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Theses/Dissertations

2009

Educational Psychology

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Full-Text Articles in Education

The Impact Of Opencourseware On Paid Enrollment In Distance Learning Courses, Justin K. Johansen Dec 2009

The Impact Of Opencourseware On Paid Enrollment In Distance Learning Courses, Justin K. Johansen

Theses and Dissertations

Since MIT launched the first OpenCourseWare (OCW) initiative in 2002, responses from the academic community have ranged from exuberance to angst. Some institutions have been reluctant to adopt a program of open publishing because of concerns about long-term funding and possible adverse effects on paid enrollment. Money is an issue, forcing some organizations that initially created OCW programs to furlough them due to funding challenges. This study examined the cost of converting online distance learning courses to OCW, the impact of opening these courses on paid enrollments, and the long-term sustainability of OCW through the generation of new paid enrollments ...


Research Experiences For Undergraduates: An Evaluation Of Affective Impact, Brian N. Chantry Dec 2009

Research Experiences For Undergraduates: An Evaluation Of Affective Impact, Brian N. Chantry

Theses and Dissertations

Each year the National Science Foundation (NFS) grants funding for universities in the United States to provide a Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) summer program. The Department of Physics and Astronomy at Brigham Young University (BYU) has been a recipient of NSF REU grants for several years. This year the administrators of the REU program at BYU requested an evaluation be conducted to determine if their program was effective at helping participants have a significant research experience, as well as determine the impact the program is having on student's attitudes towards the field of physics, graduate school, and research ...


Child Parent Relationship Therapy: Hope For Disrupted Attachment, Carolyn Carlisle Hacker Dec 2009

Child Parent Relationship Therapy: Hope For Disrupted Attachment, Carolyn Carlisle Hacker

Doctoral Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to determine if Child Parent Relationship Therapy (CPRT) was an effective method of treatment for reducing behaviors associated with attachment difficulties experienced by foster children who have been removed from their family of origin. This study also sought to determine if the age of the foster child, the gender of the foster child, or the number of foster placements would also influence behaviors associated with attachment difficulties. This study was conducted with a pre-test, post-test, quasi-experimental group, control group design format using the Randolph Attachment Disorder Questionnaire (RADQ) assessment instrument. The quasi-experimental group received ...


Understanding How Evaluators Deal With Multiple Stakeholders, Michelle Elyce Baron Dec 2009

Understanding How Evaluators Deal With Multiple Stakeholders, Michelle Elyce Baron

Theses and Dissertations

Although many leaders in evaluation advise evaluators to balance the needs of the client and other stakeholders, very little is known about how or if practicing evaluators address this injunction. Understanding how practicing evaluators address the needs of multiple stakeholders could inform evaluator training. The purpose of this qualitative study was to describe what practicing evaluators do when faced with conflicting stakeholder values. This study invited five evaluators to share their experiences working with multiple stakeholders while reflecting on how they deal with multiple and often conflicting values as they seek to serve the stakeholders. One implication from this study ...


A Comparison Of Methods For Teaching Auditory-Visual Conditional Discriminations To Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders, Laura Lee Grow Dec 2009

A Comparison Of Methods For Teaching Auditory-Visual Conditional Discriminations To Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders, Laura Lee Grow

Dissertations

Early and intensive behavioral intervention (EIBI) is an approach to treating the behavioral deficits and excesses observed in children with autism spectrum disorders. The magnitude of improvement in the overall functioning of children receiving EIBI has stimulated additional research and widespread clinical dissemination through the publication of EIBI curricular manuals. Many EIBI manuals recommend teaching conditional discriminations using the simple/conditional method. Initially, component simple discriminations are taught in isolation and in the presence of a distracter stimulus. Finally, conditional discriminations, which include stimuli previously taught as simple discriminations, are presented to the learner. Although the simple/conditional method is ...


Community Colleges As A Path To Baccalaureate Degree Attainment And Social Mobility : Are Community Colleges Fulfilling This Role?, Christopher John Button Dec 2009

Community Colleges As A Path To Baccalaureate Degree Attainment And Social Mobility : Are Community Colleges Fulfilling This Role?, Christopher John Button

Theses and Dissertations

There is a significant degree of controversy surrounding the transfer mission of community colleges. Specifically, many researchers have suggested that these institutions divert the educational attainments, and thus social mobility, of disadvantaged groups (Brint & Karabel, 1989; Dougherty, 1987, 1992, 1994; Karabel, 1972). Others suggest that community colleges provide disadvantaged individuals, who would have otherwise failed to consider a postsecondary education, with a viable path by which to attain a four-year degree (Cohen & Brawer, 1996; Hilmer, 1997; Pascarella & Terenzini, 2005). This study sought to determine whether the path to social mobility, via educational attainment, differed for bachelor's degree aspirants who commenced their postsecondary education ...


An Investigation Of Body Image Dissatisfaction Among Jewish American Females: An Application Of The Tripartite Influence Model, Stefanie Teri Greenberg Dec 2009

An Investigation Of Body Image Dissatisfaction Among Jewish American Females: An Application Of The Tripartite Influence Model, Stefanie Teri Greenberg

Theses and Dissertations

Body image dissatisfaction at moderate levels can be a normative experience for many women of current American culture. However, women whose body dissatisfaction exceeds moderate levels are vulnerable to developing an eating disorder. Empirical findings show body dissatisfaction predicts low self-esteem, depression, and overall poor quality of life.

Various theories aim to understand factors involved in the development and maintenance of body dissatisfaction. Sociocultural factors, such as peers, family, and media, have gained the greatest empirical support. The tripartite influence model of body image dissatisfaction and eating disturbance integrates sociocultural factors, and has been empirically tested to evaluate risk factors ...


The Experiences Of Mental Health Professionals Providing Services To Persons Who Are Dying: A Phenomenological Study, Jennifer Marie Hill Dec 2009

The Experiences Of Mental Health Professionals Providing Services To Persons Who Are Dying: A Phenomenological Study, Jennifer Marie Hill

Theses and Dissertations

Trends in lengthening life spans and population growth indicate that psychologists will be increasingly called upon to provide mental health services to persons who are dying. Some persons close to death have specialized needs that psychologists and other mental health professionals must learn to address appropriately. Psychologists need information from the wide variety of professionals who currently provide therapeutic interventions in order to be adequately prepared to do the same. The purpose of this study was to document the lived experience of mental health professionals who provide mental health services to persons who are dying in order to more fully ...


Pattern And Content Of Neuropsychological Referral Questions Across 25 Years Of Outpatient Visits In A Hospital-Based Clinic., Joshua Hopps Dec 2009

Pattern And Content Of Neuropsychological Referral Questions Across 25 Years Of Outpatient Visits In A Hospital-Based Clinic., Joshua Hopps

Theses and Dissertations

Much of the practice is clinical neuropsychology is performed in the role of consultant and although the neuropsychologist is dependent upon referrals made from outside sources, relatively little attention has been devoted to the investigation of the referral process. Surveys of clinicians and referral sources have reported breakdowns of referral sources by discipline and general topics of referral questions based on recollection, but direct analysis of referral patterns across the same period has not been undertaken.

The purpose of the study is to document the advancement of neuropsychology from providing psychological testing to establishing itself as a multifaceted discipline with ...


Health Locus Of Control, Self-Efficacy, And Multidisciplinary Intervention For Chronic Back Pain, Nicole Hochhausen Keedy Dec 2009

Health Locus Of Control, Self-Efficacy, And Multidisciplinary Intervention For Chronic Back Pain, Nicole Hochhausen Keedy

Theses and Dissertations

Chronic back pain is costly and potentially disabling, with low response to medical procedures. Poor physical and mental health demonstrate correlation with chronic back pain. The current study investigated the value of using health-related locus of control and pain-related self-efficacy to predict physical and mental health outcomes following multidisciplinary intervention for chronic back pain. Form C of the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control scales and the Chronic Pain Self Efficacy scale were administered to 28 males and 33 females ages 28 to 72 completing chronic back pain rehabilitation. Locus of control, self-efficacy, and physical and mental health demonstrated treatment-related changes ...


Interim Assessment Use In Iowa Elementary Schools, Emily Rose Lai Dec 2009

Interim Assessment Use In Iowa Elementary Schools, Emily Rose Lai

Theses and Dissertations

In response to test-based accountability (No Child Left Behind, 2001), schools and districts across the country are adopting a variety of supplemental assessments aimed at improving student performance. These interim assessments are administered more than once during the school year for the following purposes: 1) predicting student performance on summative accountability tests, 2) identifying student strengths and weaknesses, 3) tracking student progress toward "proficiency," or 4) identifying students for remedial instruction. Vendors claim these assessments can improve teaching and learning, although critics contend they do not possess a number of attributes theorized to facilitate formative use of results, including particular ...


Using Concurrent Operants To Evaluate Perseverative Conversation In Children And Adolescents Diagnosed With Asperger's Disorder, Matthew J O'Brien Dec 2009

Using Concurrent Operants To Evaluate Perseverative Conversation In Children And Adolescents Diagnosed With Asperger's Disorder, Matthew J O'Brien

Theses and Dissertations

Perseverative conversation is a problem vocal behavior that is unique to individuals with Asperger's disorder. It is characterized by long-winded monologues revolving around circumscribed interests. The current research literature suggests that perseverative conversation may exacerbate already poor social relations, impede productivity at work and home, and lead to disruptive behavior when it is restricted. Despite the negative repercussions there is a lack of research related to the assessment and treatment of this behavior. In the field of applied behavior analysis, concurrent operants assessments have been used effectively to identify relative preference for concurrently available reinforcers. In the current study ...


Interparental Conflict And Child Adjustment: The Role Of Child Optimism, Julia Howe Robinson Dec 2009

Interparental Conflict And Child Adjustment: The Role Of Child Optimism, Julia Howe Robinson

Theses and Dissertations

The role of child optimism as a mediator and moderator in the relationship between interparental conflict and child adjustment was examined for 36 children between the ages of 9 and 12 years who resided in a two adult home. Child participants completed self-report measures of dispositional and attributional optimism, as well as a self-report measure of interparental conflict. Mothers of child participants completed measures of child internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Multiple regression analyses found that dispositional optimism mediated the relationship between interparental conflict and both child internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Attributional optimism was found to mediate the relationship between interparental ...


Exploring The Experiences Of African American Women In An Undergraduate Research Program Designed To Address The Underrepresentation Of Women And Minorities In Neuroscience: A Qualitative Analysis, Ericka L. Reid Nov 2009

Exploring The Experiences Of African American Women In An Undergraduate Research Program Designed To Address The Underrepresentation Of Women And Minorities In Neuroscience: A Qualitative Analysis, Ericka L. Reid

Communication Sciences and Disorders Dissertations

African American women compose a critical proportion of the potential science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) workforce of the future, yet are disproportionately represented and largely underutilized. While various programs and initiatives have been designed and implemented to target women and underrepresented minorities, the voices and experiences of African American women have been insufficiently heard or studied. This study investigates the experiences of four African American female students who participated in a 10-week undergraduate research experience (URE) program designed for the recruitment and retention of women and underrepresented minorities in STEM disciplines. Through autobiographical narratives and interviews participants shared how ...


Improving Retention For Principles Of Accounting And Elementary Statistics Students: Ultra-Short Tutorials Designed To Motivate Effort And Improve Performance, Carol Springer Sargent Oct 2009

Improving Retention For Principles Of Accounting And Elementary Statistics Students: Ultra-Short Tutorials Designed To Motivate Effort And Improve Performance, Carol Springer Sargent

Communication Sciences and Disorders Dissertations

This dissertation reports on two supplemental instruction implementations in courses with high failure rates. In study one, 27 ultra-short on-line tutorials were created for Principles of Accounting II students (N = 426). In study two, 21 tutorials with a similar design were created for Elementary Statistics students (N = 1,411). Accounting students were encouraged by their instructor to use the resource, but statistics students only saw a brief demonstration by the researcher. Neither course gave students credit for using the tutorials. In study one, 71.4% of the accounting students used the tutorials. Students who used the tutorials had dramatically lower ...


An Exploratory Model Of Medication Refill Adherence Behavior, Gayle Holmes Payne Oct 2009

An Exploratory Model Of Medication Refill Adherence Behavior, Gayle Holmes Payne

Communication Sciences and Disorders Dissertations

AN EXPLORATORY MODEL OF MEDICATION REFILL ADHERENCE BEHAVIOR by Gayle Holmes Payne Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the leading cause of death in the United States with over 15.8 million Americans suffering from the chronic disease (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2007). Adherence to medication regimens has been identified as a key mediator between medical practice and patient outcomes (Kravitz & Melnikow, 2004). In this study, participants (N = 355) with CHD completed a questionnaire measuring their background characteristics, cognitive status, health literacy skills, self-efficacy levels, their perceived concerns and necessity beliefs about medication use, and enablers and ...


The Effects Of Word Prediction On Writing Fluency For Students With Physical Disabilities, Peter John Mezei Oct 2009

The Effects Of Word Prediction On Writing Fluency For Students With Physical Disabilities, Peter John Mezei

Communication Sciences and Disorders Dissertations

Writing is a multifaceted, complex task that involves interaction between physical and cognitive skills. Individuals with physical disabilities vary in terms of both their physical and cognitive abilities. Often they must overcome one or more significant barriers in order to engage in the task of writing. Minimizing or eliminating barriers is important because opportunities are greater for individuals who can effectively communicate their ideas via writing. Assistive technology (AT) is an increasingly effective solution to increase typing fluency. The purpose of this study is to examine if word prediction software, a commonly used software program used with individuals with learning ...


Language And Speech Predictors Of Reading Achievement In Preschool Children With Language Disorders, Juliet K. Haarbauer-Krupa Oct 2009

Language And Speech Predictors Of Reading Achievement In Preschool Children With Language Disorders, Juliet K. Haarbauer-Krupa

Communication Sciences and Disorders Dissertations

ABSTRACT LANGUAGE AND SPEECH PREDICTORS OF READING ACHIEVEMENT IN PRESCHOOL CHILDREN WITH LANGUAGE DISORDERS by Juliet K. Haarbauer-Krupa The purpose of this longitudinal study was to examine the relationship between language and reading in children diagnosed with developmental language disorder (DLD) during preschool. An archival data set was available for analysis. Preschool children with DLD who were assessed between 35 and 74 months for preschool language and speech abilities (Rapin, 1996) returned for language, speech and reading testing at age seven years. Children who enrolled in the study were a clinically referred sample, met criteria for average nonverbal intellectual functioning ...


Stress For Individuals With Autism Spectrum Disorders: Effects Of Age, Gender, And Intelligence Quotient, Kristen Louise Hess Oct 2009

Stress For Individuals With Autism Spectrum Disorders: Effects Of Age, Gender, And Intelligence Quotient, Kristen Louise Hess

Communication Sciences and Disorders Dissertations

ABSTRACT STRESS FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDERS: EFFECTS OF AGE, GENDER, AND INTELLIGENCE QUOTIENT by Kristen Louise Hess Researchers previously have found that individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) experience higher levels of stress and anxiety than individuals who are typically developing and than those with other disabilities. The purpose of this study was to identify the nature and degree of stress reported for individuals with ASD, with particular attention to the effects of age, gender, and intelligence quotient (IQ). Stressful events were identified by the Stress Survey Schedule for Persons with Autism and Other Developmental Delays (SSS), the ...


An Analysis And Evaluation Of Sit Stay Read: Is The Program Effective In Improving Student Engagement And Reading Outcomes?, Corinne Serra Smith Sep 2009

An Analysis And Evaluation Of Sit Stay Read: Is The Program Effective In Improving Student Engagement And Reading Outcomes?, Corinne Serra Smith

Dissertations

Sit Stay Read is a unique literacy intervention program that uses dogs in the classroom to improve student reading and writing outcomes in select, disadvantaged Chicago Public Schools. The goal of this research study was to analyze and evaluate the effectiveness of the Sit Stay Read program in improving student engagement and reading outcomes.

As evaluated during the 2008/2009 school year, through mixed methods research, the Sit Stay Read program was effective in improving second grade students’ oral reading fluency scores with students in the program group (N=152) gaining 8 words per minute more on average, but up ...


Priming As A Means Of Increasing Spontaneous Verbal Language In Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder, Michelle Louise Ivey Aug 2009

Priming As A Means Of Increasing Spontaneous Verbal Language In Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder, Michelle Louise Ivey

Communication Sciences and Disorders Dissertations

ABSTRACT THE EFFECTS OF PRIMING ON SPONTANEOUS VERBAL LANGUAGE IN CHILDREN WITH AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDERS by Michelle L. Ivey A multi-element design was used to investigate the effect of priming on spontaneous verbal communication in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Three children with ASD engaged in 20-minute thematic activity sessions (ACT) with the investigator. Prior to the ACTs, they met with another trained researcher for 10-minute presessions. Half of the presessions incorporated the conventions of priming with materials to be used in the upcoming ACT (i.e., related presessions; RP). During the other half of the presessions, participants were ...


Faculty And Student Perceptions Of The Effects Of Mid-Course Evaluations On Learning And Teaching, Whitney Ransom Aug 2009

Faculty And Student Perceptions Of The Effects Of Mid-Course Evaluations On Learning And Teaching, Whitney Ransom

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to describe the effects of mid-course evaluations on teaching and student learning. A mixed methods approach was used, combining faculty and student surveys, faculty interviews, debriefing sessions, and a comparison of mid-course evaluations scores with end-of-semester scores. Out of 510 section mean scores (128 sections) from faculty members who participated in the study, 352 section mean scores (88 sections, 69%) showed students' perceptions of their own learning improved between the time they completed the mid-course evaluation and the time they completed the end-of-course student rating survey. Results showed when faculty administered a mid-course evaluation ...


Adult Learning In Nonformal Settings: Cultural Festivals As Spaces For Socially Situated Cognition, Audrey M. Ambrosino Aug 2009

Adult Learning In Nonformal Settings: Cultural Festivals As Spaces For Socially Situated Cognition, Audrey M. Ambrosino

Communication Sciences and Disorders Dissertations

Recent years have witnessed a renewed interest in the role of museums and cultural festivals in adult learning. Once considered the keepers of physical and cultural history, there was only limited concern for if and how adults learned from these settings. The conventional view held that museums provided knowledge, and it was an individual’s prerogative whether or not to seek it out. The past few decades, however, have seen both a resurgence of interest in visiting museums and festivals and a more concerted effort to understand their value in a rapidly evolving society. This study considers visitor experiences at ...


Evaluating Child-Based Reading Constructs And Assessments With Struggling Adult Readers, Alice Owens Nanda Aug 2009

Evaluating Child-Based Reading Constructs And Assessments With Struggling Adult Readers, Alice Owens Nanda

Communication Sciences and Disorders Dissertations

Due to the paucity of research on struggling adult readers, researchers rely on child-based reading constructs and measures when investigating the reading skills of adults struggling with reading. The purpose of the two studies in this investigation was to evaluate the appropriateness of using child-based reading constructs and assessments with adults reading between the third- and fifth-grade levels. The first study examined whether measurement constructs behind reading-related tests for struggling adult readers are similar to what is known about measurement constructs for children. The sample included 371 adults, including 218 native English speakers and 153 English speakers of other languages ...


Character Development In A Distance Education Literature Course: Perspectives On Independent Study English 395r-Christian Fantasy Literature, Michael C. Johnson Aug 2009

Character Development In A Distance Education Literature Course: Perspectives On Independent Study English 395r-Christian Fantasy Literature, Michael C. Johnson

Theses and Dissertations

The goals of higher education often entail the development of students' character. Rarely, however, are these character development goals connected to the unique design and delivery of distance education programs. Additionally, the research literature that explores the character development aspects of distance education is sparse. Thus the purpose of this study is to contribute to the understanding of how character development may occur in a distance context. Taking a hermeneutic phenomenological approach, I examined instructor and student perceptions of character development in a fantasy literature independent study course. Findings indicate that students perceived development of traits and strengths in the ...


Critical Thinking And Analyzing Assumptions In Instructional Technology, Bruce William Gabbitas Aug 2009

Critical Thinking And Analyzing Assumptions In Instructional Technology, Bruce William Gabbitas

Theses and Dissertations

In the field of instructional technology critical thinking is valued both as a practice for those in the field and as a skill or habit to teach and measure. However, traditional conceptions of critical thinking are limited in their usefulness and restricted to particular kinds of thinking and reasoning. Conceptions of critical thinking in instructional technology are dominated by these traditional perspectives. Missing is a substantive dialogue on the nature of critical thinking. despite the fact that such dialogue is a part of critical thinking scholarship outside of instructional technology. One of the primary limitations of traditional critical thinking is ...


Life Lived Well: A Narrative Analysis Of One Woman‟S Wellness Across The Life Span, Whitney Locke Jarnagin Aug 2009

Life Lived Well: A Narrative Analysis Of One Woman‟S Wellness Across The Life Span, Whitney Locke Jarnagin

Doctoral Dissertations

The Indivisible Self (Myers & Sweeney, 2004; Myers & Sweeney, 2005a) model of wellness was proposed in the counseling literature to serve as a framework for enhancing wellness across the life span. Numerous researchers conducted a variety of investigations related to this model; however, gaps in the literature still exist. The aim of the current study was to add to the body of existing literature by investigating one woman‟s wellness across the life span utilizing qualitative methods. The senior adult participant provided a narrative of her life in the form of an oral history. This narrative was then analyzed through the lens of the Indivisible Self model of wellness. The result of this analysis was a descriptive picture of wellness for this woman over the course of her life as it relates to the five Second Order ...


Do Measures Of Emotional Intelligence Predict Social Acceptability?, Sunny Marie Windingstad Aug 2009

Do Measures Of Emotional Intelligence Predict Social Acceptability?, Sunny Marie Windingstad

Doctoral Dissertations

The concurrent and predictive utility of three measures of Emotional Intelligence (EI) were determined by administering the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test: Youth Version (MSCEIT:YV; Mayer, Salovey, & Caruso, in press), the Emotional Quotient Inventory: Youth Version ( EQ-i:YV; Bar-On, 2000), the Emotional Aptitude teacher rating scale of the UNIT: Gifted Screening Scale (UNIT: GSS; McCallum & Bracken, in press) and a sociometric measure to 102 third, fourth, and fifth grade students in two rural elementary schools in the Southeastern United States and one elementary school in the North Central United States. Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients of scales across instruments ranged from .20 (p < . 05) to .39 (p < .01) Results from dependent t tests showed no significant difference between overall mean scores of the EQ-i:YV and MSCEIT:YV (p <.05) but did show a significant difference between the UNIT:GSS Emotional Aptitude Scale scores of male and female participants (p < .01. Only the UNIT:GSS EAS predicted results of the sociometric in stepwise multiple regression, though the relationship was modest (R2 = .07, p < .01). Apparently, the three instruments assess EI somewhat independently and relate to a peer-based sociometric only modestly.


Evaluation Use And Influence Among Project Directors Of State Gear Up Grants, Erin Mehalic Burr Aug 2009

Evaluation Use And Influence Among Project Directors Of State Gear Up Grants, Erin Mehalic Burr

Doctoral Dissertations

Evaluation use is a major goal of program evaluators, because it can lead to program improvement and sustainability. This dissertation adds to the literature on ―Gaining Early Awareness and Readiness for Undergraduate Programs‖ (GEAR UP) grant evaluation use by assessing (1) the extent to which project directors of state grants use evaluation results (i.e., instrumental use, conceptual use, persuasive use, and/or process use), (2) the extent to which the evaluations of the state GEAR UP grant programs have had an influence at the individual, interpersonal, and collective levels, and (3) what factors have an impact on the use ...


The Relation Among Sleep, Routines, And Behavior In Children With An Autism Spectrum Disorder, Jill Angelique Henderson Aug 2009

The Relation Among Sleep, Routines, And Behavior In Children With An Autism Spectrum Disorder, Jill Angelique Henderson

Dissertations

Children with an ASD have a propensity for routines and reportedly have a greater incidence of sleep disturbance and externalizing behaviors than typical children. In addition, significant relations have been identified among routines, sleep behavior, and externalizing behavior in a community sample of children, suggesting that a lack of routines maybe related to sleep disturbance and externalizing behaviors. However, to date, no known studies have thoroughly examined the relation between these variables in children with an ASD. The primary purpose of the present investigation was to examine relations among routines, sleep, and behavior in children with an ASD. Primary caregivers ...