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1991

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University of Nebraska - Lincoln

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Full-Text Articles in Education

Acuta Enews December 1991, Vol. 20, No. 12 Dec 1991

Acuta Enews December 1991, Vol. 20, No. 12

ACUTA Newsletters

In This Issue

10-XXX gives occasion for fraud

President's Message

YaleNET, a variety of services

Think ahead to prevent fraud

MOREnet links 12 campuses

Positions available


Acuta Enews November 1991, Vol. 20, No. 11 Nov 1991

Acuta Enews November 1991, Vol. 20, No. 11

ACUTA Newsletters

In This Issue

President's message

Distance learning in Maine

FCC backs phone-line video

Pooling purchasing power

Area code shortage

Positions available


Pod Network News, November 1991, Ronald Smith Nov 1991

Pod Network News, November 1991, Ronald Smith

POD Network News

Other News

Upcoming conferences

Positions Available

Things for you to do

POD Core Committee, 1992-1995 Self-Nomination Form

Call for Papers for the 1992 Edition of To lmprove the Academy

Subscription Information


Acuta Enews October 1991, Vol. 20, No. 10 Oct 1991

Acuta Enews October 1991, Vol. 20, No. 10

ACUTA Newsletters

In This Issue

President's message

Wireless alternative to cable

AT&T donates computers

ACUTA budget for 1991-92

Voice messaging is "hit"

Publications Editor profiled


The Muse: Resources For Faculty And Ta Newsletters, No. 3, Fall 1991 Oct 1991

The Muse: Resources For Faculty And Ta Newsletters, No. 3, Fall 1991

Archives of Professional and Organizational Development Network in Higher Education

Celebrating CRISP editors: One faculty development editor views her fellow muses, by Barbara A. Millis

Comic relief

Musings

Cutting out white space with old saws, by Kenneth Zahorski

Book Review of Looking Good in Print by Roger C. Parker

Design review: Clean, simple design enhances West Florida's new Dialogue

Filings ...

Supplement: An outstanding Tutor for teaching assistants, by Laura L.B. Border


Acuta Enews September 1991, Vol. 20, No. 9 Sep 1991

Acuta Enews September 1991, Vol. 20, No. 9

ACUTA Newsletters

In This Issue

0+ fraud alive and well

AOS rules don't move north

Call screening not mandated

Workshop in Atlanta

Five Ps paying off

Business Manager profile


Acuta Enews August 1991, Vol. 20, No. 8 Aug 1991

Acuta Enews August 1991, Vol. 20, No. 8

ACUTA Newsletters

In This Issue

President's column

Business meeting

Regional meetings

User groups

Director's column

Workshop in Atlanta


Prereferral Intervention: A Review Of The Research, J. Ron Nelson, Deborah J. Smith, Lonnie Taylor, John M. Dodd, Ken Reavis Aug 1991

Prereferral Intervention: A Review Of The Research, J. Ron Nelson, Deborah J. Smith, Lonnie Taylor, John M. Dodd, Ken Reavis

Special Education and Communication Disorders Faculty Publications

There is a national trend toward requiring prereferral intervention procedures prior to placing students in special education programs. A review of the research associated with prereferral intervention is presented. Findings suggest that prereferral intervention approaches can have positive impact on special education service delivery practices. The findings also indicate that such interventions can increase the abilities of teachers to educate students who are experiencing difficulty and improve the attitudes of teachers toward such students. Furthermore, the interventions implemented under the prereferral intervention approaches appear to produce the desired student performance, which decreases the overidentification of students as having handicaps. In ...


Acuta Enews July 1991, Vol. 20, No. 7 Jul 1991

Acuta Enews July 1991, Vol. 20, No. 7

ACUTA Newsletters

In This Issue

ACUTA Forum

Unblocking 1-0-XXX

President's farewell

Affordable fiber to the desk

Value of utility bill audits

$60 million math/science network


Acuta Enews June 1991, Vol. 20, No. 6 Jun 1991

Acuta Enews June 1991, Vol. 20, No. 6

ACUTA Newsletters

In This Issue

Panel to focus on fraud

Interactive video bandwidth

Aggregator requirements

Telex can still be useful

Penn State still pioneering

Positions availabe


Acuta Enews May 1991, Vol. 20, No. 5 May 1991

Acuta Enews May 1991, Vol. 20, No. 5

ACUTA Newsletters

In This Issue

Golf outing set for St. Louis

Network ties islands together

Reorganization at Chicago

Recycling phone books

Party Line

Call for nominations


Pod Network News, May 1991, Ronald Smith May 1991

Pod Network News, May 1991, Ronald Smith

POD Network News

CORE Committee News

Upcoming Conferences

Job Openings

Recent Publications

1991 POD Conference Information


Behavioral Consultation As A Process For Linking The Assessment And Treatment Of Social Skills, Susan M. Sheridan, Stephen N. Elliott Apr 1991

Behavioral Consultation As A Process For Linking The Assessment And Treatment Of Social Skills, Susan M. Sheridan, Stephen N. Elliott

Educational Psychology Papers and Publications

There has been recent interest in social skills assessment and treatment among researchers and practitioners. The research bases in these areas are expanding rapidly, and the identification of valid assessment methods and effective intervention strategies is promising. However, few researchers have identified ways in which social skills assessment and intervention can be linked in a practical manner. Likewise, the process by which services are delivered is rarely addressed. The purpose of this article is to present a model by which the interaction between social skills assessment and intervention can be enhanced, with a focus on the problem-solving process. One effective ...


Acuta Enews April 1991, Vol. 20, No. 4 Apr 1991

Acuta Enews April 1991, Vol. 20, No. 4

ACUTA Newsletters

In This Issue

ACUTA Forum

Travel cards save money

Reorganization at Chicago

Regional Directors elected

Enchancing campus safety

Drew's Knowledge Initiative


Preparing Fabric For Use, Rose Marie Tondl Apr 1991

Preparing Fabric For Use, Rose Marie Tondl

Historical Materials from University of Nebraska-Lincoln Extension

Grain perfection is the goal for people who sew. Smart styling and a professional look in clothing construction require correct use of the grain of the fabric. No formula or method can conceal a poorly cut garment.


Acuta Enews March 1991, Vol. 20, No. 3 Mar 1991

Acuta Enews March 1991, Vol. 20, No. 3

ACUTA Newsletters

In This Issue

Telecom graduate study

Greenville Tech outgrows PBX

World-calling discounts

Call for Presentations

Update on Hawaii

Listing of exhibitors


Acuta Enews February 1991, Vol. 20, No. 2 Feb 1991

Acuta Enews February 1991, Vol. 20, No. 2

ACUTA Newsletters

In This Issue

ACUTA gains new tax status

Stopping a runaway dialer

Just what is an engineer?

FCC ruling awaited

Party Line

In-house accounting


Pod Network News, February 1991, Delivee L. Wright Feb 1991

Pod Network News, February 1991, Delivee L. Wright

POD Network News

New CORE Committee

Executive Directors

POD Executive Office

AAHE and the POD Sampler

1991 Conference

1991-92 Dues


Title And Contents- The Computer And The Decision-Making Process, Jane Close Conoley, Terry B. Gutkin, Steven L. Wise Jan 1991

Title And Contents- The Computer And The Decision-Making Process, Jane Close Conoley, Terry B. Gutkin, Steven L. Wise

The Computer and the Decision-Making Process

The Computer And The Decision-Making Process

Contents

Preface ix

1. Computer-Assisted Personality Test Interpretation: The Dawn of Discovery
Douglas N. Jackson

Some Preconditions for Valid Computer- Assisted Test Interpretation 1
The Dawn of Discovery 6
References 9

2. Psychodiagnostic Computing: From Interpretive Programs to Expert Systems 11
Marley W Watkins and Paul A. McDermott

Development of Administration and Interpretation Programs 11
Novel Administration and Interpretation Programs 14
Computerized Interpretation Systems 16
A Psychoeducational Diagnostic Model 19
A Computerized Psychoeducational Diagnostic System 23
Summary 36
References 37

3. Assessment of Validity in Computer-Based Test Interpretations
Kevin L. Moreland

Some History 44 ...


Preface, Jane Close Conoley Jan 1991

Preface, Jane Close Conoley

The Computer and the Decision-Making Process

This volume in the Buros-Nebraska Series on Testing and Measurement provides state-of-the-art contributions concerning the interface between computer technology and traditional psychometrics. The volume title, Computers and the Decision-Making Process, describes both reality and potential in a field that provides a dizzying array of promises and problems to be pursued and be solved.

This volume like the previous ones in our series reflects papers given at the annual Buros-Nebraska Symposium on Testing and Measurement and those especially commissioned for the book. Each of the contributors has a special expertise to examine the complex issues raised by the addition of the ...


1. Computer-Assisted Personal Ity Test Interpretation: The Dawn Of Discovery, Douglas N. Jackson Jan 1991

1. Computer-Assisted Personal Ity Test Interpretation: The Dawn Of Discovery, Douglas N. Jackson

The Computer and the Decision-Making Process

My aim in this chapter is to outline some of the substantive and psychometric bases on which we can build a science of assessment that takes advantage of the enormous potential inherent in the digital computer and in artificial intelligence. Some of these foundations are within the traditions of classical assessment. But others represent urgently needed areas of explication and research.

It is my view, in the tradition of Cronbach (1954), that developers of computer software for testing should listen to what psychometricians say, and, as well, psychometricians should be sensitive to new research ideas waiting to be solved that ...


2. Psychodiagnostic Computing: From Interpretive Programs To Expert Systems, Marley W. Watkins, Paul A. Mcdermott Jan 1991

2. Psychodiagnostic Computing: From Interpretive Programs To Expert Systems, Marley W. Watkins, Paul A. Mcdermott

The Computer and the Decision-Making Process

As amply demonstrated by the chapters in this volume, computer applications have pervaded all aspects of psychological practice. Although thought by some to be relatively new (Nolen & Spencer, 1986), semiautomatic scoring of the Strong Vocational Interest Blank was accomplished more than 50 years ago (Campbell, 1968) and systems of computer-based test interpretation have been operational for 25 years (Fowler, 1985).

DEVELOPMENT OF ADMINISTRATION AND INTERPRETATION PROGRAMS

Early automated programs typically focused upon the scoring or interpretation of a single psychological test. Most frequently, that test was the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (Fowler, 1985) but the Rorschach was interpreted as well (Piotrowski, 1964). In addition to automated interpretation, there were attempts to administer existing psychological tests directly by computer. The MMPI was again the test of choice (Lushene, O'Neil, & Dunn, 1974) although the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (Elwood, 1972), Slosson Intelligence Test (Hedl, O'Neil, & Hansen, 1973), Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (Klinge & Rodziewicz, 1976), and the California Psychological Inventory (Scissons, 1976) were also administered by computer.

Efforts to equate the conventional MMPI with computer-administered versions have continued unabated. White, Clements, and Fowler (1985) administered the full-length MMPI via microcomputer and standard booklet to 150 volunteer undergraduates. The two MMPI versions were generally equivalent in terms of mean scale scores, test- retest correlations, and stability of high-point codes. There was, however, a greater tendency for the computerized version to result in larger numbers of "cannot say" responses. Rozensky, Honor, Rasinski, Tovian, & Herz (1986) investigated the attitudes of psychiatric patients to computerized vs . conventional MMPI administrations. The computer group found the testing experience to be more interesting, more positive, and less anxiety-provoking than did the paper-and-pencil group. The equivalency of other conventional personality (Katz & Dalby, 1981; Lukin, Dowd, Plake, & Kraft , 1985; Skinner & Allen, 1983; Wilson, Genco, & Yager, 1986), neuropsychological (DeMita, Johnson, & Hansen, 1981), cognitive ability (Beaumont, 1981 ; Eller, Kaufman, & McLean, 1986), and academic (Andolina, 1982; Wise & Wise, 1987) tests to their computerized versions are also being widely explored.

The promise of parallel automated test forms has provoked investigations of the differences between computerized and conventional item presentations and their possible impact upon test reliability and validity (Hofer & Green, 1985). Jackson (1985) reviewed the evidence regarding equivalence of conventional and computerized tests and posited four methodological differences: (1) modifications in the method of presenting stimulus material; (2) differences in the task required of the examinee; (3) differences in the format for recording responses; and (4) differences in the method of interpretation. Despite these threats to equivalence, Moreland (1985) opined that "the bulk of the evidence on computer adaptions of paper-and-pencil questionnaires points to the tentative conclusion that non-equivalence is typically small enough to be of no practical consequence, if present ...


3. Assessment Of Val Id Ity In Computer-Based Test Interpretations, Kevin L. Moreland Jan 1991

3. Assessment Of Val Id Ity In Computer-Based Test Interpretations, Kevin L. Moreland

The Computer and the Decision-Making Process

The use of computers to interpret psychological tests is a "hot" topic, both within psychology and without. It is hot in the sense of giving rise to an increasing number of books and articles (e.g., Butcher, 1985, 1987; Eyde, 1987; Krug, 1987). It is hot in the sense of giving rise to an ever-increasing number of business enterprises (compare any recent APA Monitor with an issue from 1981). It is hot in the sense of capturing the attention of the news media (e.g., Petterson, 1983). And it is hot in the sense of giving rise to increasing controversy ...


4. The Validity Of Computerbased Test Interpretations Of The Mmpi, Lorraine D. Eyde, Dennis M. Kowal, Francis J. Fishburne Jr. Jan 1991

4. The Validity Of Computerbased Test Interpretations Of The Mmpi, Lorraine D. Eyde, Dennis M. Kowal, Francis J. Fishburne Jr.

The Computer and the Decision-Making Process

With advances in computer technology, computer-based test interpretations (CBTI), first developed in the early 1960s (Fowler, 1985), have proliferated (Eyde & Kowal, 1987). CBTIs have been developed and marketed for a variety of tests used in clinical, counseling, educational, and employment settings. The largest number of commercial CBTI systems are available for the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI; Krug, 1987), the most widely used inventory of its kind in the world, which has a continuously growing literature of more than 8,000 books and articles (Holden, 1986; Lanyon, 1984).

According to Harris:
CBTI refers to the automation of a set of pre-specified rules for use in analyzing, interpreting and assigning certain qualities to a response or response pattern (e .g., test score, profile pattern). The discrete rules are used to form an algorithm that guides the activity of ...


5. Use Of Computer Technology In Behavioral Assessments, Thomas R. Kratochwill, Elizabeth J. Doll, W. Patrick Dickson Jan 1991

5. Use Of Computer Technology In Behavioral Assessments, Thomas R. Kratochwill, Elizabeth J. Doll, W. Patrick Dickson

The Computer and the Decision-Making Process

Major developments in the behavioral assessment field have occurred over the past decade (e.g., Barlow, 1981 ; Ciminero, Calhoun, & Adams , 1986; Haynes & Wilson, 1979; Mash & Terdal, 1988a). The use of computer technology by behavioral assessors has occurred, but this is a relatively recent development (Kratochwill, Doll, & Dickson, 1986; Romanczyk, 1986). Consider, for example, that behavioral assessment texts include little discussion of computer applications and many articles restrict discussion of behavioral assessment to observational measures (see Cone & Hawkins, 1977, for an exception). In psychology and education, issues of journals have been devoted to computer applications in assessment and treatment (e.g., Bennett & Maher, 1984; McCullough & Wenck, 1984a) and these have generally included articles describing applications in the behavioral field.

Developments in computer technology are important in behavioral assessment for a number of reasons. First, although many current applications of computer technology in psychology and education have focused on traditional testing, test scoring, and report generation, there is the potential for application of this technology across a wide range of behavioral measures on various adult and childhood behavior disorders (Reynolds, McNamara, Marion, & Tobin , 1985). Applications (to be reviewed in this chapter) already include interviews, checklists and rating scales, direct observation, self-monitoring, and psychophysiological measures. Thus, the technology available may facilitate behavioral analysis and treatment design, and monitoring across these measures.

Second, computers offer special benefits in practice by reducing the time and cost of assessment. While this might be considered an advantage of computerassessment applications generally, it is a special feature that should be considered by behavioral assessors. Traditionally, behavioral assessment has been considered very time consuming and costly for use in applied settings. Surveys of practitioners who have engaged in behavioral assessment practices have provided feedback suggesting time and cost limitations (e.g., Anderson, Cancelli, & Kratochwill, 1984), and these dimensions have, in part, explained the reliance on more traditional tests by behavioral assessors (Mash & Terdal, 1988b).

Third, and related, computer technology may help standardize behavioral assessment on procedural and psychometric dimensions. In the past, behavioral assessment has not been highly standardized, even though a movement in this direction could be positive (e.g., Cone & Hawkins, 1977; Kratochwill, 1985; Mash & Terdal, 1988b). Computer programming requires researchers and clinicians to operationalize measures that remained previously at the conceptual level. Thus, this standardization could occur on both psychometric (accuracy, reliability, validity, norming) and procedural dimensions (protocol, instructions, coding) of various behavioral assessment strategies.

Fourth, microcomputer technology, especially accompanying software ...


6. The Use Of The Computer In The Practice Of Industrial/ Organizational Psychology, Lyle F. Schoenfeldt, Jorge L. Mendoza Jan 1991

6. The Use Of The Computer In The Practice Of Industrial/ Organizational Psychology, Lyle F. Schoenfeldt, Jorge L. Mendoza

The Computer and the Decision-Making Process

The rapid proliferation of computer technology, in the form of mainframe computers, networks of interconnected machines, and stand-alone personal computers, is having a profound effect on many areas of life. As a result of the spread of computer equipment to offices, homes, and educational institutions; the variety of software applications has grown at an unprecedented rate. With this as background, it should be no surprise that computers have assumed an increasing role in professional practice, including applications in providing services in the area of industrial and organizational psychology.

Industrial-organizational psychologists function in a variety of settings, but primarily provide human ...


7. Implementation Decisions In Designing Computer-Based Instructional Testing Programs, John V. Noonan, Paul D. Sarvela Jan 1991

7. Implementation Decisions In Designing Computer-Based Instructional Testing Programs, John V. Noonan, Paul D. Sarvela

The Computer and the Decision-Making Process

From preschool to graduate school, computer-based instruction (CBI) has become an increasingly common event in today's education and training community. The interactive characteristics of CBI and its ability to simulate advanced concepts and operations, such as patient management simulations for medical students (Whiteside & Whiteside, 1987/88) or the maneuvering of a jet airplane (Conkright, 1982), make CBI an attractive new instructional delivery system for educators working in many different fields .

Because of these qualities , the computer has tremendous potential in educational and psychological measurement. For example, Millman & Arter (1984) describe how the computer aids in maintaining test-item banks. Item ...


8. Issues In Intelligent Computer-Assisted Instruction: Eval Uation And Measurement, Harold F. O'Neil Jr., Eva L. Baker Jan 1991

8. Issues In Intelligent Computer-Assisted Instruction: Eval Uation And Measurement, Harold F. O'Neil Jr., Eva L. Baker

The Computer and the Decision-Making Process

In this chapter we plan to explore two issues in the field of intelligent computer assisted instruction (ICAI) that we feel offer opportunities to advance the state of the art. These issues are evaluation of ICAI systems and the use of the underlying technology in ICAI systems to develop tests. For each issue we will provide a theoretical context, discuss key constructs, provide a brief window to the appropriate literature, suggest methodological solutions and conclude with a concrete example of the feasibility of the solution from our own research.

INTELLIGENT COMPUTER-ASSISTED INSTRUCTION (ICAI)

ICAI is the application of artificial intelligence ...


9. Legal Issues In Computerized Psychological Testing, Donald N. Bersoff, Paul J. Hofer Jan 1991

9. Legal Issues In Computerized Psychological Testing, Donald N. Bersoff, Paul J. Hofer

The Computer and the Decision-Making Process

A decade ago a scholar writing in a legal journal asked the question, "Can/Should Computers Replace Judges?" (D'Amato, 1977). The article explored problems involved in developing computer systems capable of making the difficult assessments and judgments required in judicial decision making. In discussing these problems, the author quoted extensively from Joseph Weizenbaum, who in a well-known critique of computerized psychotherapy, sagely asserted, "Since we do not now have any ways of making computers wise, we ought not now to give computers tasks that demand wisdom" (Weizenbaum, 1976). Nevertheless, the legal scholar concluded that any humanistic misgivings about computerized ...


10. Guidelines For Computer Testing, Bert F. Green Jan 1991

10. Guidelines For Computer Testing, Bert F. Green

The Computer and the Decision-Making Process

Testing by computer is big business. Many companies are offering software enabling a psychologist to test a client by seating him or her at a computer terminal and pressing Return. The software presents the instructions on the screen, guides the test taker through some sample items to see if the instructions are understood, and then presents the test, automatically recording the responses. After one or more tests have been completed, the equipment scores the responses, and delivers test scores. But it doesn't stop there. It then continues by printing out a complete test interpretation in fairly well-constructed narrative prose ...