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Theses/Dissertations

2009

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Full-Text Articles in Education

Facilitating The Generalization Of Social Skills With Bibliotherapy And Positive Peer Reporting, Angelina C. Krieger Dec 2009

Facilitating The Generalization Of Social Skills With Bibliotherapy And Positive Peer Reporting, Angelina C. Krieger

Theses and Dissertations

Social competence is needed for interaction among peers, teachers, and families in order for children to be successful in school. Children enter school with various levels of social competence. Social skills training is an effective method for building social skills; however, many programs fail to generalize these skills across settings and time. This study investigated the effects of a social skills training intervention for first and second grade students with emotional and behavioral problems. The intervention blended direct instruction, role-plays, and children's literature, with peers supporting both the acquisition and generalization of the social skills through positive peer reporting ...


College Students And Stress Management: Utilizing Biofeedback And Relaxation Skills Training, Shannon Jones Anstead Dec 2009

College Students And Stress Management: Utilizing Biofeedback And Relaxation Skills Training, Shannon Jones Anstead

Theses and Dissertations

This study was undertaken to evaluate the effectiveness of biofeedback and relaxation skills training to help alleviate college students' stress symptoms. Data was collected from 659 full-time college students who attended a total of 1,170 biofeedback sessions over the course of two years. Results of the study indicated that the top three stress-related symptoms students experienced were (a) feeling overwhelmed, (b) feeling anxious, and (c) difficulty concentrating. Furthermore, the top three stressors rated by students were (a) too much to do, (b) homework, and (c) classes and school. In addition, the top three coping strategies utilized by students to ...


Exploring Some Inattended Affective Factors In Performing Nonroutine Mathematical Tasks, John Douglas Butler Dec 2009

Exploring Some Inattended Affective Factors In Performing Nonroutine Mathematical Tasks, John Douglas Butler

Master's Theses, Dissertations, Graduate Research and Major Papers Overview

Describes students' attempts to solve nonroutine math problems and explores possible correlates of their performance, focusing on inattended (i.e., intentionally avoided) dimensions underrepresented in the literature, including attitudes, interests, values, aesthetics, metacognition, and representation. Analyzes objective and subjective data gathered from a sample of 9th-grade students at a high school in Rhode Island. Finds strong evidence of students' math-aesthetics in problem solving.


The Impact Of Knowledge, Attitude, And Peer Influence On Adolescent Energy Drink Consumption, Alyson C. Ward Dec 2009

The Impact Of Knowledge, Attitude, And Peer Influence On Adolescent Energy Drink Consumption, Alyson C. Ward

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Adolescents are labeled as sensitive to caffeine, though despite this predisposition, consumption is high among this population. Energy drinks are a current trend in soft-drink-like beverages and are marketed to 11-35 year olds. However, unlike soft drinks, energy drinks are not regulated by the Food and Drug Administration, and therefore do not have to limit their caffeine content. This cross-sectional, correlational study sought to identify the role that knowledge, attitudes, and peers play in adolescent energy drink consumption. Adolescents (n = 199), ages 18 to 21, at a university in the west were surveyed. Descriptive statistics revealed that 25% of the ...


A Comparison Of Methods For Teaching Auditory-Visual Conditional Discriminations To Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders, Laura Lee Grow Dec 2009

A Comparison Of Methods For Teaching Auditory-Visual Conditional Discriminations To Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders, Laura Lee Grow

Dissertations

Early and intensive behavioral intervention (EIBI) is an approach to treating the behavioral deficits and excesses observed in children with autism spectrum disorders. The magnitude of improvement in the overall functioning of children receiving EIBI has stimulated additional research and widespread clinical dissemination through the publication of EIBI curricular manuals. Many EIBI manuals recommend teaching conditional discriminations using the simple/conditional method. Initially, component simple discriminations are taught in isolation and in the presence of a distracter stimulus. Finally, conditional discriminations, which include stimuli previously taught as simple discriminations, are presented to the learner. Although the simple/conditional method is ...


Mothers' Perceptions Of Website Information In Solving Behavioral Problems In Children With Disabilities, Heather Collins Nov 2009

Mothers' Perceptions Of Website Information In Solving Behavioral Problems In Children With Disabilities, Heather Collins

Theses and Dissertations

This research investigated the needs of mothers in regard to designing an educational website for parents/caregivers of children with disabilities. This research was designed to provide information to inform outreach efforts of Brigham Young University's Family HOPE (Happiness, Optimism, Promise, and Excellence) Project. This project assists families struggling with child behavior problems. Results from this study provided an initial understanding of the potential for a website to offer support to families not directly served through the Family HOPE project. Participants included 26 adult females, 25 mothers and one female caregiver. Each participant was the primary caregiver of a ...


Perceptions Of School Civility: A Survey Of School Of Education Alumni, Keely Marie Swanson Nov 2009

Perceptions Of School Civility: A Survey Of School Of Education Alumni, Keely Marie Swanson

Theses and Dissertations

Very little empirical data exists on the topic of civility in schools, although much theory and philosophy are proffered in the literature. Literature on moral education and character education also informs the study of civility. Many of the philosophical theories mention education as a way of increasing civility in society. Some schools have attempted to implement various civility interventions and research supports the use of similar interventions to teach social skills; however, none have systematically collected data for these interventions to evaluate their effectiveness for teaching civility. The present research systematically gathered data on perceptions of civility and incivility in ...


Portrayal Of Characters With Disabilities In Newbery Books, Melissa Leininger Nov 2009

Portrayal Of Characters With Disabilities In Newbery Books, Melissa Leininger

Theses and Dissertations

Newbery books represent quality literature that is likely to be used for bibliotherapy, yet these books have not been systematically evaluated for their portrayal of characters with disabilities. Thirty Newbery Award and Honor books from 1975–2008 were identified that contained 40 characters with disabilities. These books were evaluated using a rating scale that combines literary standards and standards relating to individuals with disabilities. The types of disabilities and personal characteristics such as gender, age, and race were documented and the personal portrayal of characters with disabilities and exemplary practices in these books were evaluated. This information was compared to ...


Incarcerated Male Adolescent Suicide In Utah: A Case Study, Kristy Straubhaar Oct 2009

Incarcerated Male Adolescent Suicide In Utah: A Case Study, Kristy Straubhaar

Theses and Dissertations

Adolescent suicide has been described as a major public health problem calling for the aid of researchers willing to better identify factors related to suicide risk. Suicide is the third-leading cause of death for 15 to 24 year olds. Despite the fact incarcerated adolescents act in self-destructive ways, minimal research has focused on suicide behavior among incarcerated adolescents. Existing data indicates that suicide among adolescent males is especially prevalent in the juvenile justice system. Several variables have been identified as risk factors for suicidal behavior, including interpersonal relationship dysfunction, substance abuse, and psychological variables such as depression and dichotomous thinking ...


Development Of The Test Item Pool For A Screening Instrument Of Emotional And Behavioral Disorder Of Elementary School Students., Laura Eileen Conley Aug 2009

Development Of The Test Item Pool For A Screening Instrument Of Emotional And Behavioral Disorder Of Elementary School Students., Laura Eileen Conley

Theses and Dissertations

The functioning of children with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) is a concern for parents and educators. Screening focuses efforts to identify and prevent/remediate EBD for students most at risk. Current screening instruments fail to meet three factors that may be related to successful early identification. The three factors are universality (rates all students), brevity, and identification of internalizing and externalizing symptoms. This thesis began the construction of a screener with all three factors. The thesis determined a conceptual basis for the instrument and created an item pool. The conceptualization was based on a literature review. The item pool ...


The Relation Among Sleep, Routines, And Behavior In Children With An Autism Spectrum Disorder, Jill Angelique Henderson Aug 2009

The Relation Among Sleep, Routines, And Behavior In Children With An Autism Spectrum Disorder, Jill Angelique Henderson

Dissertations

Children with an ASD have a propensity for routines and reportedly have a greater incidence of sleep disturbance and externalizing behaviors than typical children. In addition, significant relations have been identified among routines, sleep behavior, and externalizing behavior in a community sample of children, suggesting that a lack of routines maybe related to sleep disturbance and externalizing behaviors. However, to date, no known studies have thoroughly examined the relation between these variables in children with an ASD. The primary purpose of the present investigation was to examine relations among routines, sleep, and behavior in children with an ASD. Primary caregivers ...


The Effects Of Differential Negative Reinforcement Of Task Engagement On Escape From Academic Tasks, Brett Vivian Mehrtens Prince Aug 2009

The Effects Of Differential Negative Reinforcement Of Task Engagement On Escape From Academic Tasks, Brett Vivian Mehrtens Prince

Dissertations

The effects of differential negative reinforcement of alternative behavior (DNRA) were examined on the escape behavior of four 1st and 2nd grade general education students. The alternative behavior that was negatively reinforced was task engagement during reading or math periods. The DNRA treatment was evaluated for its effects on task engagement in either a DNRA with access to a preferred activity condition or a DNRA without access to a preferred activity condition. In the preferred activity condition, the participants were allowed to engage in a high preferred activity when they had been engaged with an academic task for a certain ...


Effects Of Spritual Well-Being, Religious Coping, And Hardiness On Parenting Behaviors In Low Socioeconomic Status Families, Jane Elizabeth Schenck Varner Aug 2009

Effects Of Spritual Well-Being, Religious Coping, And Hardiness On Parenting Behaviors In Low Socioeconomic Status Families, Jane Elizabeth Schenck Varner

Dissertations

Children from low socioeconomic status families are at risk for poor academic, emotional, and behavioral outcomes (Owens & Shaw, 2003). Multiple variables have been associated with resiliency in such families (Walsh, 2003). Spiritual and religious constructs have demonstrated positive effects on quality of life (Perrone, Webb, Wright, Jackson, & Ksiazak, 2006), emotional well-being (Davis, Kerr, & Kurpius, 2003; Calicchia & Graham, 2006), and positive health outcomes (Edmondson et al., 2005) in various populations. Previous research has not examined the relationship between spiritual and religious variables and resiliency, nor has previous research considered how the religious, spiritual, and resiliency variables affect parenting behavior. The present study examined the predictive value of spiritual well-being and religious coping on resiliency, measured as family hardiness. To better understand how these constructs affect parenting behaviors, the potential contributions of spiritual well-being, religious coping, and family hardiness to ...


Selecting Effective Mathematics Interventions In The Rti Process Via Brief Experimental Analyses, Carmen Daniela Reisener Aug 2009

Selecting Effective Mathematics Interventions In The Rti Process Via Brief Experimental Analyses, Carmen Daniela Reisener

Dissertations

The treatment utility of brief experimental analyses (BEAs) for identifying effective treatments for individual students experiencing mathematics difficulties is a novel area of research; especially in a Response-to-intervention (Rtl) framework. One fourth and three sixth grade students served as participants in the current study. The effects of a variety of evidence-based mathematics computation fluency interventions were examined in a BEA format. Effective treatments identified from the BEA for each participant were alternated during an extended analysis. The results of the current investigation indicated variability within and across participants in response to a variety of evidence-based interventions. Visual analysis of the ...


Exploring The Relationships Between White Racial Consciousness, Feminist Identity Development And Family Environment For White Undergraduate Women, Kara E. Wolff Aug 2009

Exploring The Relationships Between White Racial Consciousness, Feminist Identity Development And Family Environment For White Undergraduate Women, Kara E. Wolff

Dissertations

Although the literature has emphasized the importance of understanding between White racial consciousness, feminist identity development and family environment. Based on the relationships described by the canonical functions considered noteworthy in the analyses three main findings appeared to emerge. First, family environments that were perceived by White undergraduate women to promote engagement with a variety of outside perspectives were related to more actively antiracist worldviews and well-developed feminist identities; while family environments perceived to reflect a more insular focus (i.e. less exposure to divergent opinions) were related to more prejudicial racial attitudes and less feminist identity development. Second, the ...


Effects Of After School Programs On Elementary School Students' Language Arts And Mathematics Achievement, Jennifer Lynn Presnell Jul 2009

Effects Of After School Programs On Elementary School Students' Language Arts And Mathematics Achievement, Jennifer Lynn Presnell

Theses and Dissertations

This study evaluated after school program participation on student academic achievement as a way of helping schools meet Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) standards set by the No Child Left Behind Act. After school programs were divided into academic after school programs and traditional after school programs. Student achievement was measured through Criterion Referenced Tests in Language Arts and Mathematics. This study took place in a small urban school district located in the Intermountain West. Students in after school programs were matched with students not participating in the programs on several background characteristics including socioeconomic status, English language proficiency status, school ...


Understanding Acculturation Patterns Of Burmese Refugee Children In Utah Public Schools, Stacie Jai Fraire Jul 2009

Understanding Acculturation Patterns Of Burmese Refugee Children In Utah Public Schools, Stacie Jai Fraire

Theses and Dissertations

This qualitative study explored the experience of 21 Burmese refugee adolescents as they acculturated into public schools in Salt Lake City, Utah. Unstructured, open-ended interviews were conducted to elicit information on the students' perception of the U.S. educational system, as well as their feelings about acculturation. The interviews were conducted with the aid of a Burmese/Karen translator and were transcribed and analyzed utilizing a grounded theory approach. The findings detail the acculturation process of the Burmese refugee students, the positive effect motivation has on the pace of acculturation, the impact of unfamiliar technology and language-based misunderstandings on the ...


Students' Perceptions And Experiences Of Secondary Public School Safety, Suzanne E. Jacobson Jul 2009

Students' Perceptions And Experiences Of Secondary Public School Safety, Suzanne E. Jacobson

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to generate in-depth understanding and descriptions of secondary students' experiences of safety in the public schools. Quantitative research has demonstrated that students self-report feeling unsafe in school (Utah State University: Center for the School of the Future, 2006). School violence is decreasing, yet many school districts have sponsored and implemented heightened security measures. It seems a contradiction, but amidst heightened security secondary public school students self-report feeling unsafe in school. This study investigated this phenomenon to provide rich and detailed data, utilizing a grounded theory approach to qualitative research and design. The perceptions and ...


Familial Predictors Of Long-Term Outcome Following Inpatient Treatment For Eating Disorders, Anna Mae Ridley Jul 2009

Familial Predictors Of Long-Term Outcome Following Inpatient Treatment For Eating Disorders, Anna Mae Ridley

Theses and Dissertations

The present investigation examined characteristic, symptomatic, and familial predictors of long-term symptom severity of eating disorders. The purpose of the study was to determine if, after accounting for a number of known predictors of outcome, familial variables explained a significant amount of additional variance in disordered eating and general well-being scores measured at post-treatment follow-up. The sample included 398 women, ages 13 to 56, who had completed eating disorder treatment at an inpatient facility. Hierarchal multiple regression analysis demonstrated that familial predictors at admission to treatment did significantly predict long-term outcomes, while changes from admission to treatment in symptoms and ...


Teacher Perspectives On Behaviors Exhibited By Students At Risk For Ebd And The Implications Of These Behaviors For The Development Of An Ebd Screener In Middle And Junior High Schools, Brittany Linn Schilling Jul 2009

Teacher Perspectives On Behaviors Exhibited By Students At Risk For Ebd And The Implications Of These Behaviors For The Development Of An Ebd Screener In Middle And Junior High Schools, Brittany Linn Schilling

Theses and Dissertations

Universal screening is an emerging practice in the field of education to provide at-risk students with early intervention services. Currently there is not a universal screener specifically designed for the middle school population. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to obtain junior high and middle school teachers' perspectives on behaviors exhibited by students at risk for emotional and behavioral disorders in order to develop preliminary test items. Several themes were identified from the teachers' perspectives. Teacher perspectives noted that at-risk students displayed a variety of internalizing and externalizing behaviors. These issues included difficulty maintaining peer and teacher relationships, difficulty ...


Creating An Expected Profile For Affinity 2.5 From A Sample Of Non-Pedophilic, Exclusively Heterosexual, College Age Males, R. D. C. Boardman Jul 2009

Creating An Expected Profile For Affinity 2.5 From A Sample Of Non-Pedophilic, Exclusively Heterosexual, College Age Males, R. D. C. Boardman

Theses and Dissertations

The Affinity 2.0 has been recently upgraded to the Affinity 2.5. Both instruments purport to measure sexual interest using viewing time as a form of measurement using non-pornographic images of people of varying ages and genders. The Affinity 2.5 increased the number of slides by 42.9%. This increase may have impacted the expected Chi square weights established for the Affinity 2.0 for non-pedophilic, exclusively heterosexual males. The purpose of this study was to create new expected Chi square weights for the Affinity 2.5 for non-pedophilic, exclusively heterosexual males. Additionally, this study re-examined the temporal ...


Receiver Operating Characteristic (Roc) Curve Analysis Of Affinity Profiles, Benjamin C. Caswell Jul 2009

Receiver Operating Characteristic (Roc) Curve Analysis Of Affinity Profiles, Benjamin C. Caswell

Theses and Dissertations

This thesis tests the relative efficiency of Fischer's approach of Chi-square on Affinity viewing time profiles to the more commonly used deviance differential approach. Through his use of a Chi-square approach, Fischer has attempted to make a norm-referenced, comparison of ipsative scores generated using Affinity. His goal has been to create an ethically acceptable approach to identifying sexual interest without losing the efficiency generated through the use of the commonly used deviance differential. A Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve is used to generate the efficiency of each approach and provide results for comparison. These results lead to a discussion ...


Spanish-Speaking Parents' Perceptions Of School-Based Crisis Response., Brenda Dean Jul 2009

Spanish-Speaking Parents' Perceptions Of School-Based Crisis Response., Brenda Dean

Theses and Dissertations

American schools are becoming increasingly diverse. With the increasing diversity in school enrollment, professionals are faced with the challenge of providing culturally sensitive services in all areas, including crisis intervention planning. Additionally, language differences also affect help-seeking behaviors and may serve as a strong barrier to effective service delivery. Taking into account individual school and district demographics, schools must consider strategies to best meet the needs of students and families from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds. As a starting point, this thesis provides an overview of the literature on school crisis response. Current demographics in U.S. public schools, the ...


Confronting Bullying: Searching For Strategies In Children's Literature, Emily Ellen Moulton Jul 2009

Confronting Bullying: Searching For Strategies In Children's Literature, Emily Ellen Moulton

Theses and Dissertations

Literature is a great resource for teaching valuable principles to children, including how to cope with bullying. However, no analyses exist regarding the appropriateness of these books. Children's books were identified as potential stories for bibliotherapy with elementary school children who face bullying. Information presented in selected books was compared to the current research literature on bullying. Each book's content was analyzed according to important variables, including the type of bullying behavior, gender of the perpetrator and target, presence of bystanders, adult involvement, and resolution of the problem. Verbal bullying was most commonly observed, followed closely by physical ...


Examination Of The Clinical Benefit Of Adding Reversal Theory Concepts To The Expressive Writing Paradigm, Stephanie Ellis Jul 2009

Examination Of The Clinical Benefit Of Adding Reversal Theory Concepts To The Expressive Writing Paradigm, Stephanie Ellis

Doctoral Dissertations

Expressive writing as a form of emotional disclosure produces many physical and psychological benefits (Pennebaker, 2004). Central to the present study are findings that expressive writing decreases symptoms of depression, anxiety, and PTSD (Koopman, Ismailji, Holmes, Classen, Palesh, & Wales, 2005; Opre, Coman, Kallay, Rotaru, & Manier, 2005; Russ, 1992). Reversal Theory (RT) suggests that individuals experience the world from eight different psychological states including serious, playful, conforming, rebellious, mastery, sympathy, self, and other (Apter, 2007). Teaching individuals to be aware of and elicit these states also decreases depression and anxiety (Charat, 2006). The present study sought to determine if the clinical benefit in reducing subclinical ...


Test Anxiety And Other Factors As Predictors Of Outcome For An Undergraduate University's Examination Of Writing Competency, Carrie D. Smith Jul 2009

Test Anxiety And Other Factors As Predictors Of Outcome For An Undergraduate University's Examination Of Writing Competency, Carrie D. Smith

Psychology Theses & Dissertations

Testing in American schools has increased dramatically in recent years (Cizek & Burg, 2006), increasing the need for research in test anxiety (TA). Writing apprehension, a subcategory of TA, may be of particular concern among students at all levels of education given the recent addition of writing assessments on the SAT and GRE tests.

Very few recent studies have examined demographic correlates of TA and the demographics of students in higher education have been changing for some time. These changes include an increase in all categories of nontraditional students. Nontraditional students, by definition, face a particular set of challenges in attending college. They tend to have significant family responsibilities, work and/or other obligations beyond those of traditional students (Ryan, 2003), leaving less time and energy to focus on academics. The research findings on age trends have been variable. However, some research shows a slight decline in the prevalence of TA in the college years (Hembree, 1988; Zeidner, 1998). Early studies have shown that African American students, in general, show higher levels of TA than Caucasian students (Payne, Smith, & Payne, 1983; Rhine & Spaner, 1983).

There is minimal research that examines TA specifically for writing exams, or writing apprehension. Earlier studies found that writing apprehension is highly negatively correlated with performance on writing competency assessments and general essays (Daly, 1978; Faigley, Daly, & White, 1981). Given this, it is important to consider the factors that impact writing competency. Graham and Harris (2000) noted much support in the literature for the impact of transcription, or handwriting abilities, on writing competency but also point to self-regulation as another key factor in writing competency. They observed that skilled writers tend to have better self-regulation skills than less skilled writers. In ...


A Comparison Of Traditional And Nontraditional Students Attending Historically Black Or Predominantly White Institutions, Courtney H. Podesta Jul 2009

A Comparison Of Traditional And Nontraditional Students Attending Historically Black Or Predominantly White Institutions, Courtney H. Podesta

Psychology Theses & Dissertations

Previous studies have demonstrated that there are benefits for some African American students in attending an Historically Black College or University (HBCU) over a Predominantly White Institution (PWI); however, studies have not considered how results might be impacted by student status, traditional vs. nontraditional, or the degree to which a student is considered to be nontraditional (minimally, moderately, or highly nontraditional). The current study addressed this gap in research by examining differences between the HBCU and PWI environments for 336 African American traditional and nontraditional students for the following variables: social support, academic self-concept, self-esteem, self-efficacy, role strain, ethnic identity ...


Cultural Responsiveness In The Special Education/Esl Department: Faculty Perceptions At Brigham Young University, Temma Jo Devereaux Jun 2009

Cultural Responsiveness In The Special Education/Esl Department: Faculty Perceptions At Brigham Young University, Temma Jo Devereaux

Theses and Dissertations

Faculty members from Brigham Young University's special education/ESL program participated in professional development centered on increasing multicultural competence. The primary investigator interviewed faculty members regarding their perceptions of professional development. After conducting the interviews, faculty members' feedback was coded to determine whether or not the professional development aided them in infusing more culturally sensitive practices into the curriculum and created a more sensitive learning environment for students from diverse backgrounds. Researchers also coded the faculty members' feedback to determine if faculty members felt they have changed at an individual/personal level in terms of how they view their ...


Implementing A Mastery Model Through Self Quizzing In An Online Learning Environment, Amy E. Scrima Jun 2009

Implementing A Mastery Model Through Self Quizzing In An Online Learning Environment, Amy E. Scrima

Dissertations

Mastery learning has an extensive and long-standing research base as an efficacious instructional methodology. The use of mastery learning with current technological advances, however, is a new endeavor. The current study evaluated the effects of adding a mastery learning component to an introductory college course by using an online course management system to facilitate frequent, self-given, chapter review quizzes. Thirty-two first- and second-year college students of similar demographic makeup at a midsize community college were the participants for this study. An alternating treatment design was used to assign students to mastery and nonmastery conditions in two sections of an introductory ...


Curriculum-Based Measures In Writing: A School-Based Evaluation Of Predictive Validity, Christina M. Terenzi Jun 2009

Curriculum-Based Measures In Writing: A School-Based Evaluation Of Predictive Validity, Christina M. Terenzi

Dissertations

Recent research in the area of Curriculum-Based Measures (CBM) in writing has shown that traditionally used metrics, such as total words written and total words correct, may not be the best tools for measuring writing performance, for both secondary and elementary aged children (e.g., Gansle, Noell, VanDerHeyden, Naquin, & Slider, 2002; Tindal & Parker, 1989a; Watkinson & Lee, 1992). Evidence suggests that more advanced measures, such as production-independent measures (e.g., percentage of correct word sequences) may be stronger predictors of student skill level in the area of writing. The present study replicated portions of a recent seminal study and investigated the predictive validity of CBM ...