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1992

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Educational Psychology

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Full-Text Articles in Education

Preschool Teachers’ Stated Approaches To Imaginary Companion Behavior Among Preschool Students, Sharon Rose Stevens Dec 1992

Preschool Teachers’ Stated Approaches To Imaginary Companion Behavior Among Preschool Students, Sharon Rose Stevens

Education and Human Development Master's Theses

The purpose of this study was to examine the responses of preschool teachers toward students with imaginary companions, in particular, their reactions to situations involving imaginary companions in the classroom settings.

Past research has focused on reflections of individuals who have had imaginary companions in childhood. Professional attitudes toward these children have ranged from very positive to suggestive of mental illness, requiring treatment.

The subjects were 27 female preschool teachers currently teaching nursery school in the western New York region. Eight hypothetical imaginary companion scenarios were devised. Each scenario was comprised of three to five short sentences. Subjects responded to ...


The Effects Of An Integrated Environment On Specific Target Behaviors In Severely Impaired Young Children, Rosemarie R. Smith Dec 1992

The Effects Of An Integrated Environment On Specific Target Behaviors In Severely Impaired Young Children, Rosemarie R. Smith

Master's Theses

Four severely impaired children, ages four to seven, were integrated in a non-handicapped preschool setting during a free play period. A multiple baseline design was used to study the environment's effect on specific target behaviors. No intervention, other than the classroom setting, was implemented to effect levels of these behaviors. The results were mixed with one student showing a marked increased in the desired behavior from.136 occurrences per minute to 1.73 occurrences per minute. However, a second subject's desired behavior decreased from 2.0 occurrences per minute to.194 occurrences per minute. The target behaviors of ...


An Analysis Of The Relationship Between Power Style, And Locus-Of-Control For Selected Academic Deans, Carla E. Warner Aug 1992

An Analysis Of The Relationship Between Power Style, And Locus-Of-Control For Selected Academic Deans, Carla E. Warner

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The concept of locus of control, as an aspect of the human personality, has remained of interest to researchers since its identification by Julian Rotter in the 1960s. Beginning with the work of French and Raven in the 1950s, the concept of power and its interrelationship with leadership ability has also continued to be of interest to social scientists and educators. This study was completed in response to the lack of previous research on the relationship of locus of control to power style usage and preference. Four hundred and eighty academic deans from one hundred and nine Comprehensive II institutions ...


The Effectiveness Of Special Education Placement And Services: A Descriptive Study, Michelle D. Lewis Aug 1992

The Effectiveness Of Special Education Placement And Services: A Descriptive Study, Michelle D. Lewis

Master's Theses

This descriptive study evaluated the effectiveness of special education placement and services over a three year period o f time. The files of seventeen students were chosen for the study. The study took place in two school districts in Southwestern Michigan.

The findings from this study indicate that: (a) there was an increase in test scores in the area of Performance IQ, and (b) there was a significant decrease in test scores in the area o f Math Calculation. There was a general trend, although not significant, of a decrease in scores in all areas of ability and achievement except ...


The Effects Of Imagery On Competitive Anxiety In High School Wrestlers, Lynwood G. Vandenburg Jul 1992

The Effects Of Imagery On Competitive Anxiety In High School Wrestlers, Lynwood G. Vandenburg

Kinesiology, Sport Studies, and Physical Education Master’s Theses

The purpose of this investigation was to study imagery as an effective tool for decreasing competitive anxiety in high school wrestlers. The investigation was conducted using 27 subjects from a high school wrestling team. The subjects were selected for a treatment or control group by a pretest SCAT score. Both groups consisted of high to low anxiety subjects. The treatment group received an imagery program designed to decrease competitive anxiety. The contact sessions were fifteen minutes in length, culminating into 22 sessions over a nine week period. Both groups were pretested and posttested using the Sport Competitive Anxiety Test (SCAT ...


Teacher Proximity As An Instructional Variable In The Use Of Interactive Video, Rosalie L. Kirsch Apr 1992

Teacher Proximity As An Instructional Variable In The Use Of Interactive Video, Rosalie L. Kirsch

Master's Theses

Teacher proximity during the use of the video disc Mastering Fractions produced by Systems Impact (1984) was investigated for effects on student on-task behavior. The study used a randomized multi-element design and was implemented in two classrooms at the junior high school level. In Phase 1, the 12 subjects were enrolled in a regular education mathematics classroom. The seven students in Phase 2 were enrolled in a special education classroom in the same school. During both phases, students were observed during teacher proximity and non-proximity conditions. Results of the study indicate no observable differences in student attending behavior when comparing ...


Self Concept And Family Relations Of American-Lebanese Children: A Descriptive And Comparative Study, Tagrid T. Chartouni Jan 1992

Self Concept And Family Relations Of American-Lebanese Children: A Descriptive And Comparative Study, Tagrid T. Chartouni

Dissertations

Problem. There is a great current need to assist and understand American children, especially minorities, through their familial and cultural backgrounds. The purpose of the study was to examine the Kinetic Family Drawings of American-Lebanese children to gain information about their relationship with other family members while comparing them with American-Caucasian children.

Method. The Kinetic Family Drawing was administered to 150 American-Lebanese, and 150 American-Caucasian, age 4-17, through Christian church-activities in Connecticut and Massachusetts. The data were analyzed by t-tests and analysis of variance.

Results. (1) There are few differences between the family drawings of American-Lebanese males and females either ...


A Validation And Comparative Study Of Kinetic Family Drawings Of Native American Children, Sheryl A. Gregory Jan 1992

A Validation And Comparative Study Of Kinetic Family Drawings Of Native American Children, Sheryl A. Gregory

Dissertations

Problem. Research on how Native American (NA) children draw their families and how perceptions of their families are reflected in their family drawings is lacking. The purpose of the study was (1) to validate the Kinetic Family Drawing (KFD) as an appropriate instrument for use with this population, and (2) to compare Native American and Caucasian children's KFDs.

Method. The KFD and Semantic Differential Scales were administered to 52 Native American children from the Potawatomi and Iroquois tribes, ages 6-14. A matched sample of 104 KFDs of Caucasian children from Southern Michigan was used for comparison. The data were ...


Factors Related To The Amount Of Time Children Spend In Leisure Reading, Dorothy Doig Jan 1992

Factors Related To The Amount Of Time Children Spend In Leisure Reading, Dorothy Doig

Theses : Honours

The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the amount of time children spend in leisure reading and the variables of reading achievement, reading attitude, amount of television viewed, access to interesting materials in the home, competing leisure interests and gender. The subjects were 115 Year 6 children from 4 classes in Perth's northern suburbs. Reading achievement was measured using PAT Comprehension and PAT Vocabulary, Form A, Part 5. The Elementary Reading Attitude Survey measured attitude to recreational reading and attitude to academic reading, The Leisure Activities Questionnaire provided information on the amount of time devoted ...


Sex-Related Differences In Autonomous Learning Behaviours And Mathematics Achievement, Laura Beahan Jan 1992

Sex-Related Differences In Autonomous Learning Behaviours And Mathematics Achievement, Laura Beahan

Theses : Honours

The autonomous learning behaviour model proposed by Fennema and Peterson (1985a, 1985b) hypothesises that sex- related differences in mathematics are a result of sex-related differences in autonomous learning behaviours. Autonomous learning behaviours include choosing to engage in high-level tasks, preferring to work independently on such tasks and persisting at them. The purpose of this study was to investigate sex-related differences in autonomous learning behaviours and to determine any relationship between the presence of these behaviours and achievement in mathematics. Twelve students studying the Year 1 unit "Foundations of Mathematics" were selected for the study, including two males and two females ...


Student Perceptions Of The Transition From Year 10 To Year 11, Tim Mcdonald Jan 1992

Student Perceptions Of The Transition From Year 10 To Year 11, Tim Mcdonald

Theses : Honours

Issues associated with the transition from Year 10 to Year 11 have largely been ignored by researchers. Previous research has predominantly focussed on the primary to secondary transition experience. The existing problem of lower school to upper school transition has been compounded by the increased importance of upper school and the rising retention rates. This study investigated student perceptions of the transition from Year 10 to Year 11. It explored student concerns encountered in the transition and the differences they perceived between Year 10 and Year 11 after having entered Year 11. A case study approach, incorporating both qualitative and ...


Adequate And Appropriate Intelligence Testing Of Moderately Mentally Retarded Children, Nancy Lynn Robertson Orrison Jan 1992

Adequate And Appropriate Intelligence Testing Of Moderately Mentally Retarded Children, Nancy Lynn Robertson Orrison

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

The intelligence of moderately mentally retarded (MR) children is difficult to assess because they often have concurrent physical or sensory impairments which adversely affect their test performance. The purpose of this study was to determine if necessary adaptations are made when assessing children who are moderately MR for educational placement in the State of Virginia.;A survey was sent to public school psychologists in the State of Virginia as identified by the 1990-91 roster obtained from the Virginia Department of Education. The survey inquired as to their normal methods of intelligence testing used with the moderately mentally retarded population. The ...


Elaboration Strategies And Individual Differences In Academic Achievement Among Adolescent Learners, Violet Kaspar Jan 1992

Elaboration Strategies And Individual Differences In Academic Achievement Among Adolescent Learners, Violet Kaspar

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

This study investigated the relative potency of four memory strategies for learning factual information. To examine the efficacy of the strategies in relation to academic ability, students were classified as low or average achievers based on their performance on a verbal skills measure. Tenth to twelfth grade students (62 females and 48 males) were randomly assigned to one of four experimental conditions: Elaborative Interrogation (BI, a "why" questioning strategy), Repetition of Provided Elaborations (PE), Repetition Control (RC), and Judgement/Analysis (J/A, where students evaluated provided elaborations and justified their judgement). Performance in the BI condition was greater than that ...


Children's Television Favorites And The Values They Portray: As Perceived By Children And Adults, Lori Perkins-Detrick Jan 1992

Children's Television Favorites And The Values They Portray: As Perceived By Children And Adults, Lori Perkins-Detrick

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

No abstract provided.


The Effects Of Gender And Prior Computing Experience On Computer Use And Attitudes To Computers In Pre-Primary Schools, Helen Blackley Jan 1992

The Effects Of Gender And Prior Computing Experience On Computer Use And Attitudes To Computers In Pre-Primary Schools, Helen Blackley

Theses : Honours

The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of gender and prior computing experience on the attitudes of pre-primary age children to computers, and the extent and nature of their use of computers. The study involved 46 five-year old children from two pre-.primary schools in the Perth metropolitan area. The method incorporated three data-gathering approaches characteristic of the 'descriptive' method of research "- observation of the children; interviewing the children; and parental questionnaire. The major finding of the study concluded that, in this instance, gender and prior exposure to computers were not factors affecting pre-primary children's use ...


Thesis-Making: Reflections On My Experience, Cari Michelle Patterson Jan 1992

Thesis-Making: Reflections On My Experience, Cari Michelle Patterson

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

In this thesis I describe my personal journey to come to some understanding about how l do community-oriented research, and why I do it the way I do. I engaged in a collaborative program evaluation with a self-help group for survivors of the mental health system. I describe the research project and the ways I reflected on the project to help me uncover some of the hidden assumptions and influences that have shaped me as a researcher until now. Then I discuss issues that arose for me as I engaged in the evaluation and illustrate them drawing on both my ...


The Relationship Between Teacher Verbal Feedback, Aptitude, And Academic Intrinsic Motivation, Ann Jenkins Wickwire Jan 1992

The Relationship Between Teacher Verbal Feedback, Aptitude, And Academic Intrinsic Motivation, Ann Jenkins Wickwire

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

The purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship between academic intrinsic motivation and positive teacher verbal feedback, negative teacher verbal feedback, and student aptitude for academic work. The research questions evolved from the Cognitive Evaluation Theory of Edward Deci (Deci & Ryan, 1985) in which intrinsic motivation develops out of a sense of competence and self-determination. In that teacher verbal feedback to students provide messages about academic competence, it was hypothesized that positive verbal feedback would enhance intrinsic motivation and negative verbal feedback would be detrimental to intrinsic motivation.;The subjects for the study were 368 fourth and fifth grade students. Student academic intrinsic motivation was measured by a questionnaire developed by Harter (1981). Aptitude was assessed with the Cognitive Abilities Test (Thorndike & Hagen, 1985). Negative and positive teacher verbal feedback reactions were determined by classroom observers who coded all teacher verbal feedback reactions to the students in accordance with the observation system developed by Brophy and Good (1969). Through factor analysis the positive feedback factor and the negative feedback factor were formed from the verbal feedback categories loading with those factors.;Results revealed that both aptitude and positive verbal feedback correlate positively with academic intrinsic motivation. Aptitude for school work, positive verbal feedback, and grade ...


Reducing Teachers' Levels Of Stress: A Comparison Of Two Counseling Treatment Models, Andrew Charles Elgort Jan 1992

Reducing Teachers' Levels Of Stress: A Comparison Of Two Counseling Treatment Models, Andrew Charles Elgort

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

Teachers are experiencing heightened levels of stress throughout the school day the impact of which may be seen in increased absenteeism, turnover, poor performance and waste. This study taught classroom teachers cognitive-behavioral methods to reduce and manage their professional stress comparing a Group Counseling (GC) approach with a Cooperative Professional Development (CPD) approach.;Participating classroom teachers were randomly selected for each treatment condition. The participants in the GC approach met for ten 2-hour consecutive weekly sessions. The CPD treatment initially met as a group for a {dollar}6{lcub}1\over2{rcub}{dollar} hour inservice. at the end of the ...


An Evaluation Of Personality-Environmental Factors Related To Job Satisfaction Of Secondary School Natural Science Teachers, George Newton Deshazo Jan 1992

An Evaluation Of Personality-Environmental Factors Related To Job Satisfaction Of Secondary School Natural Science Teachers, George Newton Deshazo

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship among certain personality traits, vocational interests, and demographic factors with job satisfaction among secondary school natural science teachers. Implications for future research and educational practice were explored.;Volunteers teaching secondary school natural science classes in seven Virginia public school districts primarily in the Hampton Rhodes area were subjects for this study. Subjects completed the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, the Vocational Preference Inventory, The Job Descriptive Index, and a biographical informational questionnaire.;It was hypothesized that (1) there would be a positive correlation between the predominant basic preference, INTJ, and job satisfaction ...


An Analysis Of Virginia School Psychologists' Decisions Relative To Assessment Profiles And Recommended Handicapping Condition, Brian Alan Keith Jan 1992

An Analysis Of Virginia School Psychologists' Decisions Relative To Assessment Profiles And Recommended Handicapping Condition, Brian Alan Keith

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

The purpose of this study was to investigate the classification congruency of Virginia school psychologists as it related to assessment profile analysis and, additionally, to examine assessment instrument rankings and demographic variables when classifying targeted handicapping conditions. The targeted conditions were learning disability, educable mentally handicapped, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder/attentional problems.;The seventy-two certified Virginia school psychologists who participated in the study were each mailed identical packets containing a letter of explanation, demographic questionnaire, the test profiles for each of the handicapping conditions, and a profile for a non-handicapped child.;The data were analyzed using a discriminant analysis ...


The Influence Of Stricter Enforcement Of The 19-Year Entry Age On Drinking Practices Of Eastern Illinois University Students, G. Sue Harvey Jan 1992

The Influence Of Stricter Enforcement Of The 19-Year Entry Age On Drinking Practices Of Eastern Illinois University Students, G. Sue Harvey

Masters Theses

No abstract provided.


The Adoption Of Soil Conservation Practices In Burkina Faso: The Role Of Indigenous Knowledge, Social Structure And Institutional Support , Basga Emile Dialla Jan 1992

The Adoption Of Soil Conservation Practices In Burkina Faso: The Role Of Indigenous Knowledge, Social Structure And Institutional Support , Basga Emile Dialla

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

In the West African country of Burkina Faso, soil erosion has long been a concern. The national government has perceived soil erosion a problem for over a quarter of a century. Although institutional support and practices to control the severity of soil erosion are available, attempts to address the problem have met with limited success. This limited success may be related to lack of consideration of the local indigenous knowledge as a restraining factor. Farmers may be reluctant to adopt conservation practices unfamiliar to them;This study, conducted in two villages in the northwestern Burkina Faso investigates the important role ...


Learner Characteristics And Hypermedia, Sara Joan Schafer Jan 1992

Learner Characteristics And Hypermedia, Sara Joan Schafer

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

No abstract provided.


An Analysis Of Power And Stress Using Cybernetic Epistemology , Randall Robert Lyle Jan 1992

An Analysis Of Power And Stress Using Cybernetic Epistemology , Randall Robert Lyle

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation unites two papers intended for publication in professional journals. The dissertation begins with a general introduction to cybernetic epistemology which functions as the foundation for the analyses accomplished in the two papers. The Myth of Power and the Power of Myth is concerned with examining how cybernetic epistemology alters our understanding and use of the concept of power in our lives and in our society. Toward a Vibrant Stress Model presupposes a cybernetic epistemology as it creates an alternative model for the understanding and explanation of the experience of stress in human lives. Individually, each of the papers ...


The Pace (Perceptions, Attitudes, Concerns, And Emotions) Of Selected Doctoral Students At Iowa State University , Daleanne Anderson Jan 1992

The Pace (Perceptions, Attitudes, Concerns, And Emotions) Of Selected Doctoral Students At Iowa State University , Daleanne Anderson

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation presents the results of a study of doctoral students from selected departments at a large midwestern research university. Doctoral students from six departments in three colleges were surveyed. The College of Education (Professional Studies and Curriculum and Instruction), the College of Family and Consumer Sciences (Family and Consumer Science Education and Human Development and Family Studies), and the College of Liberal Arts and Sciences (Psychology and Sociology) were the selected colleges and departments;The study was designed to explore doctoral students' perceptions of the institution and of the faculty, their financial and academic concerns, and perceptions of their ...


Children's Academic Self-Perceptions: The Influences Of Social Comparison And Classroom Setting , Marilyn Sue Wilson Jan 1992

Children's Academic Self-Perceptions: The Influences Of Social Comparison And Classroom Setting , Marilyn Sue Wilson

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study was designed to begin testing the proposition that returning or serving mildly handicapped students in the general classroom may jeopardize their academic self-perceptions and to assess students' preferences regarding extra academic assistance. Participants were regular (N = 287) and special education (N = 175) students in three midwestern cities. The students completed the Children's Self-Perception Profile for Learning Disabled Students (SPPLDS) and accompanying social comparison measure (Renick & Harter, 1988), as well as a measure of locus of control consisting of the cognitive section from Connell's (1985) Multidimensional Measure of Children's Perceptions of Control. Students also were asked to choose from whom and where they would prefer to receive extra academic assistance. Data on each student's educational handicapping condition, level of special education programming, curriculum modification, and extent of team teaching utilized were provided by classroom teachers;Initial analyses by district indicated differences in self-perceptions; for all academic self-perception areas regular education students in District A scored the same as the special education students (combined for all three districts ...