the emotions they name are not ordinarily associated with the teaching of science. Yet the young writer quoted above communicates an involvement with small creatures —even an urgency —that was learned through literature. And this emotional involvement was gained right along with a knowledge of spider anatomy, web building and feeding habits. Through literature—storybooks — this student learned science content intertwined with values.


Professional Materials, Brian Dobbie Dec 1994

Professional Materials, Brian Dobbie

Reading Horizons: A Journal of Literacy and Language Arts

Farr, Rodger. Tone, Bruce. (1994). Portfolio and Performance Assessment: Helping Students Evaluate Their Progress as Readers and Writers.


Oral Participation In Shared Reading And Writing By Limited English Proficient Students In A Multiethnic Class Setting, Kathryn Laframboise, Margie Wynn Dec 1994

Oral Participation In Shared Reading And Writing By Limited English Proficient Students In A Multiethnic Class Setting, Kathryn Laframboise, Margie Wynn

Reading Horizons: A Journal of Literacy and Language Arts

Meeting the educational needs of students with limited English proficiency is a challenge that is changing and will continue to change the direction of educational programs. There has been a huge influx of limited English proficient (LEP) students across all geographic regions of the United States (United States Department of Education, 1992). Of the 25 largest school districts in the country, 23 have a majority of minority students (Multicultural Education Review Task Force, 1991). The impact of this increase in LEP students has resulted in individual states and school districts examining their resources, priorities, and curricula to meet their needs.


A Critical Course For Literacy Education, Andrea Bartlett Dec 1994

A Critical Course For Literacy Education, Andrea Bartlett

Reading Horizons: A Journal of Literacy and Language Arts

During a recent update of our Literacy Education program, the introductory graduate-level course was renamed Critical Literacy. While the term critical is used extensively in the professional literature, I found as instructor of the course that I needed to research the term in order to present my stu dents with a clear picture of what it means to be critical. This paper presents the results of that research, including implications for literacy education courses. My research began with a reexamination of critical theorists. Represented by the writings of Marcuse (1960; 1964) and Habermas (1970; 1975) among others, the goal of ...


Read It Again!: A Study Of Young Children And Poetry, Barbara J. Sepura Dec 1994

Read It Again!: A Study Of Young Children And Poetry, Barbara J. Sepura

Reading Horizons: A Journal of Literacy and Language Arts

She sells sea shells by the seashore. This little tongue twister came back to me recently as I first experienced collecting little shells along the shores of the Atlantic. It wasn't too surprising that my mind rambled so. Little meaningful rhymes and verses have always had a habit of popping into my head in a variety of situations. I recall having learned most of these from my mother in the early years of life. In her natural way she gave me a heritage rich in rhyme, verse and song that has supported me in daily living.


Priority Of Reading Instruction Revisited: Evidence From A Regression Analysis Of Adult Esl Learners' Reading Ability, Zhihui Fang Dec 1994

Priority Of Reading Instruction Revisited: Evidence From A Regression Analysis Of Adult Esl Learners' Reading Ability, Zhihui Fang

Reading Horizons: A Journal of Literacy and Language Arts

Historically, there has been an intense debate over the most effective approach to instruction: bottom-up versus top down (Adams, 1990; Chall, 1967; Grabe, 1991; McCarthy, 1991; Swaffar, 1988). With the increasing emphasis on the role of context in literacy activities (Anderson and Pearson, 1984; Lave, 1988; Steffensen, Joag-dev, and Anderson, 1979), reading research in English as a second language (ESL) has in the recent past focused on the effects of prior knowledge, or schemata, on comprehension (Carrell, 1984, 1987; Dubin and Bycina, 1991; Lee, 1986). Most of these studies generally reported significant effects of background knowledge on reading performance. Concomitantly ...


Bibliotherapeutic Literature: A Key Facet Of Whole Language Instruction For The At-Risk Student, Dan T. Ouzts Dec 1994

Bibliotherapeutic Literature: A Key Facet Of Whole Language Instruction For The At-Risk Student, Dan T. Ouzts

Reading Horizons: A Journal of Literacy and Language Arts

Literature is the creative product of the minds of creative people. As a painting serves to fire the imagination, so does a fine story, a well-composed poem, or a good book (Smith, 1975). Literature is not a subject that should be taught but one that should be read and enjoyed. It is through literature that children develop interests and pleasure in reading. Moreover, literature stirs the imagination and creativity of children instead of destroying their interests. These are the basic foundations of lifelong learning (McMillan and Gentile, 1988). Literat


Children's Books, Steven L. Layne Dec 1994

Children's Books, Steven L. Layne

Reading Horizons: A Journal of Literacy and Language Arts

Shusterman, Neil. (1994). The Eyes of Kid Midas; Hughes, Shirley. (1994). The Nursery Collection; Barnes-Murphy, Frances. (1994). The Fables of Aesop; Lerner, Carol. (1994). Backyard Birds of Winter; Hamanaka, Sheila. (1994). All the Colors of the Earth; Juster, Norton. (1994). Otter Nonsense.


Cross-Cultural Communication In The Writing Center And In The Tutoring Session: A Process Of Sensitization, Michelle Y. Szpara Oct 1994

Cross-Cultural Communication In The Writing Center And In The Tutoring Session: A Process Of Sensitization, Michelle Y. Szpara

Working Papers in Educational Linguistics (WPEL)

No abstract provided.


From Interpersonal To Classroom Discourse: Developing Research Methods, Elite Olshtain Oct 1994

From Interpersonal To Classroom Discourse: Developing Research Methods, Elite Olshtain

Working Papers in Educational Linguistics (WPEL)

No abstract provided.


Error Treatment In A Japanese Language Classroom, Aiko Inoue, Mitsuo Kubota Oct 1994

Error Treatment In A Japanese Language Classroom, Aiko Inoue, Mitsuo Kubota

Working Papers in Educational Linguistics (WPEL)

No abstract provided.


Instituting Whole Language: Teacher Power And Practice, Karen F. Thomas, Steven D. Rinehart Oct 1994

Instituting Whole Language: Teacher Power And Practice, Karen F. Thomas, Steven D. Rinehart

Reading Horizons: A Journal of Literacy and Language Arts

In response to calls for literacy education reform, many schools across the nation have begun to implement whole language classrooms. This reform has touched off a series of responses from educators regarding teachers' roles, power, and empowerment. Whole language teachers, as co-learners in a learner-centered classroom, assume that language, reading, and writing acquisition are parallel processes that grow out of pursuing meaning in social situations (Harste, 1989; Newman, 1985; Goodman, 1986; McCaslin, 1989).


Dialogue Journals As A Vehicle For Preservice Teachers To Experience The Writing Process (I Like Him; Should I Tell Him At Recess?), Mary Ann Wham, Susan Davis Lenski Oct 1994

Dialogue Journals As A Vehicle For Preservice Teachers To Experience The Writing Process (I Like Him; Should I Tell Him At Recess?), Mary Ann Wham, Susan Davis Lenski

Reading Horizons: A Journal of Literacy and Language Arts

Basic to the tenets of wholistic literacy instruction are the beliefs that reading and writing should be relevant to the learner, should serve real-life purposes and, consequently, should be meaningful (Goodman, 1986). Dialogue journals, described as written conversations between two or more people over an extended period of time (Staton, 1988), fit this description. Communication within a dialogue journal is in formal and focuses on topics of mutual interest. They provide an arena for young students that is risk-free and empowering as new readers and writers are encouraged to use their invented spelling and to learn about literacy in an ...


Literacy Education In Kindergarten Classrooms, Arne E. Sippola Oct 1994

Literacy Education In Kindergarten Classrooms, Arne E. Sippola

Reading Horizons: A Journal of Literacy and Language Arts

A survey of literature regarding contemporary thought in early literacy acquisition reveals a strong focus upon emergent literacy. Emergent literacy theory asserts that literacy concepts are being developed at virtually all ages. Knowledge of communication functions and forms are being learned as an individual listens and speaks, and makes transactions with print. Life experiences, as well, affect the ways in which we will interpret communicative episodes. All of these are developing as an individual experiences life. No longer do early literacy theorists associate the onset of literacy learning with an age or stage (Raines and Canady, 1990). Literacy acquisition is ...


Professional Materials, Jennifer R. Stell Oct 1994

Professional Materials, Jennifer R. Stell

Reading Horizons: A Journal of Literacy and Language Arts

Lonberger, Rosemary. Lipa, Sara E. Harlin, Rebecca. (1991). The Whole Language Journey.


Children's Books, William P. Bintz, Patricia A. Rice Oct 1994

Children's Books, William P. Bintz, Patricia A. Rice

Reading Horizons: A Journal of Literacy and Language Arts

Mullins, Patrica. 1993. Dinosaur Encore.


Reading Horizons Vol. 35, No. 1 Oct 1994

Reading Horizons Vol. 35, No. 1

Reading Horizons: A Journal of Literacy and Language Arts

Complete issue of Reading Horizons volume 35, issue 1.


Children's Literature And Literacy Instruction: "Literature-Based" Elementary Teachers Belief And Practices, Barbara A. Lehman, Evelyn B. Freeman, Virginia G. Allen Oct 1994

Children's Literature And Literacy Instruction: "Literature-Based" Elementary Teachers Belief And Practices, Barbara A. Lehman, Evelyn B. Freeman, Virginia G. Allen

Reading Horizons: A Journal of Literacy and Language Arts

In recent years, there has been growing interest nation wide among elementary teachers for using children's literature as the core of the reading program. A national survey (Cullinan, 1989) indicated that many states are involved in literature-based initiatives, and some states, led by California, have mandated the use of literature (Alexander, 1987). Therefore, many teachers are making the transition from highly structured commercial reading programs to literature programs that require extensive teacher decision-making regarding materials, grouping, instructional practices, and assessment. Concerns are now being raised in the profession about the nature and appropriateness of some literature-based programs' implementation (Gardner ...


Combining Reading And Writing With Science To Enhance Content Area Achievement And Attitudes, Valerie J. Bristor Oct 1994

Combining Reading And Writing With Science To Enhance Content Area Achievement And Attitudes, Valerie J. Bristor

Reading Horizons: A Journal of Literacy and Language Arts

Reading through science is different because you are reading and learning science at the same time. And plain reading is boring because you do reading book and when the teacher says group two we have to go up to the reading table. And read for a half hour then she makes us do a reading work sheet about the story we read. And reading science is better because... the activ ties and experiments we did helped me understand science better.


Reading Aloud To Low Achieving Secondary Students, Deborah Phelps Zientarski, Donald D. Pottorff Oct 1994

Reading Aloud To Low Achieving Secondary Students, Deborah Phelps Zientarski, Donald D. Pottorff

Reading Horizons: A Journal of Literacy and Language Arts

Information abounds about the benefits of reading aloud to elementary children (Kimmel and Segel, 1988; Trelease, 1985), but very little has been written on the merits of reading to older students. Undertaking a read aloud project with secondary students, then, is likely to raise questions such as the following: 1) will students be annoyed and feel that listening to a story is not age appropriate?; 2) will reading to students waste valuable time that could be used more wisely in reading and improving comprehension in content materials?; 3) will reading to students really motivate them to want to become independent ...


Implementing Retrenchment Strategies: A Comparison Of State Governments And Public Higher Education, Marvin Druker, Betty Robinson Sep 1994

Implementing Retrenchment Strategies: A Comparison Of State Governments And Public Higher Education, Marvin Druker, Betty Robinson

New England Journal of Public Policy

The authors present a comparative analysis of the processes and strategies by which public organizations implement retrenchment in the face of continued budget shortfalls. The focus is on the governments of the fifty United States and public institutions of higher education in the nine states of the Northeast. Special consideration is given to the programs that have been tried, sources of ideas for the strategies adopted, and constraints that institutions face when dealing with financial crises. While similarities were found for state governments and colleges and universities in use of past strategies and short-term fixes, differences were found in the ...


Leadership In Higher Education: A Changing Paradigm, Allen L. Sessoms Sep 1994

Leadership In Higher Education: A Changing Paradigm, Allen L. Sessoms

Trotter Review

Senior administrators at public colleges and universities have previously been in the enviable position of managing reasonably stable institutions that have enjoyed an essential place in society. These institutions were born of society's desire to ensure access to the fruits of learning by a broad spectrum of citizens and to ensure that the knowledge developed was put at the service of industry and of the nation. In the past, and particularly after World War II, public institutions of higher education enjoyed explosive growth in both the numbers of students and in terms of public support. In addition, after the ...


Women As Leaders In Higher Education: Blending Personal Experience With A Sociological Viewpoint, Dolores E. Cross Sep 1994

Women As Leaders In Higher Education: Blending Personal Experience With A Sociological Viewpoint, Dolores E. Cross

Trotter Review

A theme often repeated in the writings of C. Wright Mills is that of the "sociological imagination." What prompts our sociological imagination, he says, is a blending of our knowledge about the social sciences with our personal history. In my experience, it is important for leaders to have a sociological imagination. What follows are observations of my experience during my tenure as president of the New York State Higher Education Services Corporation (HESC), and in my current position as president of Chicago State University.


Educational Opportunity Programs For Students Of Color In Graduate And Professional Schools, Sheila Gregory, Harold Horton Sep 1994

Educational Opportunity Programs For Students Of Color In Graduate And Professional Schools, Sheila Gregory, Harold Horton

Trotter Review

The significant underrepresentation of people of color in all occupational fields is clearly indicative of the exceptionally low percent of people of color in graduate and professional schools in America. Unless drastic actions are taken by universities across the nation to identify and recruit a significant number of students of color in undergraduate colleges it is unlikely that significant numbers of people of color will be available in the near future for potential employment.


Role Models And Mentors For Blacks At Predominantly White Campuses, Clarence G. Williams Sep 1994

Role Models And Mentors For Blacks At Predominantly White Campuses, Clarence G. Williams

Trotter Review

Educators must begin to revisit the topic of mentoring and role models in higher education, especially as it relates to blacks at predominantly white college campuses. There are two major facets of this topic; namely, the existence of role models and mentors for young black administrators, faculty members, and students at predominantly white campuses; and, the objectives and goals of providing role models and mentors for these individuals.


Retaining Students Of Color: The Office Of Ahana Student Programs At Boston College, Donald Brown Sep 1994

Retaining Students Of Color: The Office Of Ahana Student Programs At Boston College, Donald Brown

Trotter Review

On September 1, 1978, I assumed responsibility for what was then known as the Office of Minority Student Programs at Boston College. The charge given to me was to alter an embarrassingly high attrition rate of 83 percent for a target group of black and Latino students who had been identified by the university's Admissions Office as having high levels of motivation and potential, but who would require assistance if they were to succeed at the university.

Over the course of the past sixteen years, a great deal has transpired at Boston College. An important change was made in ...


An Interview With Gloria Bonilla-Santiago, Director Of The Center For Strategic Urban Community Leadership, Rutgers University, Harold Horton Sep 1994

An Interview With Gloria Bonilla-Santiago, Director Of The Center For Strategic Urban Community Leadership, Rutgers University, Harold Horton

Trotter Review

This article is an interview with Gloria Bonilla-Santiago, who was the Director of the Center for Strategic Urban Community Leadership at Rutgers University at the time.


Expanding The Pool Of Women And Minority Students Pursuing Graduate Study: The Development Of A National Model, Bernard W. Harleston Sep 1994

Expanding The Pool Of Women And Minority Students Pursuing Graduate Study: The Development Of A National Model, Bernard W. Harleston

Trotter Review

The underrepresentation of women and minority students in certain disciplines in the graduate schools of American colleges and universities is a matter of great national concern. This concern has been intensified by the decline during the last fifteen years, especially from 1978 to 1988, in graduate school enrollments of all categories of American students. But, even before this most recent period of decline and during a time when the enrollment of women and minority students was at its highest (between 1968 and 1974, as a consequence, primarily, of the civil rights movement), the representation of women and minorities in the ...